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Bennett, Gary G.

Overview:

Please note that this is not our primary website.

To learn more about Dr. Bennett, please visit: http://www.drgarybennett.com">drgarybennett.com
To learn more about Dr. Bennett's work with Duke Digital Health, please visit: http://www.dukedigitalhealth.org">dukedigitalhealth.org


Gary G. Bennett is the Bishop-MacDermott Family Professor of Psychology & Neuroscience, Global Health, and Medicine at Duke University. He directs Duke’s Global Digital Health Science Center (Duke Digital Health), which leverages digital health technologies to improve health outcomes in medically vulnerable populations. Dr. Bennett also leads the Duke Obesity Prevention Program and holds an appointment in the Duke Cancer Institute.


Dr. Bennett’s research program designs, tests, and disseminates digital health obesity treatments for primary care settings that serve medically vulnerable populations.  Dr. Bennett developed the interactive obesity treatment approach (iOTA), which has been evaluated in several trials, both domestically and abroad. His recent work has demonstrated the effectiveness of coach-led, digital health weight loss and hypertension control interventions delivered via web, smartphone, and interactive voice response systems. His recent intervention trials in medically vulnerable communities have been the focus of numerous invited addresses for professional and lay audiences alike. He has authored more than 125 scientific papers in the past decade and his research program has been continuously supported by the National Institutes of Health.


Dr. Bennett has served on numerous NIH committees, grant review panels, editorial boards, and guidelines councils. Dr. Bennett is committed to the dissemination of evidence-based treatments; he serves on science advisory and executive boards of several community, professional, and commercial organizations. He also co-founded two digital health startups: Crimson Health Solutions (acquired by Health Dialog in 2007) and Scale Down. Prior to joining Duke in 2009, Dr. Bennett served on the faculties of the Harvard School of Public Health and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Dr. Bennett earned a bachelor's degree at Morehouse College, followed by doctoral studies in clinical health psychology at Duke University, a clinical psychology internship at Duke University Medical Center and postdoctoral studies in social epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health.

Positions:

Bishop-MacDermott Family Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience

Psychology and Neuroscience
Trinity College of Arts & Sciences

Professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience

Psychology and Neuroscience
Trinity College of Arts & Sciences

Faculty Co-Director of the Center for Biobehavioral Health Disparities Research

Center on Biobehaviorial Health Disparities Research
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Research Professor of Global Health

Duke Global Health Institute
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Associate Professor in Medicine

Medicine, Nephrology
School of Medicine

Associate of the Duke Initiative for Science & Society

Duke Science & Society
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

B.A. 1997

B.A. — Morehouse College

M.A. 1999

M.A. — Duke University

Ph.D. 2002

Ph.D. — Duke University

News:

Grants:

Dissemination and Implementation Science in Cardiovascular Outcomes (DISCO)

Administered By
Basic Science Departments
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Faculty Member
Start Date
September 01, 2017
End Date
August 31, 2022

Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health

Administered By
Obstetrics and Gynecology
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
September 26, 2002
End Date
July 31, 2022

A Pragmatic Trial of a Digital Health Intervention to Prevent Weight Gain in Primary Care

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 15, 2016
End Date
April 30, 2021

Optimizing a standalone text messaging-based weight loss intervention

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
February 01, 2017
End Date
January 31, 2021

MIGHTY MEN: A Faith-Based Weight Loss Program to Reduce Cancer Disparties

Administered By
Psychology and Neuroscience
AwardedBy
Vanderbilt University
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2016
End Date
June 30, 2020

Increasing uptake of behavioral weight loss programs among primary care patients

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Medicine
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Mentor
Start Date
April 07, 2015
End Date
March 31, 2020

Community-based obesity treatment in African American women after childbirth: a randomized controlled trial of WIC mothers

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
Temple University
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
January 15, 2016
End Date
December 31, 2018

New Media Obesity Treatment in Community Health Centers

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2012
End Date
July 31, 2018

Early child care and risk of obesity

Administered By
Community and Family Medicine
AwardedBy
Johns Hopkins University - School of Public Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2015
End Date
June 30, 2018

UBCU PRIDE Program

Administered By
Psychology and Neuroscience
AwardedBy
University of Mississippi
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2015
End Date
May 31, 2018

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for High Blood Pressure: A Two-Site RCT

Administered By
Psychiatry, Child & Family Mental Health and Developmental Neuroscience
AwardedBy
University of Pennsylvania
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
September 01, 2014
End Date
May 31, 2018

Lanpher 2016 APA Dissertation Research

Administered By
Psychology and Neuroscience
AwardedBy
American Psychological Association
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
December 06, 2016
End Date
December 05, 2017

Early child care and risk of obesity

Administered By
Community and Family Medicine
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2012
End Date
June 30, 2017

Mother-Daughter Relationship Influences on Daughters' Dietary Practices

Administered By
School of Nursing
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Sponsor
Start Date
September 30, 2014
End Date
July 20, 2016

Bridging Communication Gaps to Achieve Healthy Weight in Black Communities

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
Department of Agriculture
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2014
End Date
August 31, 2015

Cellphone Intervention Trial for Young Adults (CITY)

Administered By
Medicine, Nephrology
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 15, 2009
End Date
May 31, 2015

Community-Based Obesity Prevention Among Black Women

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 05, 2008
End Date
August 31, 2014

Community Based Obesity Prevention Among Blacks

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2009
End Date
July 31, 2011

Community-Based Obesity Prevention Among Blacks

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 20, 2007
End Date
July 31, 2011
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Awards:

Elizabeth Narcessian Award for Outstanding Educational Achievements in the Field of Pain. American Pain Society.

Type
National
Awarded By
American Pain Society
Date
January 01, 2010

Publications:

Parent-adolescent influences on everyday dietary practices: Perceptions of adolescent females with obesity and their mothers.

Parents demonstrate an important influence on adolescent obesity and dietary behavior; yet, family-based obesity interventions continue to exhibit limited success among adolescents. To further inform family-based approaches for adolescent obesity treatment, we examined the perceptions of adolescent females with obesity and their mothers of the influences experienced within the parent-adolescent relationship that affect everyday dietary practices. We conducted six focus group interviews (three adolescent female and three mother) among 15 adolescent (12-17 years old) females with obesity and 12 of their mothers. Content analysis techniques were used to analyze the transcribed interviews. Adolescent females with obesity discussed a diverse set of parental influences (controlling, supporting and cultivating, overlooking and tempting, acquiescing, providing, attending, and not providing and avoiding) on their daily dietary practices. Among mother focus groups, mothers discussed specific intentional and unintentional types of influences from children that affected the food and drink they consumed, prepared, and acquired. Findings provide a fuller view of the varied social influences on everyday dietary practices within the parent-adolescent relationship. They indicate the importance of examining both parent-to-child and child-to-parent influences and begin to illuminate the value of attending to the social circumstances surrounding dietary behaviors to strengthen family-based obesity treatment approaches.

Authors
Winkler, MR; Moore, ED; Bennett, GG; Armstrong, SC; Brandon, DH
MLA Citation
Winkler, MR, Moore, ED, Bennett, GG, Armstrong, SC, and Brandon, DH. "Parent-adolescent influences on everyday dietary practices: Perceptions of adolescent females with obesity and their mothers." Maternal & child nutrition 13.4 (October 2017).
PMID
28097807
Source
epmc
Published In
Maternal and Child Nutrition
Volume
13
Issue
4
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1111/mcn.12416

A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of an RCT in Clergy.

This study sought to determine the effect of a 2-year, multicomponent health intervention (Spirited Life) targeting metabolic syndrome and stress simultaneously.An RCT using a three-cohort multiple baseline design was conducted in 2010-2014.Participants were United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, U.S., in 2010, invited based on occupational status. Of invited 1,745 clergy, 1,114 consented, provided baseline data, and were randomly assigned to immediate intervention (n=395), 1-year waitlist (n=283), or 2-year waitlist (n=436) cohorts for a 48-month trial duration.The 2-year intervention consisted of personal goal setting and encouragement to engage in monthly health coaching, an online weight loss intervention, a small grant, and three workshops delivering stress management and theological content supporting healthy behaviors. Participants were not blinded to intervention.Trial outcomes were metabolic syndrome (primary) and self-reported stress and depressive symptoms (secondary). Intervention effects were estimated in 2016 in an intention-to-treat framework using generalized estimating equations with adjustment for baseline level of the outcome and follow-up time points. Log-link Poisson generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for binary outcomes; mean differences were used for continuous/score outcomes.Baseline prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.9% and depression was 11.4%. The 12-month intervention effect showed a benefit for metabolic syndrome (PR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79, 0.94, p<0.001). This benefit was sustained at 24 months of intervention (PR=0.88; 95% CI=0.78, 1.00, p=0.04). There was no significant effect on depression or stress scores.The Spirited Life intervention improved metabolic syndrome prevalence in a population of U.S. Christian clergy and sustained improvements during 24 months of intervention. These findings offer support for long-duration behavior change interventions and population-level interventions that allow participants to set their own health goals.This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01564719.

Authors
Proeschold-Bell, RJ; Turner, EL; Bennett, GG; Yao, J; Li, X-F; Eagle, DE; Meyer, RA; Williams, RB; Swift, RY; Moore, HE; Kolkin, MA; Weisner, CC; Rugani, KM; Hough, HJ; Williams, VP; Toole, DC
MLA Citation
Proeschold-Bell, RJ, Turner, EL, Bennett, GG, Yao, J, Li, X-F, Eagle, DE, Meyer, RA, Williams, RB, Swift, RY, Moore, HE, Kolkin, MA, Weisner, CC, Rugani, KM, Hough, HJ, Williams, VP, and Toole, DC. "A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of an RCT in Clergy." American journal of preventive medicine 53.3 (September 2017): 290-299.
PMID
28641912
Source
epmc
Published In
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume
53
Issue
3
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
290
End Page
299
DOI
10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.009

Intervening during and after pregnancy to prevent weight retention among African American women.

Efforts to prevent postpartum weight retention in extant clinical trials of African American women have proven exceedingly challenging. The primary purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether a behavioral intervention implemented in early pregnancy through 6 months postpartum could increase the proportion of African American women who were at or below their early pregnancy weights by 6 months postpartum. We additionally evaluated whether mothers' postpartum weight loss could be maintained at 12 months postpartum. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American women (36% overweight, 64% obese) randomly assigned to a behavioral intervention or usual care group. The intervention, implemented from early pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, promoted weight control through: (1) empirically supported behavior change goals; (2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; (3) weekly to monthly health coach calls; and (4) skills training and support through Facebook. In modified intent-to-treat analyses, participants assigned to the intervention were significantly more likely to be at or below their early pregnancy weights by 6 months postpartum compared to usual care (56% vs. 29%, p = 0.04). At 12 months postpartum, the maternal weight difference between intervention and usual care groups was not maintained (41% vs. 38% respectively at or below early pregnancy weights, p = 0.83). Findings suggest that a combined pregnancy and postpartum weight control intervention improves 6 month weight outcomes in socioeconomically disadvantaged African American women with obesity. Longer interventions may be needed to overcome late postpartum weight gain among this high risk group. Clinical trial registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01530776.

Authors
Herring, SJ; Cruice, JF; Bennett, GG; Darden, N; Wallen, JJ; Rose, MZ; Davey, A; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Herring, SJ, Cruice, JF, Bennett, GG, Darden, N, Wallen, JJ, Rose, MZ, Davey, A, and Foster, GD. "Intervening during and after pregnancy to prevent weight retention among African American women." Preventive medicine reports 7 (September 2017): 119-123.
PMID
28660118
Source
epmc
Published In
Preventive Medicine Reports
Volume
7
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
119
End Page
123
DOI
10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.05.015

Linking patients with community resources: use of a free YMCA membership among low-income black women.

Given the increasing interest in expanding obesity prevention efforts to cover community-based programs, we examined whether individuals would access a YMCA for physical activity promotion. We provided a no-cost 12-month YMCA membership to socioeconomically disadvantaged black women who were randomized to the intervention arm of a weight gain prevention trial (n = 91). Analyses examined associations of membership activation and use with baseline psychosocial, contextual, health-related, and sociodemographic factors. Many participants (70.3 %) activated their memberships; however, use was low (42.2 % had no subsequent visits, 46.9 % had one to ten visits). There were no predictors of membership activation, but individuals living below/borderline the federal poverty line were more likely to use the center (1+ visits), as were those who met physical activity guidelines at baseline. More comprehensive and intensive interventions may be necessary to promote use of community resources-even when provided free-among high-risk populations of women with obesity that live in rural areas of the USA.

Authors
Greaney, ML; Askew, S; Foley, P; Wallington, SF; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Askew, S, Foley, P, Wallington, SF, and Bennett, GG. "Linking patients with community resources: use of a free YMCA membership among low-income black women." Translational behavioral medicine 7.2 (June 2017): 341-348.
PMID
27484775
Source
epmc
Published In
Translational Behavioral Medicine
Volume
7
Issue
2
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
341
End Page
348
DOI
10.1007/s13142-016-0431-7

The DASH Diet, 20 Years Later.

Authors
Steinberg, D; Bennett, GG; Svetkey, L
MLA Citation
Steinberg, D, Bennett, GG, and Svetkey, L. "The DASH Diet, 20 Years Later." JAMA 317.15 (April 2017): 1529-1530.
PMID
28278326
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
317
Issue
15
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
1529
End Page
1530
DOI
10.1001/jama.2017.1628

Preventing Weight Gain Improves Sleep Quality Among Black Women: Results from a RCT.

Obesity and poor sleep are highly prevalent among Black women.We examined whether a weight gain prevention intervention improved sleep among Black women.We conducted a randomized trial comparing a 12-month weight gain prevention intervention that included self-monitoring through mobile technologies and phone coaching to usual care in community health centers. We measured sleep using the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale at baseline, 12 months, and 18 months. The scale examines quantity of sleep, sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, snoring, shortness of breath, and global sleep problems (sleep problem indices I and II).Participants (n = 184) were on average 35.4 years and obese (BMI 30.2 kg/m2); 74% made <$30,000/year. At baseline, average sleep duration was 6.4 (1.5) hours. Controlling for weight change and sleep medication, the intervention group reported greater improvements in sleep disturbance [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)] and sleep problems at 12 months: sleep problem index I [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)]; sleep problem index II [-8.35 (-16.24, -0.45)]. However, these findings did not persist at 18 months.Preventing weight gain may afford clinical benefit on improving sleep quality.The trial was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT00938535).

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Christy, J; Batch, BC; Askew, S; Moore, RH; Parker, P; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Christy, J, Batch, BC, Askew, S, Moore, RH, Parker, P, and Bennett, GG. "Preventing Weight Gain Improves Sleep Quality Among Black Women: Results from a RCT." Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (February 17, 2017).
PMID
28213632
Source
epmc
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1007/s12160-017-9879-z

Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA.

Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable.The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants.Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes <$20 000/year and 59% were married or living with a partner. The mean (SD) infant gestational age was 41.28 weeks (2.29) and birth weight for gestational age z-score was -0.31 (0.93). Just under half (49%) of infants were females, 69% received some human milk and 40% were exclusively breast fed at hospital discharge. Data collection began in 2013, is currently underway, and is scheduled to conclude in late 2016.Results will help assess the magnitude of associations between childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time.Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644.

Authors
Benjamin Neelon, SE; Østbye, T; Bennett, GG; Kravitz, RM; Clancy, SM; Stroo, M; Iversen, E; Hoyo, C
MLA Citation
Benjamin Neelon, SE, Østbye, T, Bennett, GG, Kravitz, RM, Clancy, SM, Stroo, M, Iversen, E, and Hoyo, C. "Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA." BMJ open 7.2 (February 8, 2017): e013939-.
PMID
28179416
Source
epmc
Published In
BMJ Open
Volume
7
Issue
2
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
e013939
DOI
10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013939

Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States.

In the United States, Black adolescents have the highest prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight among girls. While Black girls are disproportionately affected, the reasons for this health disparity remain unclear. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. The authors searched four databases for relevant English-language publications using all publication years through 2015. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. Using a configuration approach to synthesis, three categories were identified, paralleling the bioecological theory of human development: (1) individual, (2) interpersonal, and (3) community and societal factors. A description of each factor's association with obesity among Black adolescent girls is presented. From this review, the authors identified a diverse and vast set of individual, interpersonal, and community and societal factors explored for their relationship with obesity and overweight. Given the insufficient repetition and limited significant findings among most factors, the authors believe that multiple gaps in knowledge exist across all categories regarding the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. To improve the quality of research in this area, suggested research directions and methodological recommendations are provided.

Authors
Winkler, MR; Bennett, GG; Brandon, DH
MLA Citation
Winkler, MR, Bennett, GG, and Brandon, DH. "Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States." Women & health 57.2 (February 2017): 208-248. (Review)
PMID
26933972
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
57
Issue
2
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
208
End Page
248
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2016.1159267

Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention.

Emerging evidence suggests that attributing one's weight to genetics may contribute to the adoption of obesogenic behaviors. We investigated whether weight-related genetic attributions were associated with weight change during a weight gain prevention intervention.Participants (n = 185) were from a randomized clinical trial of a digital health weight gain prevention intervention for black women ages 25-44 years with body mass index 25.0-34.9 kg/m(2). Weight-related genetic attributions (weight status attribution and weight loss attributions) were measured at baseline and 12 months.Among intervention participants, high genetic attribution for weight loss was associated with greater weight loss at 12 months (-2.7 vs. 0.5 kg) and 18 months (-3.0 vs. 0.9 kg). Among usual-care participants, high genetic attribution for weight status was associated with greater 18-month weight gain (2.9 vs. 0.3 kg). The intervention reduced the likelihood of high genetic attribution for weight loss at 12 months (P = 0.05). Change in the likelihood of genetic attribution was not associated with weight change over 12 months.Impact of genetic attributions on weight differs for those enrolled and not enrolled in an intervention. However, weight gain prevention intervention may reduce genetic attribution for weight loss.Genet Med 18 5, 476-482.

Authors
McVay, MA; Steinberg, DM; Askew, S; Kaphingst, KA; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
McVay, MA, Steinberg, DM, Askew, S, Kaphingst, KA, and Bennett, GG. "Genetic causal attributions for weight status and weight loss during a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention." Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 18.5 (May 2016): 476-482.
PMID
26291598
Source
epmc
Published In
Genetics in Medicine
Volume
18
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
476
End Page
482
DOI
10.1038/gim.2015.109

Feasibility and Smokers' Evaluation of Self-Generated Text Messages to Promote Quitting.

Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality. Mobile technologies, including text messaging, provide opportunities to promote quitting. Many text messaging-based cessation interventions contain content created by experts. However, smokers may be best persuaded by receipt of text messages they created based on their reasons for quitting, assisted or not by a motivational facilitator. This study assessed the feasibility and participants' evaluation of two ways to self-generate smoking cessation messages delivered via cell-phone.We enrolled smokers (N = 24) and randomized them to: (1) behavioral counseling assistance plus self-generated messages, or (2) self-generated messages only. Both groups wrote: (1) their reasons for wanting to quit and then (2) text messages related to their reason(s) for quitting, Messages were delivered as text messages as well as with a link to verbatim self-recorded audio message for 10 days. At follow-up, participants evaluated the intervention.Participants composed and recorded messages and evaluated them and the intervention favorably. The counseling+message group wrote an average of 7.66 (SD = 4.86) text messages while the message-only wrote an average of 6.66 (SD = 2.93) messages. Most participants felt that the messages were of appropriate length, including the frequency and timing of message delivery.It is feasible for smokers to self-generate motivational text and audio messages concerning reasons for quitting, even among smokers without an immediate desire to quit. Participants evaluated the messages and intervention favorably. Future research should test self-generated messages in larger trials of self- versus expert-generated message.This study assessed the feasibility and participants' evaluation of two ways to self-generate smoking cessation messages delivered via cell-phone. It is feasible for smokers to self-generate motivational text and audio messages concerning reasons for quitting, even among smokers without an immediate desire to quit. Participants evaluated the messages and intervention favorable. Future research should test self-generated messages in larger trials of self- versus expert-generated messages.

Authors
Shaw, RJ; Pollak, K; Zullig, LL; Bennett, G; Hawkins, K; Lipkus, I
MLA Citation
Shaw, RJ, Pollak, K, Zullig, LL, Bennett, G, Hawkins, K, and Lipkus, I. "Feasibility and Smokers' Evaluation of Self-Generated Text Messages to Promote Quitting." Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 18.5 (May 2016): 1206-1209.
PMID
26647104
Source
epmc
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
18
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1206
End Page
1209
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntv268

Mobile health devices: will patients actually use them?

Although mobile health (mHealth) devices offer a unique opportunity to capture patient health data remotely, it is unclear whether patients will consistently use multiple devices simultaneously and/or if chronic disease affects adherence. Three healthy and three chronically ill participants were recruited to provide data on 11 health indicators via four devices and a diet app. The healthy participants averaged overall weekly use of 76%, compared to 16% for those with chronic illnesses. Device adherence declined across all participants during the study. Patients with chronic illnesses, with arguably the most to benefit from advanced (or increased) monitoring, may be less likely to adopt and use these devices compared to healthy individuals. Results suggest device fatigue may be a significant problem. Use of mobile technologies may have the potential to transform care delivery across populations and within individuals over time. However, devices may need to be tailored to meet the specific patient needs.

Authors
Shaw, RJ; Steinberg, DM; Bonnet, J; Modarai, F; George, A; Cunningham, T; Mason, M; Shahsahebi, M; Grambow, SC; Bennett, GG; Bosworth, HB
MLA Citation
Shaw, RJ, Steinberg, DM, Bonnet, J, Modarai, F, George, A, Cunningham, T, Mason, M, Shahsahebi, M, Grambow, SC, Bennett, GG, and Bosworth, HB. "Mobile health devices: will patients actually use them?." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 23.3 (May 2016): 462-466.
PMID
26911820
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of American Medical Informatics Association
Volume
23
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
462
End Page
466
DOI
10.1093/jamia/ocv186

Track: A randomized controlled trial of a digital health obesity treatment intervention for medically vulnerable primary care patients.

Obesity continues to disproportionately affect medically vulnerable populations. Digital health interventions may be effective for delivering obesity treatment in low-resource primary care settings.Track is a 12-month randomized controlled trial of a digital health weight loss intervention in a community health center system. Participants are 351 obese men and women aged 21 to 65years with an obesity-related comorbidity. Track participants are randomized to usual primary care or to a 12-month intervention consisting of algorithm-generated tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring via mobile technologies, daily self-weighing using a network-connected scale, skills training materials, 18 counseling phone calls with a Track coach, and primary care provider counseling. Participants are followed over 12months, with study visits at baseline, 6, and 12months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose and HbA1C and self-administered surveys are collected. Follow-up data will be collected from the medical record at 24months.Participants are 68% female and on average 50.7years old with a mean BMI of 35.9kg/m(2). Participants are mainly black (54%) or white (33%); 12.5% are Hispanic. Participants are mostly employed and low-income. Over 20% of the sample has hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Almost 27% of participants currently smoke and almost 20% score above the clinical threshold for depression.Track utilizes an innovative, digital health approach to reduce obesity and chronic disease risk among medically vulnerable adults in the primary care setting. Baseline characteristics reflect a socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-risk patient population in need of evidence-based obesity treatment.

Authors
Foley, P; Steinberg, D; Levine, E; Askew, S; Batch, BC; Puleo, EM; Svetkey, LP; Bosworth, HB; DeVries, A; Miranda, H; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Foley, P, Steinberg, D, Levine, E, Askew, S, Batch, BC, Puleo, EM, Svetkey, LP, Bosworth, HB, DeVries, A, Miranda, H, and Bennett, GG. "Track: A randomized controlled trial of a digital health obesity treatment intervention for medically vulnerable primary care patients." Contemporary clinical trials 48 (May 2016): 12-20.
PMID
26995281
Source
epmc
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
48
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
12
End Page
20
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2016.03.006

Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: A randomized clinical trial.

Evidence is lacking regarding effective weight control treatments in pregnancy for ethnic minority women with obesity. This study evaluated whether a technology-based behavioral intervention could decrease the proportion of African American women with overweight or obesity who exceeded Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain.We conducted a two-arm pilot randomized clinical trial. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American pregnant women (12.5 ± 3.7 weeks' gestation; 36% overweight, 64% obesity) recruited from two outpatient obstetric practices at Temple University between 2013 and 2014. We randomized participants to usual care (n = 33) or a behavioral intervention (n = 33) that promoted weight control in pregnancy. The intervention included: (1) empirically supported behavior change goals; (2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; (3) biweekly health coach calls; and (4) skills training and support through Facebook.The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines compared to usual care (37% vs. 66%, P = 0.033). Intervention participants gained less weight during pregnancy (8.7 vs. 12.3 kg, adjusted mean difference: -3.1 kg, 95% CI: -6.2 to -0.1). No group differences in neonatal or obstetric outcomes were found.The intervention resulted in lower prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain.

Authors
Herring, SJ; Cruice, JF; Bennett, GG; Rose, MZ; Davey, A; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Herring, SJ, Cruice, JF, Bennett, GG, Rose, MZ, Davey, A, and Foster, GD. "Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: A randomized clinical trial." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 24.1 (January 2016): 30-36.
PMID
26592857
Source
epmc
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
24
Issue
1
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
30
End Page
36
DOI
10.1002/oby.21240

Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice.

In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy.

Authors
Lanpher, MG; Askew, S; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Lanpher, MG, Askew, S, and Bennett, GG. "Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice." Journal of health communication 21 Suppl 1 (January 2016): 34-42.
PMID
27043756
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Health Communication
Volume
21 Suppl 1
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
34
End Page
42
DOI
10.1080/10810730.2015.1131773

Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults.Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely.The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools for self-tracking and receiving tailored feedback. The intervention changed over 2 years to promote and sustain engagement. The personal coaching intervention, alternatively, was primarily personal coaching with trained coaches based on a proven intervention, enhanced with a mobile application, but where all interactions with the technology were participant-initiated.The complexity and length of the technology-based randomized clinical trial created challenges in engagement and technology adaptation, which were generally discovered using novel remote monitoring technology and addressed using the adaptive intervention design. Investigators should plan to develop tools and procedures that explicitly support continuous remote monitoring of interventions to support adaptive intervention design in long-term, technology-based studies, as well as developing the interventions themselves.

Authors
Lin, P-H; Intille, S; Bennett, G; Bosworth, HB; Corsino, L; Voils, C; Grambow, S; Lazenka, T; Batch, BC; Tyson, C; Svetkey, LP
MLA Citation
Lin, P-H, Intille, S, Bennett, G, Bosworth, HB, Corsino, L, Voils, C, Grambow, S, Lazenka, T, Batch, BC, Tyson, C, and Svetkey, LP. "Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial." Clinical trials (London, England) 12.6 (December 2015): 634-645.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10740
PMID
26229119
Source
epmc
Published In
Clinical Trials
Volume
12
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
634
End Page
645
DOI
10.1177/1740774515597222

Cell phone intervention for you (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology.

To determine the effect on weight of two mobile technology-based (mHealth) behavioral weight loss interventions in young adults.Randomized, controlled comparative effectiveness trial in 18- to 35-year-olds with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese), with participants randomized to 24 months of mHealth intervention delivered by interactive smartphone application on a cell phone (CP); personal coaching enhanced by smartphone self-monitoring (PC); or Control.The 365 randomized participants had mean baseline BMI of 35 kg/m(2) . Final weight was measured in 86% of participants. CP was not superior to Control at any measurement point. PC participants lost significantly more weight than Controls at 6 months (net effect -1.92 kg [CI -3.17, -0.67], P = 0.003), but not at 12 and 24 months.Despite high intervention engagement and study retention, the inclusion of behavioral principles and tools in both interventions, and weight loss in all treatment groups, CP did not lead to weight loss, and PC did not lead to sustained weight loss relative to Control. Although mHealth solutions offer broad dissemination and scalability, the CITY results sound a cautionary note concerning intervention delivery by mobile applications. Effective intervention may require the efficiency of mobile technology, the social support and human interaction of personal coaching, and an adaptive approach to intervention design.

Authors
Svetkey, LP; Batch, BC; Lin, P-H; Intille, SS; Corsino, L; Tyson, CC; Bosworth, HB; Grambow, SC; Voils, C; Loria, C; Gallis, JA; Schwager, J; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Svetkey, LP, Batch, BC, Lin, P-H, Intille, SS, Corsino, L, Tyson, CC, Bosworth, HB, Grambow, SC, Voils, C, Loria, C, Gallis, JA, Schwager, J, and Bennett, GG. "Cell phone intervention for you (CITY): A randomized, controlled trial of behavioral weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 23.11 (November 2015): 2133-2141.
PMID
26530929
Source
epmc
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
23
Issue
11
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
2133
End Page
2141
DOI
10.1002/oby.21226

Current Science on Consumer Use of Mobile Health for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Authors
Burke, LE; Ma, J; Azar, KMJ; Bennett, GG; Peterson, ED; Zheng, Y; Riley, W; Stephens, J; Shah, SH; Suffoletto, B; Turan, TN; Spring, B; Steinberger, J; Quinn, CC et al.
MLA Citation
Burke, LE, Ma, J, Azar, KMJ, Bennett, GG, Peterson, ED, Zheng, Y, Riley, W, Stephens, J, Shah, SH, Suffoletto, B, Turan, TN, Spring, B, Steinberger, J, and Quinn, CC et al. "Current Science on Consumer Use of Mobile Health for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association." Circulation 132.12 (September 2015): 1157-1213. (Review)
PMID
26271892
Source
epmc
Published In
Circulation
Volume
132
Issue
12
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1157
End Page
1213
DOI
10.1161/cir.0000000000000232

Will Obesity Treatment Reimbursement Benefit Those at Highest Risk?

Authors
Bennett, GG; Steinberg, DM; Pagoto, SL
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Steinberg, DM, and Pagoto, SL. "Will Obesity Treatment Reimbursement Benefit Those at Highest Risk?." The American journal of medicine 128.7 (July 2015): 670-671.
PMID
25697968
Source
epmc
Published In
The American Journal of Medicine
Volume
128
Issue
7
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
670
End Page
671
DOI
10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.01.026

Revisiting the Hispanic Health Paradox: The Relative Contributions of Nativity, Country of Origin, and Race/Ethnicity to Childhood Asthma

© 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This study examined the relationship between race and Hispanic ethnicity, maternal and child nativity, country of origin and asthma among 2,558 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children across 65 Los Angeles neighborhoods. A series of two-level multilevel models were estimated to examine the independent effects of race, ethnicity, and country of origin on childhood asthma. Lifetime asthma prevalence was reported among 9 % of children, with no significant differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites overall. However, in fully adjusted models, Hispanic children of non-Mexican origin reported higher odds of asthma compared to non-Hispanic white children. A protective nativity effect was also observed among children of foreign born mothers compared to US born mothers. Our study provides evidence in support of the heterogeneity of childhood asthma by Hispanic ethnicity and maternal nativity. These findings suggest moving beyond solely considering racial/ethnic classifications which could mask subgroups at increased risk of childhood asthma.

Authors
Camacho-Rivera, M; Kawachi, I; Bennett, GG; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Camacho-Rivera, M, Kawachi, I, Bennett, GG, and Subramanian, SV. "Revisiting the Hispanic Health Paradox: The Relative Contributions of Nativity, Country of Origin, and Race/Ethnicity to Childhood Asthma." Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 17.3 (June 30, 2015): 826-833.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Volume
17
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
826
End Page
833
DOI
10.1007/s10903-013-9974-6

Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on C-peptide and 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations at 3 and 6 Months.

The link between African-Americans' disproportionate rates of diabetes, obesity and vitamin D deficiency may be marked by C-peptide as an indicator of insulin secretion. We hypothesize that vitamin D supplementation will increase C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. During 3 winters from 2007-2010, 328 healthy African-Americans (median age, 51 years) living in Boston, MA were randomized into a 4-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3. The differences in non-fasting C-peptide between baseline and 3 months were -0.44 ng/mL for those receiving placebo, -0.10 ng/mL for those receiving 1000 IU/d, 0 ng/mL for those receiving 2000 IU/d, 1.24 ng/mL for those receiving 4000 IU/d (C-peptide increased 0.42 ng/mL for each additional 1000 IU/d of vitamin D3, p < 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation increased C-peptide in overweight African-Americans and may be compatible with other recommendations for diabetes prevention and management including weight loss and increased physical activity.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Giovannucci, EL; Scott, JB; Bennett, GG; Ng, K; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Rifai, N; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS; Drake, BF
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Giovannucci, EL, Scott, JB, Bennett, GG, Ng, K, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Rifai, N, Emmons, KM, Fuchs, CS, and Drake, BF. "Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on C-peptide and 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations at 3 and 6 Months." Scientific reports 5 (June 22, 2015): 10411-.
PMID
26095242
Source
epmc
Published In
Scientific Reports
Volume
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
10411
DOI
10.1038/srep10411

Impact of vitamin D supplementation on adiposity in African-Americans

Authors
Chandler, PD; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Ng, K; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Emmons, KM; Giovannucci, EL; Fuchs, CS; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Ng, K, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Emmons, KM, Giovannucci, EL, Fuchs, CS, and Bennett, GG. "Impact of vitamin D supplementation on adiposity in African-Americans." Nutrition & Diabetes 5.6 (June 15, 2015): e164-e164.
Source
crossref
Published In
Nutrition and Diabetes
Volume
5
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
e164
End Page
e164
DOI
10.1038/nutd.2015.14

A community-based intervention increases physical activity and reduces obesity in school-age children in North Carolina.

Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town.In 2011, community leaders implemented the Mebane on the Move intervention—a community-wide effort to promote physical activity (PA) and decrease obesity among residents of Mebane, North Carolina. We measured child PA and BMI before and after the intervention, using a nearby town not implementing an intervention as the comparison. In total, we assessed 64 children from Mebane and 40 from the comparison community 6 months before, as well as 34 and 18 children 6 months after the intervention. We assessed PA with accelerometers worn for 7 days and calculated BMI z-scores using children's height and weight. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining pre- to postintervention change in minutes of PA and BMI z-score, adjusting for confounders.At follow-up, children in Mebane modestly increased their moderate-to-vigorous PA (1.3 minutes per hour; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 2.3; p=0.03) and vigorous activity (0.8 minutes per hour; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5; p=0.04) more than comparison children. In intervention children, BMI z-scores decreased 0.5 units (kg/m(2); 95% CI: -0.9, -0.02; p=0.045), compared to children in the comparison community.We observed positive effects on PA level and weight status of children in Mebane, despite high rates of attrition, suggesting that the community-based intervention may have been successful.

Authors
Benjamin Neelon, SE; Namenek Brouwer, RJ; Østbye, T; Evenson, KR; Neelon, B; Martinie, A; Bennett, G
MLA Citation
Benjamin Neelon, SE, Namenek Brouwer, RJ, Østbye, T, Evenson, KR, Neelon, B, Martinie, A, and Bennett, G. "A community-based intervention increases physical activity and reduces obesity in school-age children in North Carolina." Childhood obesity (Print) 11.3 (June 2015): 297-303.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11436
PMID
25938983
Source
epmc
Published In
Childhood Obesity
Volume
11
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
297
End Page
303
DOI
10.1089/chi.2014.0130

Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors.To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing.Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial.Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47).The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress.We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool.We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency.Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure.Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the week. This further implicates daily weighing as an effective weight loss tool.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Bennett, GG; Askew, S; Tate, DF
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Bennett, GG, Askew, S, and Tate, DF. "Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.4 (April 2015): 511-518.
PMID
25683820
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume
115
Issue
4
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
511
End Page
518
DOI
10.1016/j.jand.2014.12.011

Impact of vitamin D supplementation on adiposity in African-Americans.

African-Americans have higher rates of obesity-associated chronic diseases. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) shows an inverse association with obesity status. We investigated whether vitamin D supplementation changes body mass index (BMI).In total, 328 overweight African-Americans were enrolled over three consecutive winter periods (2007-2010) into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive cholecalciferol supplementation (0, 1000 international units (IU), 2000 IU or 4000 IU per day) for 3 months. Plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and anthropometric measurements were done at baseline, 3 and 6 months.At 3 months, vitamin D supplementation in three dose groups (1000 IU, 2000 IU or 4000 IU per day) did not cause any significant changes in BMI as compared with placebo group 3-month change in BMI per 1000 IU per day estimate (SE): 0.01 (0.039); P=0.78.In overweight African-Americans, short-term high-dose vitamin D supplementation did not alter BMI.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Ng, K; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Emmons, KM; Giovannucci, EL; Fuchs, CS; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Ng, K, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Emmons, KM, Giovannucci, EL, Fuchs, CS, and Bennett, GG. "Impact of vitamin D supplementation on adiposity in African-Americans." Nutrition & diabetes 5 (January 19, 2015): e147-.
PMID
25599559
Source
epmc
Published In
Nutrition and Diabetes
Volume
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
e147
DOI
10.1038/nutd.2014.44

Weighing every day matters: Daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors

© 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Background: Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. Objective: To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Design: Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Participants/setting: Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). Intervention: The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. Main outcome measures: We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. Statistical analyses: We used χ 2 tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Results: Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Conclusions: Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the week. This further implicates daily weighing as an effective weight loss tool.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Bennett, GG; Askew, S; Tate, DF
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Bennett, GG, Askew, S, and Tate, DF. "Weighing every day matters: Daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.4 (January 1, 2015): 511-518.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume
115
Issue
4
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
511
End Page
518
DOI
10.1016/j.jand.2014.12.011

Engagement with eHealth Self-Monitoring in a Primary Care-Based Weight Management Intervention.

While eHealth approaches hold promise for improving the reach and cost-effectiveness of behavior change interventions, they have been challenged by declining participant engagement over time, particularly for self-monitoring behaviors. These are significant concerns in the context of chronic disease prevention and management where durable effects are important for driving meaningful changes."Be Fit, Be Well" was an eHealth weight loss intervention that allowed participants to self-select a self-monitoring modality (web or interactive voice response (IVR)). Participants could change their modality. As such, this study provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of intervention modality choice and changing modalities on intervention engagement and outcomes.Intervention participants, who were recruited from community health centers, (n = 180) were expected to self-monitor health behaviors weekly over the course of the 24-month intervention. We examined trends in intervention engagement by modality (web, IVR, or changed modality) among participants in the intervention arm.The majority (61%) of participants chose IVR self-monitoring, while 39% chose web. 56% of those who selected web monitoring changed to IVR during the study versus no change in those who initially selected IVR. Self-monitoring declined in both modalities, but completion rates were higher in those who selected IVR. There were no associations between self-monitoring modality and weight or blood pressure outcomes.This is the first study to compare web and IVR self-monitoring in an eHealth intervention where participants could select and change their self-monitoring modality. IVR shows promise for achieving consistent engagement.

Authors
Wolin, KY; Steinberg, DM; Lane, IB; Askew, S; Greaney, ML; Colditz, GA; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, Steinberg, DM, Lane, IB, Askew, S, Greaney, ML, Colditz, GA, and Bennett, GG. "Engagement with eHealth Self-Monitoring in a Primary Care-Based Weight Management Intervention." PloS one 10.10 (January 2015): e0140455-.
PMID
26469065
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
10
Issue
10
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
e0140455
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0140455

Development and Implementation of an Interactive Text Messaging Campaign to Support Behavior Change in a Childhood Obesity Randomized Controlled Trial.

Text messaging is a promising means of intervening on an array of health issues among varied populations, but little has been published about the development of such interventions. The authors describe the development and implementation of an interactive text messaging campaign for parents to support behavior change among children in a childhood obesity randomized controlled trial. The authors invited 160 parents to participate in a text messaging intervention that provided behavior change support in conjunction with health coaching phone calls and mailed materials on behavioral goals. Throughout the 1-year intervention, the authors sent 1-2 text messages per week. The first asked how the child did with a target behavior the day before; parents who replied received an immediate feedback message tailored to their response. The second included a tip about how to work toward a behavioral goal. Baseline surveys indicate that text messaging is a common means of communication for parents, and many are willing to use text messaging to support behavior change for their child. Results at 1 year indicate a high level of engagement with the text messaging intervention, with nearly two thirds responding to 75% or more of the questions they were sent by text.

Authors
Price, S; Ferisin, S; Sharifi, M; Steinberg, D; Bennett, G; Wolin, KY; Horan, C; Koziol, R; Marshall, R; Taveras, EM
MLA Citation
Price, S, Ferisin, S, Sharifi, M, Steinberg, D, Bennett, G, Wolin, KY, Horan, C, Koziol, R, Marshall, R, and Taveras, EM. "Development and Implementation of an Interactive Text Messaging Campaign to Support Behavior Change in a Childhood Obesity Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of health communication 20.7 (January 2015): 843-850.
PMID
25996181
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Health Communication
Volume
20
Issue
7
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
843
End Page
850
DOI
10.1080/10810730.2015.1018582

Reduction of Parathyroid Hormone with Vitamin D Supplementation in Blacks: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Response of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to vitamin D supplementation is determined by the baseline PTH level and change in vitamin D status. Conflicting reports in Blacks exist on the PTH response to vitamin D to supplementation.During 3 winters from 2007-2010, 328 healthy Blacks (median age, 51 years) living in Boston, MA were randomized into a 4-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU of vitamin D3. PTH was measured in 254 participants at baseline and at the end of vitamin D supplementation period.The differences in PTH between baseline and 3 months were 3.93 pg/mL for those receiving placebo, -3.37 pg/mL for those receiving 1000 IU/d, -6.76 pg/mL for those receiving 2000 IU/d, and -8.99 pg/mL for those receiving 4000 IU/d ( -2.98 pg/mL for each additional 1000 IU/d of vitamin D3; p<0.001).We found a significant decrease in PTH with increasing doses of vitamin D supplementation up to intakes of 4000 IU/d in Blacks. Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00585637.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Agboola, F; Ng, K; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Bennett, GG; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS; Giovannucci, EL
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Agboola, F, Ng, K, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Bennett, GG, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Emmons, KM, Fuchs, CS, and Giovannucci, EL. "Reduction of Parathyroid Hormone with Vitamin D Supplementation in Blacks: A Randomized Controlled Trial." BMC nutrition 1 (January 2015).
PMID
26858840
Source
epmc
Published In
BMC Nutrition
Volume
1
Publish Date
2015

Weight-related SMS texts promoting appropriate pregnancy weight gain: A pilot study

© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Objectives: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) puts women and children at risk of obesity. We piloted an SMS-texting intervention to promote healthy GWG among overweight and obese women. Methods: We recruited 35 women and randomized them in a 2:1 fashion to: a tailored SMS-texting intervention (Preg CHAT) vs. a generic texting intervention (Txt4baby). Preg CHAT texts provided personalized feedback based on women's intake of sweetened beverages, fruits and vegetables, fast food, daily steps taken, and weight. We abstracted women's weights from charts and surveyed women at baseline and 32 weeks gestation. Results: Few women refused the study; many (30%) did not complete the study, however. Of those in the Preg CHAT arm, 86% responded to texts, and 80% said they would recommend this program to a friend. For women who completed the surveys (. n=. 23), those in the Preg CHAT arm had a mean gain of 6 less pounds than women in the Txt4Baby arm (95% CI -15.9, 4.0; p=. 0.24). Conclusions: This pilot study shows feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a low-intensity and disseminable intervention to help overweight and obese women reduce GWG. Practice implications: An SMS texting program might help overweight women reduce excessive GWG.

Authors
Pollak, KI; Alexander, SC; Bennett, G; Lyna, P; Coffman, CJ; Bilheimer, A; Farrell, D; Bodner, ME; Swamy, GK; Østbye, T
MLA Citation
Pollak, KI, Alexander, SC, Bennett, G, Lyna, P, Coffman, CJ, Bilheimer, A, Farrell, D, Bodner, ME, Swamy, GK, and Østbye, T. "Weight-related SMS texts promoting appropriate pregnancy weight gain: A pilot study." Patient Education and Counseling 97.2 (November 1, 2014): 256-260.
Source
scopus
Published In
Patient Education and Counseling
Volume
97
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
256
End Page
260
DOI
10.1016/j.pec.2014.07.030

Using technology to promote postpartum weight loss in urban, low-income mothers: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based weight loss intervention for urban, low-income mothers.Eighteen obese, ethnic minority, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers in the first year after childbirth were randomly assigned to either: 1) technology-based intervention, which included empirically supported behavior-change strategies, daily skills, and self-monitoring text messages with personalized feedback, biweekly counseling calls from a health coach, and access to a Facebook support group, or 2) usual-care control.After 14 weeks of treatment, the technology-based intervention participants had significantly greater weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.6 kg) than usual care (0.5 ± 2.3 kg; adjusted mean difference: -3.2 kg, 95% confidence interval -6.2 to -0.1 kg, P = .04). One-third of intervention participants (3 of 9) and no control participants lost > 5% of their initial body weight at follow up.Results suggest the potential for using technology to deliver a postpartum weight loss intervention among low-income racial/ethnic minorities.

Authors
Herring, SJ; Cruice, JF; Bennett, GG; Davey, A; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Herring, SJ, Cruice, JF, Bennett, GG, Davey, A, and Foster, GD. "Using technology to promote postpartum weight loss in urban, low-income mothers: a pilot randomized controlled trial." Journal of nutrition education and behavior 46.6 (November 2014): 610-615.
PMID
25069621
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Volume
46
Issue
6
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
610
End Page
615
DOI
10.1016/j.jneb.2014.06.002

Corrigendum to "Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: Design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)" [Contemp Clin Trials 37/2 (2014) 333-341].

Authors
Batch, BC; Tyson, C; Bagwell, J; Corsino, L; Intille, S; Lin, PH; Lazenka, T; Bennett, G; Bosworth, HB; Voils, C; Grambow, S; Sutton, A; Bordogna, R; Pangborn, M; Schwager, J; Pilewski, K; Caccia, C; Burroughs, J; Svetkey, LP
MLA Citation
Batch, BC, Tyson, C, Bagwell, J, Corsino, L, Intille, S, Lin, PH, Lazenka, T, Bennett, G, Bosworth, HB, Voils, C, Grambow, S, Sutton, A, Bordogna, R, Pangborn, M, Schwager, J, Pilewski, K, Caccia, C, Burroughs, J, and Svetkey, LP. "Corrigendum to "Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: Design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)" [Contemp Clin Trials 37/2 (2014) 333-341]." Contemporary clinical trials 39.2 (November 2014): 351-.
PMID
25488046
Source
epmc
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
39
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
351
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2014.10.001

Preferred health resources and use of social media to obtain health and depression information by adolescent mothers.

Little is known about how adolescent mothers use social media and the Internet, especially to access health information.In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, adolescent mothers were recruited from an academic medical center after the birth of their child (n = 94) or from a state-funded, home visitation program during the first year after birth (n = 91). They completed the Pew Internet Survey: 37 questions related to use of social media and Internet, particularly in regard to obtaining health information.All adolescent mothers used a computer and almost all went online. Most accessed the Internet by cell phone (67.4%) and used social media. The health topics searched most frequently were pregnancy/birth control (85.8%), sexually transmitted diseases (n = 134, 72.6%) and HIV (66.3%). Response to survey questions differed between the two groups (adolescent mothers surveyed after birth from academic medical center and adolescent mothers surveyed in the first postpartum year in the community).Adolescent mothers spend significant time on the Internet including searching for health information. Cell phones are their preferred methods for accessing the Internet, and they use social media. Thus, social media and the Internet are potentially feasible and acceptable vehicles to deliver health interventions to adolescent mothers.

Authors
Logsdon, MC; Bennett, G; Crutzen, R; Martin, L; Eckert, D; Robertson, A; Myers, J; Tomasulo, R; Gregg, J; Barone, M; Lynch, T; Flamini, L
MLA Citation
Logsdon, MC, Bennett, G, Crutzen, R, Martin, L, Eckert, D, Robertson, A, Myers, J, Tomasulo, R, Gregg, J, Barone, M, Lynch, T, and Flamini, L. "Preferred health resources and use of social media to obtain health and depression information by adolescent mothers." Journal of child and adolescent psychiatric nursing : official publication of the Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nurses, Inc 27.4 (November 2014): 163-168.
PMID
25100157
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
Volume
27
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
163
End Page
168
DOI
10.1111/jcap.12083

Electronic health (eHealth) interventions for weight management among racial/ethnic minority adults: a systematic review.

Electronic health (eHealth) interventions have demonstrated efficacy for weight management. However, little is known about their efficacy among racial/ethnic minority populations, in whom there is a disproportionate prevalence of obesity. This systematic review evaluated the efficacy of eHealth weight management interventions among overweight and obese racial/ethnic minority adults. We required that trial samples be comprised of at least 50% racial/ethnic minorities or report outcomes by race/ethnicity. We searched five electronic databases for trials conducted through June 2012. Six papers met our eligibility criteria. These studies provide suggestive evidence that eHealth interventions can produce low magnitude, short-term weight loss among racial/ethnic minorities. Trials were methodologically sound, with high retention and participant engagement. There was no evidence detailing the efficacy of mobile health approaches, although this area is promising given high utilization rates of mobile devices among racial/ethnic minorities. More evidence, particularly from longer-term trials, is necessary to demonstrate that eHealth intervention approaches can produce clinically meaningful (≥ 5% of initial body weight) weight loss among racial/ethnic minority populations.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Steinberg, DM; Stoute, C; Lanpher, M; Lane, I; Askew, S; Foley, PB; Baskin, ML
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Steinberg, DM, Stoute, C, Lanpher, M, Lane, I, Askew, S, Foley, PB, and Baskin, ML. "Electronic health (eHealth) interventions for weight management among racial/ethnic minority adults: a systematic review." Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 15 Suppl 4 (October 2014): 146-158. (Review)
PMID
25196411
Source
epmc
Published In
Obesity Reviews
Volume
15 Suppl 4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
146
End Page
158
DOI
10.1111/obr.12218

A systematic review of weight loss, physical activity and dietary interventions involving African American men.

When compared with men of other racial or ethnic groups, African American men are more likely to experience adverse health conditions. The systematic review objectives were to (i) determine the current evidence base concerning African American men's response to lifestyle behavioural interventions designed to promote weight loss, increase physical activity, and/or improve healthy eating and (ii) determine the next steps for research in these areas. The PubMed, Web of Science, Psych Info and Cochrane databases were searched to identify papers published before January 1, 2013 that reported change in weight, physical activity and/or dietary patterns in African American men aged 18 and older, as a result of behavioural change strategies. The titles and abstracts of 1,403 papers were screened; after removing duplicates, 141 papers were read to determine their eligibility. Seventeen publications from 14 studies reported outcomes for African American men. Eight large multi-centre trials and six community-based studies were identified. African American men were an exclusive sample in only four studies. Five studies showed statistically significant improvements. Although the available evidence appears to show that these interventions produce positive results, the relative and the long-term effectiveness of weight loss, dietary and/or physical activity interventions for this population are unknown.

Authors
Newton, RL; Griffith, DM; Kearney, WB; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Newton, RL, Griffith, DM, Kearney, WB, and Bennett, GG. "A systematic review of weight loss, physical activity and dietary interventions involving African American men." Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 15 Suppl 4 (October 2014): 93-106. (Review)
PMID
25196408
Source
epmc
Published In
Obesity Reviews
Volume
15 Suppl 4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
93
End Page
106
DOI
10.1111/obr.12209

Null association between vitamin D and PSA levels among black men in a vitamin D supplementation trial.

Black men exhibit a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as well as a higher incidence of prostate cancer and higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than Whites. There are few data about the effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in healthy Black men.During three winters from 2007 to 2010, 105 Black men (median age, 48.9 years) of Boston, MA were randomized into a four-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 U of vitamin D3. At baseline and 3 months, free and total PSA was measured.With vitamin D supplementation, no significant differences in free and total PSA were observed; free PSA, -0.0004 ng/mL (P = 0.94) and total PSA, -0.004 ng/mL (P = 0.92) for each additional 1,000 U/d of vitamin D3.Within an unselected population of healthy Black men without a cancer diagnosis, we found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on free or total PSA.These findings support prior findings of no change in PSA with vitamin D supplementation and emphasize the need for new methods to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer prevention.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Giovannucci, EL; Scott, JB; Bennett, GG; Ng, K; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS; Drake, BF
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Giovannucci, EL, Scott, JB, Bennett, GG, Ng, K, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Emmons, KM, Fuchs, CS, and Drake, BF. "Null association between vitamin D and PSA levels among black men in a vitamin D supplementation trial." Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 23.9 (September 2014): 1944-1947.
PMID
24974387
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
23
Issue
9
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1944
End Page
1947
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.epi-14-0522

The effect of a "maintain, don't gain" approach to weight management on depression among black women: results from a randomized controlled trial.

We evaluated the effect of a weight gain prevention intervention (Shape Program) on depression among socioeconomically disadvantaged overweight and obese Black women.Between 2009 and 2012, we conducted a randomized trial comparing a 12-month electronic health-based weight gain prevention intervention to usual primary care at 5 central North Carolina community health centers. We assessed depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8). We analyzed change in depression score from baseline to 12- and 18-month follow-up across groups with mixed models. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyze group differences in the proportion above the clinical threshold for depression (PHQ-8 score ≥ 10).At baseline, 20% of participants reported depression. Twelve-month change in depression scores was larger for intervention participants (mean difference = -1.85; 95% confidence interval = -3.08, -0.61; P = .004). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of intervention participants with depression at 12 months with no change in the usual-care group (11% vs 19%; P = .035). All effects persisted after we controlled for weight change and medication use. We saw similar findings at 18 months.The Shape Program, which includes no mention of mood, improved depression among socioeconomically disadvantaged Black women.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Askew, S; Lanpher, MG; Foley, PB; Levine, EL; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Askew, S, Lanpher, MG, Foley, PB, Levine, EL, and Bennett, GG. "The effect of a "maintain, don't gain" approach to weight management on depression among black women: results from a randomized controlled trial." American journal of public health 104.9 (September 2014): 1766-1773.
PMID
25033150
Source
epmc
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
104
Issue
9
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1766
End Page
1773
DOI
10.2105/ajph.2014.302004

Risk of hypercalcemia in blacks taking hydrochlorothiazide and vitamin D.

Hydrochlorothiazide, an effective antihypertensive medication commonly prescribed to blacks, decreases urinary calcium excretion. Blacks have significantly higher rates of hypertension and lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Thus, they are more likely to be exposed to vitamin D supplementation and thiazide diuretics. The risk for hypercalcemia among blacks using vitamin D and hydrochlorothiazide is undefined.We assessed the frequency of hypercalcemia in hydrochlorothiazide users in a post hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding trial of 328 blacks (median age 51 years) assigned to either placebo, or 1000, 2000, or 4000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for 3 months during the winter (2007-2010).Of the 328 participants, 84 reported hydrochlorothiazide use and had serum calcium levels assessed. Additionally, a comparison convenience group of 44 enrolled participants who were not taking hydrochlorothiazide had serum calcium measurements at 3 months, but not at baseline. At 3 months, hydrochlorothiazide participants had higher calcium levels (0.2 mg/dL, P <.001) than nonhydrochlorothiazide participants, but only one participant in the hydrochlorothiazide group had hypercalcemia. In contrast, none of the nonhydrochlorothiazide participants had hypercalcemia. In a linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 3 months, and other covariates, only hydrochlorothiazide use (Estimate [SE]: 0.05 [0.01], P = .01) predicted serum calcium at 3 months.In summary, vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4000 IU in hydrochlorothiazide users is associated with an increase in serum calcium but a low frequency of hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that participants of this population can use hydrochlorothiazide with up to 4000 IU of vitamin D3 daily and experience a low frequency of hypercalcemia.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Ng, K; Forman, JP; Chan, AT; Bennett, GG; Hollis, BW; Giovannucci, EL; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Ng, K, Forman, JP, Chan, AT, Bennett, GG, Hollis, BW, Giovannucci, EL, Emmons, KM, and Fuchs, CS. "Risk of hypercalcemia in blacks taking hydrochlorothiazide and vitamin D." The American journal of medicine 127.8 (August 2014): 772-778.
PMID
24657333
Source
epmc
Published In
The American Journal of Medicine
Volume
127
Issue
8
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
772
End Page
778
DOI
10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.044

Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study found evidence in support of neighborhood-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic influences on indoor allergen exposure, above and beyond individual factors. Future studies should continue to explore individual and neighborhood-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in household allergen exposures across diverse contexts.

Authors
Camacho-Rivera, M; Kawachi, I; Bennett, GG; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Camacho-Rivera, M, Kawachi, I, Bennett, GG, and Subramanian, SV. "Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008." Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 91.4 (August 2014): 661-676.
PMID
24771244
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Urban Health
Volume
91
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
661
End Page
676
DOI
10.1007/s11524-014-9872-9

A randomized comparative effectiveness study of Healthy Directions 2--a multiple risk behavior intervention for primary care.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy Directions 2 (HD2) intervention in the primary care setting.HD2 was a cluster randomized trial (conducted 3/09-11/11). The primary sampling unit was provider (n=33), with secondary sampling of patients within provider (n=2440). Study arms included: 1) usual care (UC); 2) HD2--a patient self-guided intervention targeting 5 risk behaviors; and 3) HD2 plus 2 brief telephone coaching calls (HD2+CC). The outcome measure was the proportion of participants with a lower multiple risk behavior (MRB) score by follow-up.At baseline, only 4% of the participants met all behavioral recommendations. Both HD2 and HD2+CC led to improvements in MRB score, relative to UC, with no differences between the two HD2 conditions. Twenty-eight percent of the UC participants had improved MRB scores at 6 months, vs. 39% and 43% in HD2 and HD2+CC, respectively (ps≤.001); results were similar at 18 months (p≤.05). The incremental cost of one risk factor reduction in MRB score was $310 for HD2 and $450 for HD2+CC.Self-guided and coached intervention conditions had equivalent levels of effect in reducing multiple chronic disease risk factors, were relatively low cost, and thus are potentially useful for routine implementation in similar health settings.

Authors
Emmons, KM; Puleo, E; Greaney, ML; Gillman, MW; Bennett, GG; Haines, J; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Viswanath, K
MLA Citation
Emmons, KM, Puleo, E, Greaney, ML, Gillman, MW, Bennett, GG, Haines, J, Sprunck-Harrild, K, and Viswanath, K. "A randomized comparative effectiveness study of Healthy Directions 2--a multiple risk behavior intervention for primary care." Preventive medicine 64 (July 2014): 96-102.
PMID
24642140
Source
epmc
Published In
Preventive Medicine
Volume
64
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
96
End Page
102
DOI
10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.03.011

A text messaging-assisted randomized lifestyle weight loss clinical trial among overweight adults in Beijing.

OBJECTIVE: The impact of a text messaging-assisted lifestyle weight loss intervention on weight change among overweight adults in Beijing was examined. METHODS: It was a 6-month randomized two arm clinical trial. The control group received a brief advice session after randomization. The intervention group received three group sessions, five coaching calls, and a daily text message prompting participants to follow predetermined lifestyle goals. RESULTS: A total of 123 participants were randomized. At 6 months, controls gained 0.24 ± 0.28 kg (0.21% ± 0.38%) (NS) while intervention participants lost 1.6 ± 0.28 kg (2.31% ± 0.38%) (p < 0.0001). Intervention participants decreased waist circumference (WC) (-2.69 ± 0.43 cm, p < 0.0001), percent body fat (%BF) (-0.66% ± 0.19%, p = 0.0007), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) significantly (-1.71 ± 1.12/-3.24 ± 0.87 mmHg), while the controls had no change in WC and %BF and increased SBP/DBP by 2.43 ± 1.14/1.20 ± 0.88 mmHg (between groups: p = 0.01/p = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: This text message-assisted lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing weight, WC, %BF, and improving BP. Coupled with the scalable feature of the intervention, this finding is intriguing in light of the potential reach of the intervention for countries like China where mobile phone penetration is high and the obesity rate continues to rise.

Authors
Lin, P-H; Wang, Y; Levine, E; Askew, S; Lin, S; Chang, C; Sun, J; Foley, P; Wang, H; Li, X; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Lin, P-H, Wang, Y, Levine, E, Askew, S, Lin, S, Chang, C, Sun, J, Foley, P, Wang, H, Li, X, and Bennett, GG. "A text messaging-assisted randomized lifestyle weight loss clinical trial among overweight adults in Beijing." Obesity (Silver Spring) 22.5 (May 2014): E29-E37.
PMID
24375969
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obesity
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
E29
End Page
E37
DOI
10.1002/oby.20686

Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity.This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention.The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call.Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate <80% (-1.97 kg, SE 0.67 vs 0.48 kg, SE 0.69; P=.01). Similar outcomes were found for change in body mass index (BMI; mean difference -0.94 kg, 95% CI -1.64 to -0.24; P=.009). Older, more educated participants were more likely to achieve high IVR call completion. Participants reported positive attitudes toward IVR self-monitoring.Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Levine, EL; Lane, I; Askew, S; Foley, PB; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Levine, EL, Lane, I, Askew, S, Foley, PB, Puleo, E, and Bennett, GG. "Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial." Journal of medical Internet research 16.4 (April 29, 2014): e114-.
PMID
24780934
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Volume
16
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
e114
DOI
10.2196/jmir.2996

ACADEMIC-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS IN EHEALTH ACROSS MULTIPLE BEHAVIORS: A PANEL DISCUSSION OF THE BENEFITS AND RISKS FOR YOUR RESEARCH PORTFOLIO

Authors
Quintiliani, LM; Turner-McGrievy, G; Bennett, GG; Hekler, EB; Iyer, AK; Nilsen, WJ
MLA Citation
Quintiliani, LM, Turner-McGrievy, G, Bennett, GG, Hekler, EB, Iyer, AK, and Nilsen, WJ. "ACADEMIC-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS IN EHEALTH ACROSS MULTIPLE BEHAVIORS: A PANEL DISCUSSION OF THE BENEFITS AND RISKS FOR YOUR RESEARCH PORTFOLIO." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 47 (April 2014): S153-S153.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
47
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
S153
End Page
S153

A WEIGHT GAIN PREVENTION INTERVENTION REDUCES DEPRESSION AMONG BLACK WOMEN: RESULTS FROM AN RCT

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Askew, S; Lanpher, MG; Foley, PB; Levine, EL; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Askew, S, Lanpher, MG, Foley, PB, Levine, EL, and Bennett, GG. "A WEIGHT GAIN PREVENTION INTERVENTION REDUCES DEPRESSION AMONG BLACK WOMEN: RESULTS FROM AN RCT." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 47 (April 2014): S170-S170.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
47
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
S170
End Page
S170

NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS IMPEDE SUCCESS AMONG LOW INCOME, BLACK WOMEN IN AN EHEALTH WEIGHT GAIN PREVENTION PROGRAM

Authors
Stoute, CH; Lanpher, MG; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Stoute, CH, Lanpher, MG, and Bennett, GG. "NEGATIVE LIFE EVENTS IMPEDE SUCCESS AMONG LOW INCOME, BLACK WOMEN IN AN EHEALTH WEIGHT GAIN PREVENTION PROGRAM." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 47 (April 2014): S172-S172.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
47
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
S172
End Page
S172

USING TECHNOLOGY TO PROMOTE POSTPARTUM WEIGHT LOSS IN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE, LOW-INCOME MOTHERS

Authors
Herring, SJ; Cruice, JF; Bennett, GG; Davey, A; Ajibola, WO; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Herring, SJ, Cruice, JF, Bennett, GG, Davey, A, Ajibola, WO, and Foster, GD. "USING TECHNOLOGY TO PROMOTE POSTPARTUM WEIGHT LOSS IN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE, LOW-INCOME MOTHERS." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 47 (April 2014): S89-S89.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
47
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
S89
End Page
S89

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all

Studies have generally shown a positive association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in low-income countries, but few have tested this relationship in the Middle East where obesity prevalence is extraordinarily high and the nutrition profile more closely resembles developed world contexts. The objective of this study is to examine the SES-obesity association in Cairo, Egypt.Multinomial regression analyses were conducted and predicted probabilities were found for overweight and obesity status among adult men and women in a stratified analysis. Data were taken from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study which collected information on 3993 individuals from 50 neighborhoods in the Cairo Governorate. Five different measures of SES were utilized - education, household expenditures, household assets, subjective wealth, and father's education. No significant associations were found between most measures of SES and overweight/obesity in this population. Overweight and obesity are prevalent across the SES spectrum.These findings suggest that obesity programs and policies should be targeted at all SES groups in Cairo, although specific mechanisms may vary by SES and should be explored further in future studies. © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia.

Authors
Mowafi, M; Khadr, Z; Kawachi, I; Subramanian, SV; Hill, A; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Mowafi, M, Khadr, Z, Kawachi, I, Subramanian, SV, Hill, A, and Bennett, GG. "Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all." Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health 4.1 (March 1, 2014): 13-21.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Volume
4
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
13
End Page
21
DOI
10.1016/j.jegh.2013.09.001

Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: Results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Background: Association studies have suggested that lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in African Americans may partially underlie higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer in this population. Nonetheless, the relation between vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations in African Americans remains undefined. Objective: Our primary objective was to determine the doseresponse relation between vitamin D and plasma 25(OH)D. Design: A total of 328 African Americans in Boston, MA, were enrolled over 3 winters from 2007 to 2010 and randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D3/d for 3 mo. Subjects completed sociodemographic and dietary questionnaires, and plasma samples were drawn at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Results: Median plasma 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline were 15.1, 16.2, 13.9, and 15.7 ng/mL for subjects randomly assigned to receive the placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/d, respectively (P = 0.63). The median plasma 25(OH)D concentration at 3 mo differed significantly between supplementation arms at 13.7, 29.7, 34.8, and 45.9 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). An estimated 1640 IU vitamin D 3 /d was needed to raise the plasma 25(OH)D concentration to ≥20 ng/mL in ≥97.5% of participants, whereas a dose of 4000 IU/d was needed to achieve concentrations ≥33 ng/mL in ≥80% of subjects. No significant hypercalcemia was seen in a subset of participants. Conclusions: Within African Americans, an estimated 1640 IU vitamin D3/d was required to achieve concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D recommended by the Institute of Medicine, whereas 4000 IU/d was needed to reach concentrations predicted to reduce cancer and cardio-vascular disease risk in prospective observational studies. These results may be helpful for informing future trials of disease prevention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00585637. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

Authors
Ng, K; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Chandler, PD; Bennett, GG; Giovannucci, EL; Gonzalez-Suarez, E; Meyerhardt, JA; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS
MLA Citation
Ng, K, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Chandler, PD, Bennett, GG, Giovannucci, EL, Gonzalez-Suarez, E, Meyerhardt, JA, Emmons, KM, and Fuchs, CS. "Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: Results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99.3 (March 1, 2014): 587-598.
Source
scopus
Published In
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume
99
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
587
End Page
598
DOI
10.3945/ajcn.113.067777

Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Association studies have suggested that lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in African Americans may partially underlie higher rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer in this population. Nonetheless, the relation between vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations in African Americans remains undefined. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to determine the dose-response relation between vitamin D and plasma 25(OH)D. DESIGN: A total of 328 African Americans in Boston, MA, were enrolled over 3 winters from 2007 to 2010 and randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU vitamin D₃/d for 3 mo. Subjects completed sociodemographic and dietary questionnaires, and plasma samples were drawn at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. RESULTS: Median plasma 25(OH)D concentrations at baseline were 15.1, 16.2, 13.9, and 15.7 ng/mL for subjects randomly assigned to receive the placebo or 1000, 2000, or 4000 IU/d, respectively (P = 0.63). The median plasma 25(OH)D concentration at 3 mo differed significantly between supplementation arms at 13.7, 29.7, 34.8, and 45.9 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). An estimated 1640 IU vitamin D₃/d was needed to raise the plasma 25(OH)D concentration to ≥ 20 ng/mL in ≥ 97.5% of participants, whereas a dose of 4000 IU/d was needed to achieve concentrations ≥ 33 ng/mL in ≥ 80% of subjects. No significant hypercalcemia was seen in a subset of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Within African Americans, an estimated 1640 IU vitamin D₃/d was required to achieve concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D recommended by the Institute of Medicine, whereas 4000 IU/d was needed to reach concentrations predicted to reduce cancer and cardiovascular disease risk in prospective observational studies. These results may be helpful for informing future trials of disease prevention.

Authors
Ng, K; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Chan, AT; Hollis, BW; Chandler, PD; Bennett, GG; Giovannucci, EL; Gonzalez-Suarez, E; Meyerhardt, JA; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS
MLA Citation
Ng, K, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Chan, AT, Hollis, BW, Chandler, PD, Bennett, GG, Giovannucci, EL, Gonzalez-Suarez, E, Meyerhardt, JA, Emmons, KM, and Fuchs, CS. "Dose response to vitamin D supplementation in African Americans: results of a 4-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Am J Clin Nutr 99.3 (March 2014): 587-598.
PMID
24368437
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume
99
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
587
End Page
598
DOI
10.3945/ajcn.113.067777

Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY).

The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population.To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition.A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18-35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 24 [corrected] months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014.If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01092364.

Authors
Batch, BC; Tyson, C; Bagwell, J; Corsino, L; Intille, S; Lin, P-H; Lazenka, T; Bennett, G; Bosworth, HB; Voils, C; Grambow, S; Sutton, A; Bordogna, R; Pangborn, M; Schwager, J; Pilewski, K; Caccia, C; Burroughs, J; Svetkey, LP
MLA Citation
Batch, BC, Tyson, C, Bagwell, J, Corsino, L, Intille, S, Lin, P-H, Lazenka, T, Bennett, G, Bosworth, HB, Voils, C, Grambow, S, Sutton, A, Bordogna, R, Pangborn, M, Schwager, J, Pilewski, K, Caccia, C, Burroughs, J, and Svetkey, LP. "Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY)." Contemporary clinical trials 37.2 (March 2014): 333-341.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10732
PMID
24462568
Source
epmc
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
37
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
333
End Page
341
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2014.01.003

A Systematic Review of Weight Loss, Physical Activity, and Dietary Interventions Involving African American Men

Authors
Griffith, DM; Jr, NRL; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Griffith, DM, Jr, NRL, and Bennett, GG. "A Systematic Review of Weight Loss, Physical Activity, and Dietary Interventions Involving African American Men." JOURNAL OF MENS HEALTH 11.1 (March 2014): A32-A32.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Journal of Men's Health
Volume
11
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
A32
End Page
A32

Factors associated with choice of web or print intervention materials in the healthy directions 2 study.

Many U.S. adults have multiple behavioral risk factors, and effective, scalable interventions are needed to promote population-level health. In the health care setting, interventions are often provided in print, although accessible to nearly everyone, are brief (e.g., pamphlets), are not interactive, and can require some logistics around distribution. Web-based interventions offer more interactivity but may not be accessible to all. Healthy Directions 2 was a primary care-based cluster randomized controlled trial designed to improve five behavioral cancer risk factors among a diverse sample of adults (n = 2,440) in metropolitan Boston. Intervention materials were available via print or the web. Purpose. To (a) describe the Healthy Directions 2 study design and (b) identify baseline factors associated with whether participants opted for print or web-based materials.Hierarchical regression models corrected for clustering by physician were built to examine factors associated with choice of intervention modality.At baseline, just 4.0% of participants met all behavioral recommendations. Nearly equivalent numbers of intervention participants opted for print and web-based materials (44.6% vs. 55.4%). Participants choosing web-based materials were younger, and reported having a better financial status, better perceived health, greater computer comfort, and more frequent Internet use (p < .05) than those opting for print. In addition, Whites were more likely to pick web-based material than Black participants.Interventions addressing multiple behaviors are needed in the primary care setting, but they should be available in web and print formats as nearly equal number of participants chose each option, and there are significant differences in the population groups using each modality.

Authors
Greaney, ML; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG; Haines, J; Viswanath, K; Gillman, MW; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Coeling, M; Rusinak, D; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Puleo, E, Bennett, GG, Haines, J, Viswanath, K, Gillman, MW, Sprunck-Harrild, K, Coeling, M, Rusinak, D, and Emmons, KM. "Factors associated with choice of web or print intervention materials in the healthy directions 2 study." Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education 41.1 (February 2014): 52-62.
PMID
23720532
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Education & Behavior
Volume
41
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
52
End Page
62
DOI
10.1177/1090198113486803

Impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in African Americans: results of a four-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

African Americans have a disproportionate burden of inflammation-associated chronic diseases such as cancer and lower circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on inflammatory markers is uncertain. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of supplemental oral vitamin D (placebo, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 IU/day of vitamin D3 orally for 3 months) in 328 African Americans (median age, 51 years) of public housing communities in Boston, MA, who were enrolled over three consecutive winter periods (2007-2010). Change from 0 to 3 months of plasma levels of 25(OH)D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and soluble TNF-α receptor type 2 (sTNF-R2) in 292 (89%) participants were measured. Overall, no statistically significant changes in CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and sTNF-R2 were observed after the vitamin D supplementation period. Baseline CRP was significantly inversely associated with the baseline 25(OH)D level (P < 0.001) in unadjusted and adjusted models. An interaction between baseline 25(OH)D and vitamin D supplementation was observed for outcome change in log CRP (month 3-month 0; P for interaction = 0.04). Within an unselected population of African Americans, short-term exposure to vitamin D supplementation produced no change in circulating inflammatory markers. This study confirms the strong independent association of CRP with 25(OH)D status even after adjusting for body mass index. Future studies of longer supplemental vitamin D3 duration are necessary to examine the complex influence of vitamin D3 on CRP and other chronic inflammatory cytokines for possible reduction of cancer health disparities in African Americans.

Authors
Chandler, PD; Scott, JB; Drake, BF; Ng, K; Manson, JE; Rifai, N; Chan, AT; Bennett, GG; Hollis, BW; Giovannucci, EL; Emmons, KM; Fuchs, CS
MLA Citation
Chandler, PD, Scott, JB, Drake, BF, Ng, K, Manson, JE, Rifai, N, Chan, AT, Bennett, GG, Hollis, BW, Giovannucci, EL, Emmons, KM, and Fuchs, CS. "Impact of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers in African Americans: results of a four-arm, randomized, placebo-controlled trial." Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 7.2 (February 2014): 218-225.
PMID
24327720
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Prevention Research
Volume
7
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
218
End Page
225
DOI
10.1158/1940-6207.capr-13-0338-t

Perceptions of neighborhood safety and asthma among children and adolescents in Los Angeles: a multilevel analysis.

Research examining the impact of neighborhoods on asthma has shown an increased interest in the role of the psychosocial environment. We examined the associations between various measures of neighborhood safety, individual and family characteristics, and asthma outcomes among children in Los Angeles.Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze data on 3,114 children across 65 neighborhoods from Wave 1 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (2000 to 2002). Primary caregivers reported asthma outcome and all individual covariates; home environmental characteristics were observed by the interviewer.In fully adjusted models, parents who reported their neighborhood fairly safe or somewhat dangerous had lower odds of reported lifetime asthma compared to those who reported their neighborhood completely safe (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.52-0.96 and OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.42-0.88 respectively). Conversely, parents who reported they could not trust their neighbors to keep their children safe had a nearly 40% increase in lifetime asthma compared to those who reported they could trust their neighbors to keep their children safe (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07-1.81).The study demonstrates a complex pattern between various measures of neighborhood safety and asthma and suggests that these relationships may operate differently in Los Angeles. As an increasing proportion of children are growing up in newer Western and Southwestern cities, which have different physical layouts and residential segregation patterns compared to Northeast and Midwestern cities, future studies should continue to examine neighborhood psychosocial stressors and asthma in diverse contexts.

Authors
Camacho-Rivera, M; Kawachi, I; Bennett, GG; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Camacho-Rivera, M, Kawachi, I, Bennett, GG, and Subramanian, SV. "Perceptions of neighborhood safety and asthma among children and adolescents in Los Angeles: a multilevel analysis." PloS one 9.1 (January 23, 2014): e87524-.
PMID
24466355
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
9
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
e87524
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0087524

Corrigendum to Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013) 138-152]

Authors
Proeschold-Bell, RJ; Swift, R; Moore, HE; Bennett, G; Li, XF; Blouin, R; Williams, VP; Williams, RB; Toole, D
MLA Citation
Proeschold-Bell, RJ, Swift, R, Moore, HE, Bennett, G, Li, XF, Blouin, R, Williams, VP, Williams, RB, and Toole, D. "Corrigendum to Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013) 138-152]." Contemporary Clinical Trials 37.1 (January 1, 2014): 165-.
Source
scopus
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
37
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
165
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.013

A text messaging-assisted randomized lifestyle weight loss clinical trial among overweight adults in Beijing

Objective The impact of a text messaging-assisted lifestyle weight loss intervention on weight change among overweight adults in Beijing was examined. Methods It was a 6-month randomized two arm clinical trial. The control group received a brief advice session after randomization. The intervention group received three group sessions, five coaching calls, and a daily text message prompting participants to follow predetermined lifestyle goals. Results A total of 123 participants were randomized. At 6 months, controls gained 0.24 ± 0.28 kg (0.21% ± 0.38%) (NS) while intervention participants lost 1.6 ± 0.28 kg (2.31% ± 0.38%) (p < 0.0001). Intervention participants decreased waist circumference (WC) (-2.69 ± 0.43 cm, p < 0.0001), percent body fat (%BF) (-0.66% ± 0.19%, p = 0.0007), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) significantly (-1.71 ± 1.12/-3.24 ± 0.87 mmHg), while the controls had no change in WC and %BF and increased SBP/DBP by 2.43 ± 1.14/1.20 ± 0.88 mmHg (between groups: p = 0.01/p = 0.0004). Conclusions This text message-assisted lifestyle intervention was effective in reducing weight, WC, %BF, and improving BP. Coupled with the scalable feature of the intervention, this finding is intriguing in light of the potential reach of the intervention for countries like China where mobile phone penetration is high and the obesity rate continues to rise. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

Authors
Lin, PH; Wang, Y; Levine, E; Askew, S; Lin, S; Chang, C; Sun, J; Foley, P; Wang, H; Li, X; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Lin, PH, Wang, Y, Levine, E, Askew, S, Lin, S, Chang, C, Sun, J, Foley, P, Wang, H, Li, X, and Bennett, GG. "A text messaging-assisted randomized lifestyle weight loss clinical trial among overweight adults in Beijing." Obesity 22.5 (January 1, 2014).
Source
scopus
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
2014
DOI
10.1002/oby.20686

Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: A cross-sectional analysis of Los Angeles households, 2006-2008

Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school d egree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study found evidence in support of neighborhood-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic influences on indoor allergen exposure, above and beyond individual factors. Future studies should continue to explore individual and neighborhood-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in household allergen exposures across diverse contexts. © 2014 The New York Academy of Medicine.

Authors
Camacho-Rivera, M; Kawachi, I; Bennett, GG; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Camacho-Rivera, M, Kawachi, I, Bennett, GG, and Subramanian, SV. "Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: A cross-sectional analysis of Los Angeles households, 2006-2008." Journal of Urban Health 91.4 (January 1, 2014): 661-676.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Urban Health
Volume
91
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
661
End Page
676
DOI
10.1007/s11524-014-9872-9

Using Technology to Promote Postpartum Weight Loss in Urban, Low-Income Mothers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

© 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Objective: To examine the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based weight loss intervention for urban, low-income mothers. Methods: Eighteen obese, ethnic minority, socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers in the first year after childbirth were randomly assigned to either: 1) technology-based intervention, which included empirically supported behavior-change strategies, daily skills, and self-monitoring text messages with personalized feedback, biweekly counseling calls from a health coach, and access to a Facebook support group, or 2) usual-care control. Results: After 14 weeks of treatment, the technology-based intervention participants had significantly greater weight loss (-2.9 ± 3.6 kg) than usual care (0.5 ± 2.3 kg; adjusted mean difference: -3.2 kg, 95% confidence interval -6.2 to -0.1 kg, P = .04). One-third of intervention participants (3 of 9) and no control participants lost > 5% of their initial body weight at follow up. Conclusions and Implications: Results suggest the potential for using technology to deliver a postpartum weight loss intervention among low-income racial/ethnic minorities.

Authors
Herring, SJ; Cruice, JF; Bennett, GG; Davey, A; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Herring, SJ, Cruice, JF, Bennett, GG, Davey, A, and Foster, GD. "Using Technology to Promote Postpartum Weight Loss in Urban, Low-Income Mothers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 46.6 (January 1, 2014): 610-615.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Volume
46
Issue
6
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
610
End Page
615
DOI
10.1016/j.jneb.2014.06.002

Daily self-weighing and adverse psychological outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

Despite evidence that daily self-weighing is an effective strategy for weight control, concerns remain regarding the potential for negative psychological consequences.The goal of the study was to examine the impact of a daily self-weighing weight-loss intervention on relevant psychological constructs.A 6-month RCT.The study sample (N=91) included overweight men and women in the Chapel Hill NC area.Between February and August 2011, participants were randomly assigned to a daily self-weighing intervention or delayed-intervention control group. The 6-month intervention included daily self-weighing for self-regulation of diet and exercise behaviors using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website. Weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily self-weighing adherence and weight-loss progress were provided.Self-weighing frequency was measured throughout the study using e-scales. Weight was measured in-clinic at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Psychological outcomes were assessed via self-report at the same time points.In 2012, using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equation models, there were no significant differences between groups in depressive symptoms, anorectic cognitions, disinhibition, susceptibility to hunger, and binge eating. At 6 months, there was a significant group X time interaction for body dissatisfaction (p=0.007) and dietary restraint (p<0.001), with the intervention group reporting lower body dissatisfaction and greater dietary restraint compared to controls.Results indicate that a weight-loss intervention that focuses on daily self-weighing does not cause adverse psychological outcomes. This suggests that daily self-weighing is an effective and safe weight-control strategy among overweight adults attempting to lose weight.This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT01369004.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Tate, DF; Bennett, GG; Ennett, S; Samuel-Hodge, C; Ward, DS
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Tate, DF, Bennett, GG, Ennett, S, Samuel-Hodge, C, and Ward, DS. "Daily self-weighing and adverse psychological outcomes: a randomized controlled trial." American journal of preventive medicine 46.1 (January 2014): 24-29.
PMID
24355668
Source
epmc
Published In
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume
46
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
24
End Page
29
DOI
10.1016/j.amepre.2013.08.006

Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity.

Increasing physical activity among low-income African American women is an important target for addressing racial and economic disparities in chronic conditions and related risk factors. While barriers to physical activity for women have been examined empirically, successful strategies for navigating those barriers among physically active, low-income women have not been thoroughly explored. Informed by grounded theory, we conducted in-depth individual interviews between 2007-2010 with 14 low-income African American women who were physically active at nationally recommended levels for one year or more. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis techniques. Key themes emerged in three main categories: motivation for maintaining active lifestyle, strategies for maintaining physical activity, and challenges to maintaining physical activity. Important motivations included getting or staying healthy, social connections, and gratification. Two planning strategies emerged: flexibility and freedom. Critical challenges included financial constraints, physical strain and history of sedentary relapse. The motivations, strategies and challenges reported by low-income African American women who successfully maintained an active lifestyle provided important information for developing effective health promotion strategies for their inactive and underactive counterparts. A qualitative, asset-based approach to physical activity research contributes rich data to bridge the gap between epidemiological knowledge and community health improvement.

Authors
Harley, AE; Rice, J; Walker, R; Strath, SJ; Quintiliani, LM; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Harley, AE, Rice, J, Walker, R, Strath, SJ, Quintiliani, LM, and Bennett, GG. "Physically active, low-income African American women: an exploration of activity maintenance in the context of sociodemographic factors associated with inactivity." Women & health 54.4 (January 2014): 354-372.
PMID
24617833
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
54
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
354
End Page
372
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2014.896440

Economic analyses of the be fit be well program: A weight loss program for community health centers

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has released new guidelines on obesity, urging primary care physicians to provide obese patients with intensive, multi-component behavioral interventions. However, there are few studies of weight loss in real world nonacademic primary care, and even fewer in largely racial/ethnic minority, low-income samples. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recruitment, intervention and replications costs of a 2-year, moderate intensity weight loss and blood pressure control intervention. DESIGN: A comprehensive cost analysis was conducted, associated with a weight loss and hypertension management program delivered in three community health centers as part of a pragmatic randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and sixty-five high risk, low-income, inner city, minority (71 % were Black/African American and 13 % were Hispanic) patients who were both hypertensive and obese. MAIN MEASURES: Measures included total recruitment costs and intervention costs, cost per participant, and incremental costs per unit reduction in weight and blood pressure. KEY RESULTS: Recruitment and intervention costs were estimated 2,359 per participant for the 2-year program. Compared to the control intervention, the cost per additional kilogram lost was 2,204 /kg, and for blood pressure, 621 /mmHg. Sensitivity analyses suggest that if the program was offered to a larger sample and minor modifications were made, the cost per participant could be reduced to the levels of many commercially available products. CONCLUSIONS: The costs associated with the Be Fit Be Well program were found to be significantly more expensive than many commercially available products, and much higher than the amount that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid reimburse physicians for obesity counseling. However, given the serious and costly health consequences associated with obesity in high risk, multimorbid and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients, the resources needed to provide interventions like those described here may still prove to be cost-effective with respect to producing long-term behavior change. © 2013 Society of General Internal Medicine.

Authors
Ritzwoller, DP; Glasgow, RE; Sukhanova, AY; Bennett, GG; Warner, ET; Greaney, ML; Askew, S; Goldman, J; Emmons, KM; Colditz, GA
MLA Citation
Ritzwoller, DP, Glasgow, RE, Sukhanova, AY, Bennett, GG, Warner, ET, Greaney, ML, Askew, S, Goldman, J, Emmons, KM, and Colditz, GA. "Economic analyses of the be fit be well program: A weight loss program for community health centers." Journal of General Internal Medicine 28.12 (December 1, 2013): 1581-1588.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Volume
28
Issue
12
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1581
End Page
1588
DOI
10.1007/s11606-013-2492-3

Revisiting the Hispanic Health Paradox: The Relative Contributions of Nativity, Country of Origin, and Race/Ethnicity to Childhood Asthma

This study examined the relationship between race and Hispanic ethnicity, maternal and child nativity, country of origin and asthma among 2,558 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children across 65 Los Angeles neighborhoods. A series of two-level multilevel models were estimated to examine the independent effects of race, ethnicity, and country of origin on childhood asthma. Lifetime asthma prevalence was reported among 9 % of children, with no significant differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites overall. However, in fully adjusted models, Hispanic children of non-Mexican origin reported higher odds of asthma compared to non-Hispanic white children. A protective nativity effect was also observed among children of foreign born mothers compared to US born mothers. Our study provides evidence in support of the heterogeneity of childhood asthma by Hispanic ethnicity and maternal nativity. These findings suggest moving beyond solely considering racial/ethnic classifications which could mask subgroups at increased risk of childhood asthma. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Authors
Camacho-Rivera, M; Kawachi, I; Bennett, GG; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Camacho-Rivera, M, Kawachi, I, Bennett, GG, and Subramanian, SV. "Revisiting the Hispanic Health Paradox: The Relative Contributions of Nativity, Country of Origin, and Race/Ethnicity to Childhood Asthma (Accepted)." Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health (December 1, 2013): 1-8.
PMID
24380929
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1
End Page
8
DOI
10.1007/s10903-013-9974-6

Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study.

Daily self-monitoring of diet and physical activity behaviors is a strong predictor of weight loss success. Text messaging holds promise as a viable self-monitoring modality, particularly among racial/ethnic minority populations.This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of a text messaging intervention for weight loss among predominantly black women.Fifty obese women were randomized to either a 6-month intervention using a fully automated system that included daily text messages for self-monitoring tailored behavioral goals (eg, 10,000 steps per day, no sugary drinks) along with brief feedback and tips (n=26) or to an education control arm (n=24). Weight was objectively measured at baseline and at 6 months. Adherence was defined as the proportion of text messages received in response to self-monitoring prompts.The average daily text messaging adherence rate was 49% (SD 27.9) with 85% (22/26) texting self-monitored behavioral goals 2 or more days per week. Approximately 70% (16/23) strongly agreed that daily texting was easy and helpful and 76% (16/21) felt the frequency of texting was appropriate. At 6 months, the intervention arm lost a mean of 1.27 kg (SD 6.51), and the control arm gained a mean of 1.14 kg (SD 2.53; mean difference -2.41 kg, 95% CI -5.22 to 0.39; P=.09). There was a trend toward greater text messaging adherence being associated with greater percent weight loss (r=-.36; P=.08), but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant association between goal attainment and text messaging adherence and no significant predictors of adherence.Given the increasing penetration of mobile devices, text messaging may be a useful self-monitoring tool for weight control, particularly among populations most in need of intervention.Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00939081; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00939081 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KiIIcnk1).

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Levine, EL; Askew, S; Foley, P; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Levine, EL, Askew, S, Foley, P, and Bennett, GG. "Daily text messaging for weight control among racial and ethnic minority women: randomized controlled pilot study." Journal of medical Internet research 15.11 (November 18, 2013): e244-.
PMID
24246427
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Volume
15
Issue
11
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
e244
DOI
10.2196/jmir.2844

Racial Discrimination & Cardiovascular Disease Risk: My Body My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black and White Community Health Center Participants (US)

Objectives:To date, limited and inconsistent evidence exists regarding racial discrimination and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).Methods:Cross-sectional observational study of 1005 US-born non-Hispanic black (n = 504) and white (n = 501) participants age 35-64 randomly selected from community health centers in Boston, MA (2008-2010; 82.4% response rate), using 3 racial discrimination measures: explicit self-report; implicit association test (IAT, a time reaction test for self and group as target vs. perpetrator of discrimination); and structural (Jim Crow status of state of birth, i.e. legal racial discrimination prior 1964).Results:Black and white participants both had adverse cardiovascular and socioeconomic profiles, with black participants most highly exposed to racial discrimination. Positive crude associations among black participants occurred for Jim Crow birthplace and hypertension (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 2.89) and for explicit self-report and the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score (beta = 0.04; 95% CI 0.01, 0.07); among white participants, only negative crude associations existed (for IAT for self, for lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; beta = -4.86; 95% CI -9.08, -0.64) and lower Framingham CVD score (beta = -0.36, 95% CI -0.63, -0.08)). All of these associations were attenuated and all but the white IAT-Framingham risk score association were rendered null in analyses that controlled for lifetime socioeconomic position and additional covariates. Controlling for racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and other covariates did not attenuate the crude black excess risk for SBP and hypertension and left unaffected the null excess risk for the Framingham CVD score.Conclusion:Despite worse exposures among the black participants, racial discrimination and socioeconomic position were not associated, in multivariable analyses, with risk of CVD. We interpret results in relation to constrained variability of exposures and outcomes and discuss implications for valid research on social determinants of health. © 2013 Krieger et al.

Authors
Krieger, N; Waterman, PD; Kosheleva, A; Chen, JT; Smith, KW; Carney, DR; Bennett, GG; Williams, DR; Thornhill, G; Freeman, ER
MLA Citation
Krieger, N, Waterman, PD, Kosheleva, A, Chen, JT, Smith, KW, Carney, DR, Bennett, GG, Williams, DR, Thornhill, G, and Freeman, ER. "Racial Discrimination & Cardiovascular Disease Risk: My Body My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black and White Community Health Center Participants (US)." PLoS ONE 8.10 (October 18, 2013).
PMID
24204765
Source
scopus
Published In
PloS one
Volume
8
Issue
10
Publish Date
2013
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0077174

Behavioral treatment for weight gain prevention among black women in primary care practice: a randomized clinical trial.

Few weight loss treatments produce clinically meaningful weight loss outcomes among black women, particularly in the primary care setting. New weight management strategies are necessary for this population. Weight gain prevention might be an effective treatment option, with particular benefits for overweight and class 1 obese black women.To compare changes in weight and cardiometabolic risk during a 12-month period among black women randomized to a primary care-based behavioral weight gain prevention intervention, relative to usual care.Two-arm randomized clinical trial (the Shape Program). We recruited patients from a 6-site community health center system. We randomized 194 overweight and class 1 obese (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared], 25-34.9) premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years. Enrollment began on December 7, 2009; 12- and 18-month assessments were completed in February and October 2, 2012.The medium-intensity intervention included tailored behavior change goals, weekly self-monitoring via interactive voice response, monthly counseling calls, tailored skills training materials, and a gym membership.Twelve-month change in weight and body mass index and maintenance of change at 18 months.Participants had a mean age of 35.4 years, a mean weight of 81.1 kg, and a mean body mass index of 30.2 at baseline. Most were socioeconomically disadvantaged (79.7% with educational level less than a college degree; 74.3% reporting annual income <$30,000). The 12-month weight change was larger among intervention participants (mean [SD], -1.0 [0.5] kg), relative to usual care (0.5 [0.5] kg; mean difference, -1.4 kg [95% CI, -2.8 to -0.1 kg]; P = .04). At month 12, 62% of intervention participants were at or below their baseline weights compared with 45% of usual-care participants (P = .03). By 18 months, intervention participants maintained significantly larger changes in weight (mean difference, -1.7 kg; 95% CI, -3.3 to -0.2 kg).A medium-intensity primary care-based behavioral intervention demonstrated efficacy for weight gain prevention among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women. A "maintain, don't gain" approach might be a useful alternative treatment for reducing obesity-associated disease risk among some premenopausal black women.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00938535.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Foley, P; Levine, E; Whiteley, J; Askew, S; Steinberg, DM; Batch, B; Greaney, ML; Miranda, H; Wroth, TH; Holder, MG; Emmons, KM; Puleo, E
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Foley, P, Levine, E, Whiteley, J, Askew, S, Steinberg, DM, Batch, B, Greaney, ML, Miranda, H, Wroth, TH, Holder, MG, Emmons, KM, and Puleo, E. "Behavioral treatment for weight gain prevention among black women in primary care practice: a randomized clinical trial." JAMA internal medicine 173.19 (October 2013): 1770-1777.
PMID
23979005
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA Internal Medicine
Volume
173
Issue
19
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1770
End Page
1777
DOI
10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9263

How behavioral science can advance digital health

Authors
Pagoto, S; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Pagoto, S, and Bennett, GG. "How behavioral science can advance digital health." Translational Behavioral Medicine 3.3 (September 2013): 271-276.
Source
crossref
Published In
Translational Behavioral Medicine
Volume
3
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
271
End Page
276
DOI
10.1007/s13142-013-0234-z

The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail.

To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention that focused on daily self-weighing for self-monitoring as compared to a delayed control group among 91 overweight adults.The 6-month intervention included a cellular-connected "smart" scale for daily weighing, web-based weight loss graph, and weekly e-mails with tailored feedback and lessons. An objective measure of self-weighing frequency was obtained. Weight was measured in clinic at 3 and 6 months. Caloric intake and expenditure, and perceptions of daily self-weighing were also measured.Using intent-to-treat analyses, the intervention group lost significantly more weight compared to the control group [mean (95% CI); 3 months: -4.41% (-5.5, -3.3) vs. -0.37% (-1.5, 0.76); 6 months: -6.55% (-7.7, -5.4) vs. -0.35% (-1.5, 0.79); group × time interaction: P < 0.001] and a greater percentage achieved 5% (42.6% vs. 6.8%; P < 0.0001) and 10% (27.7% vs. 0%; P < 0.0001) weight loss. On average, the intervention group self-weighed more days/week (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 1.1 ± 1.5; P < 0.0001) and consumed fewer calories/day compared to the control group [mean (95% CI); 6 months: 1,509 (1,291, 1,728) vs. 1,856 (1,637, 2,074); group × time interaction: P = 0.006]. Among intervention participants, daily self-weighing was perceived positively.These results indicate that an intervention focusing on daily self-weighing can produce clinically significant weight loss.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Tate, DF; Bennett, GG; Ennett, S; Samuel-Hodge, C; Ward, DS
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Tate, DF, Bennett, GG, Ennett, S, Samuel-Hodge, C, and Ward, DS. "The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail." Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 21.9 (September 2013): 1789-1797.
PMID
23512320
Source
epmc
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
21
Issue
9
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1789
End Page
1797
DOI
10.1002/oby.20396

Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed.

Authors
Corsino, L; Lin, P-H; Batch, BC; Intille, S; Grambow, SC; Bosworth, HB; Bennett, GG; Tyson, C; Svetkey, LP; Voils, CI
MLA Citation
Corsino, L, Lin, P-H, Batch, BC, Intille, S, Grambow, SC, Bosworth, HB, Bennett, GG, Tyson, C, Svetkey, LP, and Voils, CI. "Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results." Contemp Clin Trials 35.2 (July 2013): 1-7.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10735
PMID
23591327
Source
pubmed
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
35
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1
End Page
7
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2013.04.002

Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: rationale and design of the spirited life holistic health intervention study.

Clergy suffer from high rates of obesity, chronic disease, and depression, and simultaneously underestimate the toll these take on their daily functioning. Health interventions are needed for clergy and may be tailored to their occupational context and theological beliefs. Few studies have sought to improve clergy health. No prior studies have utilized a randomized design. Spirited Life is a randomized, multiple baseline study that offered enrollment to nearly all United Methodist Church clergy in North Carolina in fall 2010. A total of 1114 clergy (response rate = 64%) enrolled. Using a multiple baseline design, we randomized participants to three cohorts. Each cohort began the health intervention in one of three consecutive years. The third cohort served as a randomized waitlist control cohort, allowing comparisons between the first and third cohorts. The two-year Spirited Life intervention consists of: 1) a theological underpinning for health stewardship based on incarnation, grace, and response and delivered during workshops; 2) the stress management program Williams LifeSkills; 3) Naturally Slim, an online weight loss program; 4) phone contact with a Wellness Advocate; and 5) $500 small grants for health goals. Metabolic syndrome is the primary endpoint. Stress and depressive severity are secondary endpoints. We measured each construct before, twice during, and at the end of the two-year intervention. Study outcomes, to be published after follow-up data are gathered, will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the combined intervention components of Spirited Life. If successful, the intervention may be considered for use with other clergy and faith populations.

Authors
Proeschold-Bell, RJ; Swift, R; Moore, HE; Bennett, G; Li, X-F; Blouin, R; Williams, VP; Williams, RB; Toole, D
MLA Citation
Proeschold-Bell, RJ, Swift, R, Moore, HE, Bennett, G, Li, X-F, Blouin, R, Williams, VP, Williams, RB, and Toole, D. "Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: rationale and design of the spirited life holistic health intervention study." Contemp Clin Trials 35.2 (July 2013): 138-152.
PMID
23685205
Source
pubmed
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Volume
35
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
138
End Page
152
DOI
10.1016/j.cct.2013.05.005

Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure in Blacks

Authors
Forman, JP; Scott, JB; Ng, K; Drake, BF; Suarez, EG; Hayden, DL; Bennett, GG; Chandler, PD; Hollis, BW; Emmons, KM; Giovannucci, EL; Fuchs, CS; Chan, AT
MLA Citation
Forman, JP, Scott, JB, Ng, K, Drake, BF, Suarez, EG, Hayden, DL, Bennett, GG, Chandler, PD, Hollis, BW, Emmons, KM, Giovannucci, EL, Fuchs, CS, and Chan, AT. "Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure in Blacks." HYPERTENSION 61.4 (April 2013): 779-785.
PMID
23487599
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Hypertension
Volume
61
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
779
End Page
785
DOI
10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00659

Recruitment and retention of participants in a pragmatic randomized intervention trial at three community health clinics: Results and lessons learned

Authors
Warner, ET; Glasgow, RE; Emmons, KM; Bennett, GG; Askew, S; Rosner, B; Colditz, GA
MLA Citation
Warner, ET, Glasgow, RE, Emmons, KM, Bennett, GG, Askew, S, Rosner, B, and Colditz, GA. "Recruitment and retention of participants in a pragmatic randomized intervention trial at three community health clinics: Results and lessons learned." BMC PUBLIC HEALTH 13 (March 6, 2013).
PMID
23496916
Source
wos-lite
Published In
BMC Public Health
Volume
13
Publish Date
2013
DOI
10.1186/1471-2458-13-192

Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites.

OBJECTIVE: Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. METHODS: We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. CONCLUSION: Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America's leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Steinberg, DM; Lanpher, MG; Askew, S; Lane, IB; Levine, EL; Goodman, MS; Foley, PB
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Steinberg, DM, Lanpher, MG, Askew, S, Lane, IB, Levine, EL, Goodman, MS, and Foley, PB. "Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites." PloS one 8.8 (January 2013): e72009-.
PMID
23977193
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
8
Issue
8
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
e72009
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0072009

Using facebook and text messaging to deliver a weight loss program to college students

Objective: Between 31 and 35% of the college-aged population is overweight or obese, yet few weight loss trials for this population have been conducted. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based 8-week weight loss intervention among college students. Design and Methods: Students (N = 52) were randomly assigned to one of the three arms: Facebook (n = 17); Facebook Plus text messaging and personalized feedback (n = 18); Waiting List control (n = 17), with assessments at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (post-treatment). Participants were 20.47 ± 2.19 years old, 86.45 ± 17.11 kg, with a body mass index of 31.36 ± 5.3 kg/m2. Participants were primarily female (86.5%), and the sample was racially diverse (57.7% Caucasian, 30.8% African American, 5.8% Hispanic, and 5.7% other races). Results: The primary outcome was weight loss after 8 weeks (post-treatment); 96.0% of the participants completed this assessment. At 8 weeks, the Facebook Plus group had significantly greater weight loss (-2.4 ± 2.5 kg) than the Facebook (-0.63 ± 2.4 kg) and Waiting List (-0.24 ± 2.6 kg) (both Ps < 0.05). Weight change at 8 weeks was not significantly different between the Facebook and Waiting List groups. Conclusions: Results show preliminary efficacy and acceptability of the two active intervention arms (97.0% found the program helpful, 81.3% found the videos/handouts helpful, and 100% would recommend the program to others). Results indicate the potential for an innovative weight loss intervention that uses technology platforms (Facebook and text messaging) that are frequently used and already integrated into the cultural life of college students.

Authors
Napolitano, MA; Hayes, S; Bennett, GG; Ives, AK; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Napolitano, MA, Hayes, S, Bennett, GG, Ives, AK, and Foster, GD. "Using facebook and text messaging to deliver a weight loss program to college students." Obesity 21.1 (2013): 25-31.
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
21
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
25
End Page
31
DOI
10.1038/oby.2012.107

Use of RE-AIM to address health inequities: Application in a low-income community health center-based weight loss and hypertension self-management program

While health inequities are well documented, and there are helpful frameworks to understand health disparities, implementation frameworks are also needed to focus the design, evaluation, and reporting on interventions targeting populations at increased risk. This study aims to describe how the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework can be used for these purposes and illustrate its application in the context of a randomized, pragmatic weight loss and hypertension self-management intervention. RE-AIM was used to both plan and evaluate the Be Fit Be Well program for urban community health center patients. The RE-AIM framework helped to focus attention on and produce high rates of adoption and reach. Implementation rates varied across components. Weight losses were statistically significant, but not clinically significant. They were robust across a variety of patient characteristics, and the program was relatively of low cost. Individual weight losses and blood pressure reductions were maintained throughout the 24-month period, but the program was not sustained at any of the three settings. Implementation frameworks such as RE-AIM can help design pragmatic interventions that focus on both the context for disparities reduction and the ultimate goal of public health impact. © 2013 Society of Behavioral Medicine.

Authors
Glasgow, RE; Askew, S; Purcell, P; Levine, E; Warner, ET; Stange, KC; Colditz, GA; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Glasgow, RE, Askew, S, Purcell, P, Levine, E, Warner, ET, Stange, KC, Colditz, GA, and Bennett, GG. "Use of RE-AIM to address health inequities: Application in a low-income community health center-based weight loss and hypertension self-management program." Translational Behavioral Medicine 3.2 (2013): 200-210.
PMID
23750180
Source
scival
Published In
Translational Behavioral Medicine
Volume
3
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
200
End Page
210
DOI
10.1007/s13142-013-0201-8

Introduction to the active living research supplement: Disparities in environments and policies that support active living

Authors
Whitt-Glover, MC; Bennett, G; Sallis, JF
MLA Citation
Whitt-Glover, MC, Bennett, G, and Sallis, JF. "Introduction to the active living research supplement: Disparities in environments and policies that support active living." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 45.SUPPL.1 (2013): S1-S5.
Source
scival
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
45
Issue
SUPPL.1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
S1
End Page
S5
DOI
10.1007/s12160-012-9456-4

Economic Analyses of the Be Fit Be Well Program: A Weight Loss Program for Community Health Centers

BACKGROUND: The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has released new guidelines on obesity, urging primary care physicians to provide obese patients with intensive, multi-component behavioral interventions. However, there are few studies of weight loss in real world nonacademic primary care, and even fewer in largely racial/ethnic minority, low-income samples. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recruitment, intervention and replications costs of a 2-year, moderate intensity weight loss and blood pressure control intervention. DESIGN: A comprehensive cost analysis was conducted, associated with a weight loss and hypertension management program delivered in three community health centers as part of a pragmatic randomized trial. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and sixty-five high risk, low-income, inner city, minority (71 % were Black/African American and 13 % were Hispanic) patients who were both hypertensive and obese. MAIN MEASURES: Measures included total recruitment costs and intervention costs, cost per participant, and incremental costs per unit reduction in weight and blood pressure. KEY RESULTS: Recruitment and intervention costs were estimated $2,359 per participant for the 2-year program. Compared to the control intervention, the cost per additional kilogram lost was $2,204 /kg, and for blood pressure, $621 /mmHg. Sensitivity analyses suggest that if the program was offered to a larger sample and minor modifications were made, the cost per participant could be reduced to the levels of many commercially available products. CONCLUSIONS: The costs associated with the Be Fit Be Well program were found to be significantly more expensive than many commercially available products, and much higher than the amount that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid reimburse physicians for obesity counseling. However, given the serious and costly health consequences associated with obesity in high risk, multimorbid and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients, the resources needed to provide interventions like those described here may still prove to be cost-effective with respect to producing long-term behavior change. © 2013 Society of General Internal Medicine.

Authors
Ritzwoller, DP; Glasgow, RE; Sukhanova, AY; Bennett, GG; Warner, ET; Greaney, ML; Askew, S; Goldman, J; Emmons, KM; Colditz, GA
MLA Citation
Ritzwoller, DP, Glasgow, RE, Sukhanova, AY, Bennett, GG, Warner, ET, Greaney, ML, Askew, S, Goldman, J, Emmons, KM, and Colditz, GA. "Economic Analyses of the Be Fit Be Well Program: A Weight Loss Program for Community Health Centers." Journal of General Internal Medicine (2013): 1-8.
PMID
23733374
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1
End Page
8
DOI
10.1007/s11606-013-2492-3

The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail

Objective To examine the impact of a weight loss intervention that focused on daily self-weighing for self-monitoring as compared to a delayed control group among 91 overweight adults. Design and Methods The 6-month intervention included a cellular-connected "smart" scale for daily weighing, web-based weight loss graph, and weekly e-mails with tailored feedback and lessons. An objective measure of self-weighing frequency was obtained. Weight was measured in clinic at 3 and 6 months. Caloric intake and expenditure, and perceptions of daily self-weighing were also measured. Results Using intent-to-treat analyses, the intervention group lost significantly more weight compared to the control group [mean (95% CI); 3 months: -4.41% (-5.5, -3.3) vs. -0.37% (-1.5, 0.76); 6 months: -6.55% (-7.7, -5.4) vs. -0.35% (-1.5, 0.79); group × time interaction: P < 0.001] and a greater percentage achieved 5% (42.6% vs. 6.8%; P < 0.0001) and 10% (27.7% vs. 0%; P < 0.0001) weight loss. On average, the intervention group self-weighed more days/week (6.1 ± 1.1 vs. 1.1 ± 1.5; P < 0.0001) and consumed fewer calories/day compared to the control group [mean (95% CI); 6 months: 1,509 (1,291, 1,728) vs. 1,856 (1,637, 2,074); group × time interaction: P = 0.006]. Among intervention participants, daily self-weighing was perceived positively. Conclusions These results indicate that an intervention focusing on daily self-weighing can produce clinically significant weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Tate, DF; Bennett, GG; Ennett, S; Samuel-Hodge, C; Ward, DS
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Tate, DF, Bennett, GG, Ennett, S, Samuel-Hodge, C, and Ward, DS. "The efficacy of a daily self-weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e-mail." Obesity 21.9 (2013): 1789-1797.
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
21
Issue
9
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1789
End Page
1797
DOI
10.1002/oby.20396

Corrigendum to "Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study" [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013) 138-152] (DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2013.05.005)

Authors
Proeschold-Bell, RJ; Swift, R; Moore, HE; Bennett, G; Li, X-F; Blouin, R; Williams, VP; Williams Jr, RB; Toole, D
MLA Citation
Proeschold-Bell, RJ, Swift, R, Moore, HE, Bennett, G, Li, X-F, Blouin, R, Williams, VP, Williams Jr, RB, and Toole, D. "Corrigendum to "Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study" [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013) 138-152] (DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2013.05.005)." Contemporary Clinical Trials (2013).
Source
scopus
Published In
Contemporary Clinical Trials
Publish Date
2013

Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all

Authors
Mowafi, M; Khadr, Z; Kawachi, I; Subramanian, SV; Hill, A; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Mowafi, M, Khadr, Z, Kawachi, I, Subramanian, SV, Hill, A, and Bennett, GG. "Socioeconomic status and obesity in Cairo, Egypt: A heavy burden for all." Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health (2013).
PMID
24534331
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Publish Date
2013

Connecting eHealth with 2-1-1 to reduce health disparities.

Authors
Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG. "Connecting eHealth with 2-1-1 to reduce health disparities." Am J Prev Med 43.6 Suppl 5 (December 2012): S509-S511.
PMID
23157773
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume
43
Issue
6 Suppl 5
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S509
End Page
S511
DOI
10.1016/j.amepre.2012.09.022

COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTHY DIRECTIONS-2, A MULTIPLE RISK FACTOR INTERVENTION FOR PRIMARY CARE SETTINGS

Authors
Emmons, KM; Puleo, E; Viswanath, V; Gillman, MW; Bennett, GG; Haines, J; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Greaney, M
MLA Citation
Emmons, KM, Puleo, E, Viswanath, V, Gillman, MW, Bennett, GG, Haines, J, Sprunck-Harrild, K, and Greaney, M. "COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF HEALTHY DIRECTIONS-2, A MULTIPLE RISK FACTOR INTERVENTION FOR PRIMARY CARE SETTINGS." September 2012.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
19
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S83
End Page
S84

Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study.

OBJECTIVE: To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. DESIGN: A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. SETTING: The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. MAIN EXPOSURES: We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. RESULTS: Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic.

Authors
Belsky, DW; Moffitt, TE; Houts, R; Bennett, GG; Biddle, AK; Blumenthal, JA; Evans, JP; Harrington, H; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Poulton, R; Caspi, A
MLA Citation
Belsky, DW, Moffitt, TE, Houts, R, Bennett, GG, Biddle, AK, Blumenthal, JA, Evans, JP, Harrington, H, Sugden, K, Williams, B, Poulton, R, and Caspi, A. "Polygenic risk, rapid childhood growth, and the development of obesity: evidence from a 4-decade longitudinal study." Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166.6 (June 1, 2012): 515-521.
PMID
22665028
Source
pubmed
Published In
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine
Volume
166
Issue
6
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
515
End Page
521
DOI
10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.131

Obesity treatment for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients in primary care practice.

BACKGROUND: Few evidence-based weight loss treatment options exist for medically vulnerable patients in the primary care setting. METHODS: We conducted a 2-arm, 24-month randomized effectiveness trial in 3 Boston community health centers (from February 1, 2008, through May 2, 2011). Participants were 365 obese patients receiving hypertension treatment (71.2% black, 13.1% Hispanic, 68.5% female, and 32.9% with less than a high school educational level). We randomized participants to usual care or a behavioral intervention that promoted weight loss and hypertension self-management using eHealth components. The intervention included tailored behavior change goals, self-monitoring, and skills training, available via a website or interactive voice response; 18 telephone counseling calls; primary care provider endorsement; 12 optional group support sessions; and links with community resources. RESULTS: At 24 months, weight change in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was -1.03 kg (95% CI, -2.03 to -0.03 kg). Twenty-four-month change in body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in the intervention group compared with that in the usual care group was -0.38 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.004). Intervention participants had larger mean weight losses during the 24 months compared with that in the usual care group (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, -1.07 kg; 95% CI, -1.94 to -0.22). Mean systolic blood pressure was not significantly lower in the intervention arm compared with the usual care arm. CONCLUSION: The intervention produced modest weight losses, improved blood pressure control, and slowed systolic blood pressure increases in this high-risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged patient population. Trial Registration  clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00661817.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Warner, ET; Glasgow, RE; Askew, S; Goldman, J; Ritzwoller, DP; Emmons, KM; Rosner, BA; Colditz, GA; Be Fit, Be Well Study Investigators,
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Warner, ET, Glasgow, RE, Askew, S, Goldman, J, Ritzwoller, DP, Emmons, KM, Rosner, BA, Colditz, GA, Be Fit, and Be Well Study Investigators, . "Obesity treatment for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients in primary care practice." Arch Intern Med 172.7 (April 9, 2012): 565-574.
PMID
22412073
Source
pubmed
Published In
Archives of internal medicine
Volume
172
Issue
7
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
565
End Page
574
DOI
10.1001/archinternmed.2012.1

WEIGHT LOSS AMONG SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

Authors
Bennett, GG; Warner, E; Glasgow, R; Askew, S; Emmons, KM; Rosner, B; Colditz, GA
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Warner, E, Glasgow, R, Askew, S, Emmons, KM, Rosner, B, and Colditz, GA. "WEIGHT LOSS AMONG SOCIOECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 43 (April 2012): S272-S272.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
43
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S272
End Page
S272

AUTOMATED VOICE REMINDERS OR SMS TEXT REMINDERS: WHAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH PREFERRED MODALITY?

Authors
Greaney, ML; Puleo, E; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Bennett, GG; Viswanath, K; Coeling, M; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Puleo, E, Sprunck-Harrild, K, Bennett, GG, Viswanath, K, Coeling, M, and Emmons, KM. "AUTOMATED VOICE REMINDERS OR SMS TEXT REMINDERS: WHAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH PREFERRED MODALITY?." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 43 (April 2012): S106-S106.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
43
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S106
End Page
S106

THE WEIGH STUDY: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL FOCUSING ON DAILY SELF-WEIGHING FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OVERWEIGHT ADULTS

Authors
Steinberg, DM; Tate, DF; Bennett, GG; Ennett, S; Samuel-Hodge, C; Ward, DS
MLA Citation
Steinberg, DM, Tate, DF, Bennett, GG, Ennett, S, Samuel-Hodge, C, and Ward, DS. "THE WEIGH STUDY: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL FOCUSING ON DAILY SELF-WEIGHING FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OVERWEIGHT ADULTS." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 43 (April 2012): S272-S272.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
43
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S272
End Page
S272

Use of email and telephone prompts to increase self-monitoring in a web-based intervention: Randomized controlled trial

Background: Self-monitoring is a key behavior change mechanism associated with sustained health behavior change. Although Web-based interventions can offer user-friendly approaches for self-monitoring, engagement with these tools is suboptimal. Increased use could encourage, promote, and sustain behavior change. Objective: To determine whether email prompts or email plus telephone prompts increase self-monitoring of behaviors on a website created for a multiple cancer risk reduction program. Methods: We recruited and enrolled participants (N = 100) in a Web-based intervention during a primary care well visit at an urban primary care health center. The frequency of daily self-monitoring was tracked on the study website. Participants who tracked at least one behavior 3 or more times during week 1 were classified as meeting the tracking threshold and were assigned to the observation-only group (OO, n = 14). This group was followed but did not receive prompts. Participants who did not meet the threshold during week 1 were randomly assigned to one of 2 prompting conditions: automated assistance (AA, n = 36) or automated assistance + calls (AAC, n = 50). During prompting periods (weeks 2-3), participants in the AA and AAC conditions received daily automated emails that encouraged tracking and two tailored self-monitoring reports (end of week 2, end of week 3) that provided feedback on tracking frequency. Individuals in the AAC condition also received two technical assistance calls from trained study staff. Frequency of self-monitoring was tracked from week 2 through week 17. Results: Self-monitoring rates increased in both intervention conditions during prompting and declined when prompting ceased. Over the 16 weeks of observation, there was a significant between-group difference in the percentage who met the self-monitoring threshold each week, with better maintenance in the AAC than in the AA condition (P < .001). Self-monitoring rates were greater in the OO group than in either the AA or AAC condition (P < .001). Conclusions: Prompting can increase self-monitoring rates. The decrease in self-monitoring after the promoting period suggests that additional reminder prompts would be useful. The use of technical assistance calls appeared to have a greater effect in promoting self-monitoring at a therapeutic threshold than email reminders and the tailored self-monitoring reports alone.

Authors
Greaney, ML; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Bennett, GG; Puleo, E; Haines, J; Viswanath, KV; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Sprunck-Harrild, K, Bennett, GG, Puleo, E, Haines, J, Viswanath, KV, and Emmons, KM. "Use of email and telephone prompts to increase self-monitoring in a web-based intervention: Randomized controlled trial." Journal of Medical Internet Research 14.4 (2012): e96-.
PMID
22842775
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of medical Internet research
Volume
14
Issue
4
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
e96
DOI
10.2196/jmir.1981

Electronic reminders for cancer prevention: Factors associated with preference for automated voice reminders or text messages

Objective: Prompting may promote engagement with behavior change interventions. Prompts can be delivered inexpensively via automated voice response (AVR) reminders or short message service (SMS) text messages. We examined the association between participants' characteristics and preferred reminder modality. Methods: Healthy Directions 2 is a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in Boston, Massachusetts to promote change in multiple behavioral cancer risk factors. At baseline (2009), participants completed a survey assessing socio-demographics, health status, height/weight, and factors associated with technology. One-third of participants randomized to receive the intervention (n = 598) were randomized to receive automated reminders, with participants selecting modality. Results: 28% (167/598) of participants selected SMS reminders. Controlling for clustering by primary care provider, younger participants (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = (0.95, 0.99), p < 0.01), those most comfortable with computers (very uncomfortable OR = 0.54, 95% CI = (0.29, 1.01), p ≤ 0.05: referent group = very comfortable), and those who frequently sent/received text messages (never OR = 0.09 CI = (0.04, 0.16) p < 0.01; 1-3. times/month OR = 0.38, 95% CI = (0.15, 0.93) p = 0.04: referent group = 1-5. times/week) were more likely to choose SMS. Conclusions: Interventions should make both modalities available to ensure that more participants can benefit from prompting. Studies examining the effect of automated reminders may have reduced effectiveness or generalizability if they employ only one modality. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Authors
Greaney, ML; Puleo, E; Sprunck-Harrild, K; Bennett, GG; Cunningham, MA; Gillman, MW; Coeling, M; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Puleo, E, Sprunck-Harrild, K, Bennett, GG, Cunningham, MA, Gillman, MW, Coeling, M, and Emmons, KM. "Electronic reminders for cancer prevention: Factors associated with preference for automated voice reminders or text messages." Preventive Medicine 55.2 (2012): 151-154.
PMID
22659227
Source
scival
Published In
Preventive Medicine
Volume
55
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
151
End Page
154
DOI
10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.05.014

Racial differences in the built environment-body mass index relationship? A geospatial analysis of adolescents in urban neighborhoods

Background: Built environment features of neighborhoods may be related to obesity among adolescents and potentially related to obesity-related health disparities. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial relationships between various built environment features and body mass index (BMI) z-score among adolescents, and to investigate if race/ethnicity modifies these relationships. A secondary objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of findings to the spatial scale of analysis (i.e. 400- and 800-meter street network buffers).Methods: Data come from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey, a school-based sample of public high school students in Boston, MA. Analyses include data collected from students who had georeferenced residential information and complete and valid data to compute BMI z-score (n = 1,034). We built a spatial database using GIS with various features related to access to walking destinations and to community design. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables was calculated with the Global Moran's I statistic. We fit conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and spatial simultaneous autoregressive error models that control for the spatial autocorrelation in the data as appropriate. Models were conducted using the total sample of adolescents as well as including an interaction term for race/ethnicity, adjusting for several potential individual- and neighborhood-level confounders and clustering of students within schools.Results: We found significant positive spatial autocorrelation in the built environment features examined (Global Moran's I most ≥ 0.60; all p = 0.001) but not in BMI z-score (Global Moran's I = 0.07, p = 0.28). Because we found significant spatial autocorrelation in our OLS regression residuals, we fit spatial autoregressive models. Most built environment features were not associated with BMI z-score. Density of bus stops was associated with a higher BMI z-score among Whites (Coefficient: 0.029, p < 0.05). The interaction term for Asians in the association between retail destinations and BMI z-score was statistically significant and indicated an inverse association. Sidewalk completeness was significantly associated with a higher BMI z-score for the total sample (Coefficient: 0.010, p < 0.05). These significant associations were found for the 800-meter buffer.Conclusion: Some relationships between the built environment and adolescent BMI z-score were in the unexpected direction. Our findings overall suggest that the built environment does not explain a large proportion of the variation in adolescent BMI z-score or racial disparities in adolescent obesity. However, there are some differences by race/ethnicity that require further research among adolescents. © 2012 Duncan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Duncan, DT; Castro, MC; Gortmaker, SL; Aldstadt, J; Melly, SJ; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Duncan, DT, Castro, MC, Gortmaker, SL, Aldstadt, J, Melly, SJ, and Bennett, GG. "Racial differences in the built environment-body mass index relationship? A geospatial analysis of adolescents in urban neighborhoods." International Journal of Health Geographics 11 (2012).
PMID
22537116
Source
scival
Published In
International Journal of Health Geographics
Volume
11
Publish Date
2012
DOI
10.1186/1476-072X-11-11

Using Facebook and Text Messaging to Deliver a Weight Loss Program to College Students

Between 31 and 35% of the college-aged population is overweight or obese, yet few weight loss trials for this population have been conducted. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a technology-based 8-week weight loss intervention among college students. Students (N = 52) were randomly assigned to one of the three arms: Facebook (n = 17); Facebook Plus text messaging and personalized feedback (n = 18); Waiting List control (n = 17), with assessments at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (post-treatment). Participants were 20.47 ± 2.19 years old, 86.45 ± 17.11 kg, with a body mass index of 31.36 ± 5.3 kg/m 2. Participants were primarily female (86.5%), and the sample was racially diverse (57.7% Caucasian, 30.8% African American, 5.8% Hispanic, and 5.7% other races). The primary outcome was weight loss after 8 weeks (post-treatment); 96.0% of the participants completed this assessment. At 8 weeks, the Facebook Plus group had significantly greater weight loss (-2.4 ± 2.5 kg) than the Facebook (-0.63 ± 2.4 kg) and Waiting List (-0.24 ± 2.6 kg) (both Ps < 0.05). Weight change at 8 weeks was not significantly different between the Facebook and Waiting List groups. Results show preliminary efficacy and acceptability of the two active intervention arms (97.0% found the program helpful, 81.3% found the videos/handouts helpful, and 100% would recommend the program to others). Results indicate the potential for an innovative weight loss intervention that uses technology platforms (Facebook and text messaging) that are frequently used and already integrated into the cultural life of college students.

Authors
Napolitano, MA; Hayes, S; Bennett, GG; Ives, AK; Foster, GD
MLA Citation
Napolitano, MA, Hayes, S, Bennett, GG, Ives, AK, and Foster, GD. "Using Facebook and Text Messaging to Deliver a Weight Loss Program to College Students." Obesity (2012).
PMID
23505165
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Publish Date
2012
DOI
10.1038/oby.2012.107

Differential accuracy of physical activity self-report by body mass index

Objectives: To examine whether agreement between self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity varies by BMI category in a low-income black sample. Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 4-6 days. Using one- and 10-minute bouts, accelerometers measured light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity time. Results: Correlations varied by obesity (nonobese: one-minute r=0.41; 10- minute r=0.47; obese: one-minute r=0.21; 10-minute r=0 .14). Agreement was highest among nonobese persons (one-minute kappa = 0.48, 10-minute kappa = 0.023; obese: one-minute kappa = -0.024, 10- minute kappa = -0.020). Conclusions: We found compromised questionnaire performance among obese participants.

Authors
Warner, ET; Wolin, KY; Duncan, DT; Heil, DP; Askew, S; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Warner, ET, Wolin, KY, Duncan, DT, Heil, DP, Askew, S, and Bennett, GG. "Differential accuracy of physical activity self-report by body mass index." American Journal of Health Behavior 36.2 (2012): 168-178.
PMID
22370255
Source
scival
Published In
American Journal of Health Behavior
Volume
36
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
168
End Page
178
DOI
10.5993/AJHB.36.2.3

Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife

Introduction: Psychosocial stress is a significant risk factor for smoking, and Blacks experience higher levels of psychosocial stress relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Limited research has comprehensively examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking among Blacks. Methods: We examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking status (current, previous, and never) in middle-aged Blacks (34-85 years, n = 592) from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a subset of the Midlife in the United States Study II (2004-2006). Eleven stressor domains were assessed, including psychological and physical work stress, work - family conflict, perceived inequality, relationship stress, neighborhood stress, discrimination, financial stress, recent problems, stressful events, and childhood adversity. We also calculated a cumulative score. Multinomial models were adjusted for age, gender, education, and income. Results: Seven of the 11 stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a current smoker compared with a never-smoker: neighborhood, financial, relationship, and psychological work stress, perceived inequality, stressful events, childhood adversity (p values <.05; OR s ranged from 1.28 to 1.77). Three stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a previous smoker versus a never-smoker (p < .05). Individuals who scored in the top quartile on 5 or more stressors were 3.74 (95% CI = 2.09-6.71) times as likely to be current smokers, and more than twice as likely to be previous smokers, compared with individuals with no high stressors. Conclusions: These results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress and smoking among urban middle-aged Blacks and suggest that cessation programs should address modifiable individual and community-level stressors© The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Authors
Slopen, N; Dutra, LM; Williams, DR; Mujahid, MS; Lewis, TT; Bennett, GG; Ryff, CD; Albert, MA
MLA Citation
Slopen, N, Dutra, LM, Williams, DR, Mujahid, MS, Lewis, TT, Bennett, GG, Ryff, CD, and Albert, MA. "Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 14.10 (2012): 1161-1169.
PMID
22367977
Source
scival
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
10
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1161
End Page
1169
DOI
10.1093/ntr/nts011

Relationships between social resources and healthful behaviors across the age spectrum

Background. We examined cross-sectional relationships of social resources with health behaviors in adults ages 1893 years. Methods. Baseline data from a 2009 risk behavior intervention trial were used to measure social resources, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake in 2,440 adults. To evaluate associations overall and within 4 age groups (1834, 3549, 5064, and 6593 y), we used multivariable regression. Results. Mean (SD) age was 49.4 (15) years, physical activity was 346 (304) minutes/week, and fruit and vegetable intake was 3.4 (2.4) servings/day. Mean social resource score was 1.2 (04 scale) in 1834 year olds, 1.1 in all other age groups (P = 0.04). In multivariable models, for each one-point increment in social resource score, the odds ratio for getting 150959 minutes of physical activity/wk (compared to 150 min/wk) was 3.7 (95 CI 3.04.6). Each one-point increment in score was also associated with 29 (95 CI: 2335) more servings of fruit and vegetables. We did not observe effect modification by age group. Conclusions. Although younger adults reported slightly higher resources than older adults, the magnitude of association between social resources and healthful behaviors did not differ between them. © 2012 Kristina H. Lewis et al.

Authors
Lewis, KH; Gillman, MW; Greaney, ML; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Lewis, KH, Gillman, MW, Greaney, ML, Puleo, E, Bennett, GG, and Emmons, KM. "Relationships between social resources and healthful behaviors across the age spectrum." Journal of Aging Research 2012 (2012).
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Aging Research
Volume
2012
Publish Date
2012
DOI
10.1155/2012/501072

Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

Background: Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design. We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program) of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44years with a BMI of 25-34.9kg/m 2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership.Participants are followed over 18months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months.At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2kg/m 2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold for depression. Discussion. The Shape Program utilizes an innovative intervention approach to lower the risk of obesity and obesity-associated chronic disease among black women in the primary care setting. The intervention was informed by behavior change theory and aims to prevent weight gain using inexpensive mobile technologies and existing health center resources. Baseline characteristics reflect a socioeconomically disadvantaged, high-risk population sample in need of evidence-based treatment strategies. © 2012 Foley et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Foley, P; Levine, E; Askew, S; Puleo, E; Whiteley, J; Batch, B; Heil, D; Dix, D; Lett, V; Lanpher, M; Miller, J; Emmons, K; Bennett, G
MLA Citation
Foley, P, Levine, E, Askew, S, Puleo, E, Whiteley, J, Batch, B, Heil, D, Dix, D, Lett, V, Lanpher, M, Miller, J, Emmons, K, and Bennett, G. "Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program." BMC Public Health 12.1 (2012).
PMID
22537222
Source
scival
Published In
BMC Public Health
Volume
12
Issue
1
Publish Date
2012
DOI
10.1186/1471-2458-12-305

Influence of individual and social contextual factors on changes in leisure-time physical activity in working-class populations: Results of the Healthy Directions-Small Businesses Study

Background As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program Project, we sought to address disparities reflected in social class and race/ethnicity by developing and testing a behavioral intervention model that targeted fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, multivitamin intake, and physical activity in working-class, multiethnic populations. Methods This paper examined the associations between change in leisure-time physical activity and individual and social contextual factors in participants employed in small businesses (n = 850) at both baseline and at 18-month final. Results In bivariate analyses, age, language acculturation, social ties, and workplace social capital were significantly associated with physical activity at final. In multivariable analyses, being younger and having high language acculturation were significantly associated with greater leisuretime physical activity at final; high workplace social capital was significantly associated with a decline in physical activity at final. Conclusion These findings have implications for understanding factors that are integral to promoting change in physical activity among working-class, multiethnic populations. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

Authors
McNeill, LH; Stoddard, A; Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Sorensen, GG
MLA Citation
McNeill, LH, Stoddard, A, Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, and Sorensen, GG. "Influence of individual and social contextual factors on changes in leisure-time physical activity in working-class populations: Results of the Healthy Directions-Small Businesses Study." Cancer Causes and Control 23.9 (2012): 1475-1487.
PMID
22806257
Source
scival
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
23
Issue
9
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1475
End Page
1487
DOI
10.1007/s10552-012-0021-z

Applying the PRECIS criteria to describe three effectiveness trials of weight loss in obese patients with comorbid conditions

Objectives To characterize Practice-Based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) trials along the pragmatic-explanatory continuum. Settings The POWER trials consist of three individual studies that target obesity treatment in primary care settings. Design Using the PRagmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria, nine reviewers independently scored each trial. Methods Average and median ratings, inter-rater reliability, and relationships to additional ratings of the extent to which study designs were explanatory (i.e., efficacy) versus pragmatic (i.e., practical) and related to external validity were determined. Principal Findings One trial was consistently rated as being significantly more pragmatic than the others (R 2 = 0.43, p <.001), although all three were in the moderate range on the PRECIS scales. Ratings varied across PRECIS dimensions, being most pragmatic on comparison condition and primary outcome. Raters, although undergoing training and using identical definitions, scored their own study as more pragmatic than the other studies/interventions. Conclusions These results highlight the need for more comprehensive reporting on PRECIS and related criteria for research translation. The PRECIS criteria provide a richer understanding of the POWER studies. It is not clear whether the original criteria are sufficient to provide a comprehensive profile. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

Authors
Glasgow, RE; Gaglio, B; Bennett, G; Jerome, GJ; Yeh, H-C; Sarwer, DB; Appel, L; Colditz, G; Wadden, TA; Wells, B
MLA Citation
Glasgow, RE, Gaglio, B, Bennett, G, Jerome, GJ, Yeh, H-C, Sarwer, DB, Appel, L, Colditz, G, Wadden, TA, and Wells, B. "Applying the PRECIS criteria to describe three effectiveness trials of weight loss in obese patients with comorbid conditions." Health Services Research 47.3 PART 1 (2012): 1051-1067.
PMID
22092292
Source
scival
Published In
Health Services Research
Volume
47
Issue
3 PART 1
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1051
End Page
1067
DOI
10.1111/j.1475-6773.2011.01347.x

Is access to neighborhood green space associated with BMI among Egyptians? A multilevel study of Cairo neighborhoods

Evidence of a link between green space and obesity has increased in the developed world, but few studies have been conducted in the developing world. Our study tests whether availability of neighborhood green space is associated with BMI among adults in Cairo, Egypt. Using data from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study, we conducted multilevel analyses and found no significant green space-BMI association, leading us to conclude that this intervention may not be as promising in this developing world context as it has been in some western urban contexts. Other aspects of the urban environment should be evaluated to better understand neighborhood variations in obesity in Cairo. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Authors
Mowafi, M; Khadr, Z; Bennett, G; Hill, A; Kawachi, I; Subramanian, SV
MLA Citation
Mowafi, M, Khadr, Z, Bennett, G, Hill, A, Kawachi, I, and Subramanian, SV. "Is access to neighborhood green space associated with BMI among Egyptians? A multilevel study of Cairo neighborhoods." Health and Place 18.2 (2012): 385-390.
PMID
22245449
Source
scival
Published In
Health & Place
Volume
18
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
385
End Page
390
DOI
10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.12.002

Introduction to the Active Living Research Supplement: Disparities in Environments and Policies that Support Active Living

Authors
Whitt-Glover, MC; Bennett, G; Sallis, JF
MLA Citation
Whitt-Glover, MC, Bennett, G, and Sallis, JF. "Introduction to the Active Living Research Supplement: Disparities in Environments and Policies that Support Active Living." Annals of Behavioral Medicine (2012): 1-5.
PMID
23334772
Source
scival
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1
End Page
5
DOI
10.1007/s12160-012-9456-4

Does perception equal reality? Weight misperception in relation to weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese US adults

Background: Weight misperception might preclude the adoption of healthful weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese individuals, yet limited research exists in this area. We examined associations between weight misperception and several weight-related attitudes and behaviors among a nationally representative sample of overweight and obese US adults.Methods: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used. Analyses included non-pregnant, overweight and obese (measured body mass index ≥ 25) adults aged 20 and older. Weight misperception was identified among those who reported themselves as "underweight" or "about the right weight". Outcome variables and sample sizes were: weight-loss attitudes/behaviors (wanting to weigh less and having tried to lose weight; n = 4,784); dietary intake (total energy intake; n = 4,894); and physical activity (meets 2008 US physical activity recommendations, insufficiently active, and sedentary; n = 5,401). Multivariable regression models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010.Results: These overweight/obese men and women who misperceived their weight were 71% (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34) and 65% (RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.29-0.42) less likely to report that they want to lose weight and 60% (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.52) and 56% (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.32-0.59) less likely to have tried to lose weight within the past year, respectively, compared to those who accurately perceived themselves as overweight. Blacks were particularly less likely to have tried to lose weight. Weight misperception was not a significant predictor of total energy intake among most subgroups, but was associated with lower total energy intake among Hispanic women (change -252.72, 95% CI -433.25, -72.18). Men who misperceived their weight were less likely (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.89) to be insufficiently active (the strongest results were among Black men) and women who misperceived their weight were less likely (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54, 1.00, p = 0.047) to meet activity recommendations compared to being sedentary.Conclusion: Overall, weight misperception among overweight and obese adults was associated with less likelihood of interest in or attempts at weight loss and less physical activity. These associations varied by gender and race/ethnicity. This study highlights the importance of focusing on inaccurate weight perceptions in targeted weight loss efforts. © 2011 Duncan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Duncan, DT; Wolin, KY; Scharoun-Lee, M; Ding, EL; Warner, ET; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Duncan, DT, Wolin, KY, Scharoun-Lee, M, Ding, EL, Warner, ET, and Bennett, GG. "Does perception equal reality? Weight misperception in relation to weight-related attitudes and behaviors among overweight and obese US adults." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8 (2011).
PMID
21426567
Source
scival
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume
8
Publish Date
2011
DOI
10.1186/1479-5868-8-20

Are neighborhood education levels associated with BMI among adults in Cairo, Egypt?

This study examined the association between area-level education and BMI among adults in Cairo, Egypt. A sample of 3993 households including 1990 men and 2003 women were analyzed from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study, a study which aimed to identify potential intra-urban inequities in health related to the environment and living conditions in Cairo. Using multilevel analysis, we found that residents of high education neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be obese compared to low education neighborhoods. An inverse association between neighborhood education and individual BMI was observed whereby each unit increase in percentage of households with greater than a high school education was associated with a 0.036 kg/m2 decrease in BMI of individuals. This translated into a difference between high and low education neighborhoods of 6.86 kg (15.1 lb) for women based on an average height of 1.65 m and 6.10 kg (13.4 lb) for men based on an average height of 1.75 m after adjusting for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health and environmental factors. These findings suggest that programs aiming to reduce BMI among adults in this setting may be well-served by focusing on education since it appears to have an effect at the neighborhood level over and above the impact it has at the individual level. This may be due to several factors such as greater access to knowledge and information regarding health and nutrition, greater food availability, and shifting cultural perceptions of beauty away from an ideal body shape of plumpness in favor of thinness in high education neighborhoods. The cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow for causal interpretations, however, so further studies exploring why the neighborhood education-BMI association is so significant is warranted. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Authors
Mowafi, M; Khadr, Z; Subramanian, SV; Bennett, G; Hill, A; Kawachi, I
MLA Citation
Mowafi, M, Khadr, Z, Subramanian, SV, Bennett, G, Hill, A, and Kawachi, I. "Are neighborhood education levels associated with BMI among adults in Cairo, Egypt?." Social Science and Medicine 72.8 (2011): 1274-1283.
PMID
21440350
Source
scival
Published In
Social Science & Medicine
Volume
72
Issue
8
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1274
End Page
1283
DOI
10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.01.032

The association between social factors and physical activity among low-income adults living in public housing

Objectives. We sought to examine the association between structural, functional, and normative social factors and physical activity among urban, lowincome, racially/ethnically diverse adults. Methods. We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey among residents of 12 low-income housing communities in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were also asked to wear a pedometer for 5 days. We analyzed complete data from 1112 residents (weighted n=1635). Results. Residents with smaller social networks were significantly less physically active than were residents with larger social networks (b=-1503.7; P=.01) and residents with conflicting demands were more active than were residents with none (b=601.6; P=.01), when we controlled for employment status, gender, poverty level, current health status, age, and perceived safety. Social networks were most strongly associated with physical activity among Hispanics and younger residents (aged 18-35 years). Conclusions. These findings indicate that social factors, including social networks and role-related conflicting demands, may be important drivers of physical activity among low-income populations. Researchers and practitioners should consider social factors in developing multilevel physical activity interventions for this population.

Authors
Shelton, RC; McNeill, LH; Puleo, E; Wolin, KY; Emmons, KM; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Shelton, RC, McNeill, LH, Puleo, E, Wolin, KY, Emmons, KM, and Bennett, GG. "The association between social factors and physical activity among low-income adults living in public housing." American Journal of Public Health 101.11 (2011): 2102-2110.
PMID
21330588
Source
scival
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
101
Issue
11
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
2102
End Page
2110
DOI
10.2105/AJPH.2010.196030

Exposing Racial Discrimination: Implicit & Explicit Measures-The My Body, My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black & White Community Health Center Members

Background: To date, research on racial discrimination and health typically has employed explicit self-report measures, despite their potentially being affected by what people are able and willing to say. We accordingly employed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) for racial discrimination, first developed and used in two recent published studies, and measured associations of the explicit and implicit discrimination measures with each other, socioeconomic and psychosocial variables, and smoking. Methodology/Principal Findings: Among the 504 black and 501 white US-born participants, age 35-64, randomly recruited in 2008-2010 from 4 community health centers in Boston, MA, black participants were over 1.5 times more likely (p<0.05) to be worse off economically (e.g., for poverty and low education) and have higher social desirability scores (43.8 vs. 28.2); their explicit discrimination exposure was also 2.5 to 3.7 times higher (p<0.05) depending on the measure used, with over 60% reporting exposure in 3 or more domains and within the last year. Higher IAT scores for target vs. perpetrator of discrimination occurred for the black versus white participants: for "black person vs. white person": 0.26 vs. 0.13; and for "me vs. them": 0.24 vs. 0.19. In both groups, only low non-significant correlations existed between the implicit and explicit discrimination measures; social desirability was significantly associated with the explicit but not implicit measures. Although neither the explicit nor implicit discrimination measures were associated with odds of being a current smoker, the excess risk for black participants (controlling for age and gender) rose in models that also controlled for the racial discrimination and psychosocial variables; additional control for socioeconomic position sharply reduced and rendered the association null. Conclusions: Implicit and explicit measures of racial discrimination are not equivalent and both warrant use in research on racial discrimination and health, along with data on socioeconomic position and social desirability. © 2011 Krieger et al.

Authors
Krieger, N; Waterman, PD; Kosheleva, A; Chen, JT; Carney, DR; Smith, KW; Bennett, GG; Williams, DR; Freeman, E; Russell, B; Thornhill, G; Mikolowsky, K; Rifkin, R; Samuel, L
MLA Citation
Krieger, N, Waterman, PD, Kosheleva, A, Chen, JT, Carney, DR, Smith, KW, Bennett, GG, Williams, DR, Freeman, E, Russell, B, Thornhill, G, Mikolowsky, K, Rifkin, R, and Samuel, L. "Exposing Racial Discrimination: Implicit & Explicit Measures-The My Body, My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black & White Community Health Center Members." PLoS ONE 6.11 (2011).
PMID
22125618
Source
scival
Published In
PloS one
Volume
6
Issue
11
Publish Date
2011
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0027636

Psychological responses to acute exercise in sedentary black and white individuals

Background: Racial differences in psychological determinants of exercise exist between non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and non-Hispanic whites (whites). To date, no study has examined racial differences in the psychological responses during and after exercise. The objective of this study was to compare psychological outcomes of single exercise bouts in blacks and whites. Methods: On 3 separate occasions, sedentary black (n = 16) and white (n = 14) participants walked on a treadmill at 75% max HR for 75 minutes. Questionnaires assessing mood, state anxiety, and exercise task self-efficacy were administered before and after each exercise bout. In-task mood and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every 5 minutes during exercise. Results: Exercise self-efficacy and psychological distress significantly improved in both blacks and whites. However during exercise blacks reported more positive in-task mood and lower RPE compared with whites. Conclusions: These data suggest that racial differences exist in psychological responses during exercise. Further research should confirm these findings in a larger, free-living population. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Authors
Hasson, RE; Granados, KE; Marquez, DX; Bennett, G; Freedson, P; Braun, B
MLA Citation
Hasson, RE, Granados, KE, Marquez, DX, Bennett, G, Freedson, P, and Braun, B. "Psychological responses to acute exercise in sedentary black and white individuals." Journal of Physical Activity and Health 8.7 (2011): 978-987.
PMID
21885889
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of physical activity & health
Volume
8
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
978
End Page
987

Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude) difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com). Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748) collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705), 2% (n = 18) were tied and 3% (n = 25) were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4%) were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis). Six hundred thirteen (87.6%) of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude coordinates for all the data was just over 25 m. Overall, the range for longitude was 0.04-12,911.8 m, and the range for latitude was 0.02-37,766.6 m. Comparisons show minimal differences in the median and minimum values, while there were slightly larger differences in the maximum values. The majority (>75%) of the geographic differences were within 50 m of each other; mostly <25 m from each other (about 49%). Only about 4% overall were ≥400 m apart. We also found geographic differences in the proportion of addresses that fell within certain meter ranges. The match-score range associated with the Batchgeo accuracy level "approximate" (least accurate) was 84-100 (mean = 92), while the "rooftop" Batchgeo accuracy level (most accurate) delivered a mean of 98.9 but the range was the same. Although future research should compare the positional difference of Batchgeo to criterion measures of longitude/latitude (e.g. with global positioning system measurement), this study suggests that Batchgeo is a good, free-of-charge option to geocode addresses.

Authors
Duncan, DT; Castro, MC; Blossom, JC; Bennett, GG; Steven, LGGG
MLA Citation
Duncan, DT, Castro, MC, Blossom, JC, Bennett, GG, and Steven, LGGG. "Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods." Geospatial Health 5.2 (2011): 265-273.
PMID
21590677
Source
scival
Published In
Geospatial health
Volume
5
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
265
End Page
273

RECONCEPTUALIZING THE MEASUREMENT OF MULTIRACIAL STATUS FOR HEALTH RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES

Authors
Woo, M; Austin, SB; Williams, DR; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Woo, M, Austin, SB, Williams, DR, and Bennett, GG. "RECONCEPTUALIZING THE MEASUREMENT OF MULTIRACIAL STATUS FOR HEALTH RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES." DU BOIS REVIEW-SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH ON RACE 8.1 (2011): 25-36.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race
Volume
8
Issue
1
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
25
End Page
36
DOI
10.1017/S1742058X11000038

COACHING IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED UTILIZATION OF HANDHELD COMPUTERS FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG LOWER INCOME WOMEN

Authors
Pischke, CR; Whiteley, JA; Askew, S; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Pischke, CR, Whiteley, JA, Askew, S, and Bennett, GG. "COACHING IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED UTILIZATION OF HANDHELD COMPUTERS FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG LOWER INCOME WOMEN." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 17 (August 2010): 56-56.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
17
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
56
End Page
56

COACHING DOES NOT CONFER ADDITIONAL BENEFIT FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG LOWER INCOME WOMEN USING HANDHELD COMPUTERS FOR SELF-MONITORING

Authors
Whiteley, JA; Pischke, CR; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Whiteley, JA, Pischke, CR, and Bennett, GG. "COACHING DOES NOT CONFER ADDITIONAL BENEFIT FOR WEIGHT LOSS AMONG LOWER INCOME WOMEN USING HANDHELD COMPUTERS FOR SELF-MONITORING." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 39 (April 2010): 58-58.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
39
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
58
End Page
58

Web-based weight loss in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

Evidence is lacking regarding effective and sustainable weight loss approaches for use in the primary care setting. We conducted a 12-week randomized controlled trial to evaluate the short-term efficacy of a web-based weight loss intervention among 101 primary care patients with obesity and hypertension. Patients had access to a comprehensive website that used a moderate-intensity weight loss approach designed specifically for web-based implementation. Patients also participated in four (two in-person and two telephonic) counseling sessions with a health coach. Intent-to-treat analysis showed greater weight loss at 3 months (-2.56 kg; 95% CI -3.60, -1.53) among intervention participants (-2.28 +/- 3.21 kg), relative to usual care (0.28 +/- 1.87 kg). Similar findings were observed among intervention completers (-3.05 kg; 95% CI -4.24, -1.85). High rates of participant retention (84%) and website utilization were observed, with the greatest weight loss found among those with a high frequency of website logins (quartile 4 vs. 1: -4.16 kg; 95% CI -1.47, -6.84). The intervention's approach promoted moderate weight loss at 12 weeks, though greater weight loss was observed among those with higher levels of website utilization. Efficacious web-based weight loss interventions can be successfully offered in the primary care setting.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Herring, SJ; Puleo, E; Stein, EK; Emmons, KM; Gillman, MW
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Herring, SJ, Puleo, E, Stein, EK, Emmons, KM, and Gillman, MW. "Web-based weight loss in primary care: a randomized controlled trial." Obesity (Silver Spring) 18.2 (February 2010): 308-313.
PMID
19696764
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obesity
Volume
18
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
308
End Page
313
DOI
10.1038/oby.2009.242

Does coping mediate the relationship between personality and cardiovascular health in African Americans?

Few studies have examined traits or behaviors that may predispose some African Americans to poor cardiovascular health outcomes. While several models of personality exist, the 5-factor model (FFM) is arguably the best representation of personality and provides a useful framework for the study of personality and health. Among personality characteristics associated with health risks among African Americans, a high-effort coping style called John Henryism is among the most thoroughly examined. It is not clear if personality coping and health are connected in a meaningful way. The present study utilized data from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA) to examine whether personality was linked to John Henryism, how personality might be linked to cardiovascular health, and how John Henryism might mediate the relationship between personality and cardiovascular health. The sample consisted of 234 older African Americans (mean age, 67 years), 28% of which were men. Regressions were used to examine the questions. The results indicated that those who are more neurotic report more cardiovascular health problems, and that openness and conscientiousness were significant predictors of active coping. The mediation analysis results suggest that coping style did not mediate the relationship between personality and reports of cardiovascular health problems. These findings highlight the importance of personality in accounting for cardiovascular health in African Americans.

Authors
Whitfield, KE; Jonassaint, C; Brandon, D; Stanton, MV; Sims, R; Bennett, G; Salva, J; Edwards, CL
MLA Citation
Whitfield, KE, Jonassaint, C, Brandon, D, Stanton, MV, Sims, R, Bennett, G, Salva, J, and Edwards, CL. "Does coping mediate the relationship between personality and cardiovascular health in African Americans?." J Natl Med Assoc 102.2 (February 2010): 95-100.
PMID
20191921
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
102
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
95
End Page
100

Physical activity in US Blacks: A systematic review and critical examination of self-report instruments

Background: Physical activity self-report instruments in the US have largely been developed for and validated in White samples. Despite calls to validate existing instruments in more diverse samples, relatively few instruments have been validated in US Blacks. Emerging evidence suggests that these instruments may have differential validity in Black populations.Purpose: This report reviews and evaluates the validity and reliability of self-reported measures of physical activity in Blacks and makes recommendations for future directions.Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify published reports with construct or criterion validity evaluated in samples that included Blacks. Studies that reported results separately for Blacks were examined.Results: The review identified 10 instruments validated in nine manuscripts. Criterion validity correlations tended to be low to moderate. No study has compared the validity of multiple instruments in a single sample of Blacks.Conclusion: There is a need for efforts validating self-report physical activity instruments in Blacks, particularly those evaluating the relative validity of instruments in a single sample. © 2010 Wolin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Wolin, KY; Fagin, C; Ufere, N; Tuchman, H; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, Fagin, C, Ufere, N, Tuchman, H, and Bennett, GG. "Physical activity in US Blacks: A systematic review and critical examination of self-report instruments." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 7 (2010).
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4372
PMID
20932303
Source
scival
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume
7
Publish Date
2010
DOI
10.1186/1479-5868-7-73

Independent but coordinated trials: Insights from the practice-based opportunities for weight reduction trials collaborative research group

Background The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) funded three institutions to conduct effectiveness trials of weight loss interventions in primary care settings. Unlike traditional multi-center clinical trials, each study was established as an independent trial with a distinct protocol. Still, efforts were made to coordinate and standardize several aspects of the trials. The three trials formed a collaborative group, the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Trials Collaborative Research Group. Purpose We describe the common and distinct features of the three trials, the key characteristics of the collaborative group, and the lessons learned from this novel organizational approach. Methods The Collaborative Research Group consists of three individual studies: Be Fit, Be Well (Washington University in St. Louis/Harvard University), POWER Hopkins (Johns Hopkins), and POWER-UP (University of Pennsylvania). There are a total of 15 participating clinics with ∼1100 participants. The common primary outcome is change in weight at 24 months of follow-up, but each protocol has trial-specific elements including different interventions and different secondary outcomes. A Resource Coordinating Unit at Johns Hopkins provides administrative support. Results The Collaborative Research Group established common components to facilitate potential cross-site comparisons. The main advantage of this approach is to develop and evaluate several interventions, when there is insufficient evidence to test one or two approaches, as would be done in a traditional multi-center trial. Limitations The challenges of the organizational design include the complex decision-making process, the extent of potential data pooling, time intensive efforts to standardize reports, and the additional responsibilities of the DSMB to monitor three distinct protocols. © The Author(s), 2010.

Authors
Yeh, H-C; Clark, JM; Emmons, KE; Moore, RH; Bennett, GG; Warner, ET; Sarwer, DB; Jerome, GJ; Miller, ER; Volger, S; Louis, TA; Wells, B; Wadden, TA; Colditz, GA; Appel, LJ
MLA Citation
Yeh, H-C, Clark, JM, Emmons, KE, Moore, RH, Bennett, GG, Warner, ET, Sarwer, DB, Jerome, GJ, Miller, ER, Volger, S, Louis, TA, Wells, B, Wadden, TA, Colditz, GA, and Appel, LJ. "Independent but coordinated trials: Insights from the practice-based opportunities for weight reduction trials collaborative research group." Clinical Trials 7.4 (2010): 322-332.
PMID
20573639
Source
scival
Published In
Clinical Trials
Volume
7
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
322
End Page
332
DOI
10.1177/1740774510374213

Racial differences in the perception of lung cancer: The 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in lung cancer have been described well in the literature; however, little is known about perceptions of lung cancer in the general population and whether these perceptions differ by race. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) survey. The authors used a sample design of random digit dialing of listed telephone exchanges in the United States. Complete interviews were conducted with 5491 adults, including 1872 respondents who were assigned to receive questions pertaining to lung cancer. All analyses were conducted on this subset of respondents. A statistical software program was used to calculate chi-square tests and to perform logistic regression analyses that would model racial differences in perceptions of lung cancer. All estimates were weighted to be nationally representative of the US population; a jack-knife weighting method was used for parameter estimation. RESULTS: Black patients and white patients shared many of the same beliefs about lung cancer mortality, and etiology. African Americans were more likely than whites 1) to agree that it is hard to follow recommendations about preventing lung cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-3.53), 2) to avoid an evaluation for lung cancer for fear that they have the disease (OR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.84-5.98), and 3) to believe that patients with lung cancer would have pain or other symptoms before diagnosis (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.27-3.79). CONCLUSIONS: African Americans were more likely to hold beliefs about lung cancer that could interfere with prevention and treatment. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

Authors
Lathan, CS; Okechukwu, C; Drake, BF; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Lathan, CS, Okechukwu, C, Drake, BF, and Bennett, GG. "Racial differences in the perception of lung cancer: The 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey." Cancer 116.8 (2010): 1981-1986.
PMID
20186766
Source
scival
Published In
Cancer
Volume
116
Issue
8
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1981
End Page
1986
DOI
10.1002/cncr.24923

Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: The United for health study, 2003-2004

This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

Authors
Chae, D; Krieger, N; Bennett, G; Lindsey, J; Stoddard, A; Barbeau, E
MLA Citation
Chae, D, Krieger, N, Bennett, G, Lindsey, J, Stoddard, A, and Barbeau, E. "Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: The United for health study, 2003-2004." International Journal of Health Services 40.4 (2010): 589-608.
PMID
21058533
Source
scival
Published In
International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation
Volume
40
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
589
End Page
608
DOI
10.2190/HS.40.4.b

Awareness of national physical activity recommendations for health promotion among US adults.

PURPOSE: To examine whether knowledge of the 1995 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) national physical activity recommendations varies by sociodemographic, behavioral, and communication-related factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of 2381 participants in the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a national probability sample of the US population contacted via random-digit dial. RESULTS: Only a third of respondents were accurately knowledgeable of the CDC/ACSM physical activity recommendations. Recommendation knowledge was higher among women (OR = 1.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35-2.14) than men, the employed compared with those not currently working (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.55-0.95), foreign-born individuals (OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) compared with the US-born, and those meeting CDC/ACSM recommendations vs those who do not (OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.58-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: There is not widespread knowledge of the consensus national physical activity recommendations. These findings highlight the need for more effective campaigns to promote physical activity among the American public.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Puleo, EM; Mâsse, LC; Atienza, AA
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Puleo, EM, Mâsse, LC, and Atienza, AA. "Awareness of national physical activity recommendations for health promotion among US adults." Med Sci Sports Exerc 41.10 (October 2009): 1849-1855.
PMID
19727030
Source
pubmed
Published In
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume
41
Issue
10
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1849
End Page
1855
DOI
10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a52100

Will the public's health fall victim to the home foreclosure epidemic?

Authors
Bennett, GG; Scharoun-Lee, M; Tucker-Seeley, R
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Scharoun-Lee, M, and Tucker-Seeley, R. "Will the public's health fall victim to the home foreclosure epidemic?." PLoS Med 6.6 (June 16, 2009): e1000087-.
PMID
19529755
Source
pubmed
Published In
PLoS medicine
Volume
6
Issue
6
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
e1000087
DOI
10.1371/journal.pmed.1000087

Weight management among patients at community health centers: The "be Fit, Be Well" study

Authors
Greaney, ML; Quintiliani, LM; Warner, ET; King, DK; Emmons, KM; Colditz, GA; Glasgow, RE; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Greaney, ML, Quintiliani, LM, Warner, ET, King, DK, Emmons, KM, Colditz, GA, Glasgow, RE, and Bennett, GG. "Weight management among patients at community health centers: The "be Fit, Be Well" study." Obesity and Weight Management 5.5 (2009): 222-228.
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity and Weight Management
Volume
5
Issue
5
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
222
End Page
228
DOI
10.1089/obe.2009.0507

Improving coordination of legal-based efforts across jurisdictions and sectors for obesity prevention and control

Authors
Must, A; Bennett, G; Economos, C; Goodman, E; Schilling, J; Quintiliani, L; Rosenbaum, S; Vincent, J; Ashe, M
MLA Citation
Must, A, Bennett, G, Economos, C, Goodman, E, Schilling, J, Quintiliani, L, Rosenbaum, S, Vincent, J, and Ashe, M. "Improving coordination of legal-based efforts across jurisdictions and sectors for obesity prevention and control." Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37.SUPPL. 1 (2009): 90-98.
PMID
19493095
Source
scival
Published In
The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Volume
37
Issue
SUPPL. 1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
90
End Page
98
DOI
10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00395.x

Assessing coordination of legal-based efforts across jurisdictions and sectors for obesity prevention and control

Authors
Ashe, M; Bennett, G; Economos, C; Goodman, E; Schilling, J; Quintiliani, L; Rosenbaum, S; Vincent, J; Must, A
MLA Citation
Ashe, M, Bennett, G, Economos, C, Goodman, E, Schilling, J, Quintiliani, L, Rosenbaum, S, Vincent, J, and Must, A. "Assessing coordination of legal-based efforts across jurisdictions and sectors for obesity prevention and control." Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37.SUPPL. 1 (2009): 45-54.
PMID
19493091
Source
scival
Published In
The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Volume
37
Issue
SUPPL. 1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
45
End Page
54
DOI
10.1111/j.1748-720X.2009.00391.x

Psychosocial stress and 13-year BMI change among blacks: The pitt county study

Adverse psychosocial exposures may partially drive the high rates of obesity among blacks. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the relationship between perceived psychosocial stress and percent change in BMI among adult black men and women. We used data from 756 women and 416 men who were participants in the Pitt County Study, a community-based, prospective cohort study of blacks in eastern North Carolina. Participants were aged 25-50 years of age on entry into the study in 1988 and follow-up was obtained in 2001. Using multivariable linear regression, we calculated the adjusted mean percentage change in BMI over the follow-up period for each tertile of baseline measures of the Perceived Stress Scale (low, medium, and high), adjusted for potential confounders. For black women, higher levels of psychosocial stress at baseline predicted higher adjusted percentage increase in BMI over the 13-year follow-up: low stress 12.0% (95% CI 9.6-14.4), medium stress 16.3% (95% CI 13.7-18.9), and high stress 15.5% (95% CI 13.1-17.8). For black men, perceived stress was not associated with percent BMI change. These data suggest that interventions targeting obesity in black women should consider the potential impact of emotional stress on weight change.

Authors
Fowler-Brown, AG; Bennett, GG; Goodman, MS; Wee, CC; Corbie-Smith, GM; James, SA
MLA Citation
Fowler-Brown, AG, Bennett, GG, Goodman, MS, Wee, CC, Corbie-Smith, GM, and James, SA. "Psychosocial stress and 13-year BMI change among blacks: The pitt county study." Obesity 17.11 (2009): 2106-2109.
PMID
19407807
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
17
Issue
11
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
2106
End Page
2109
DOI
10.1038/oby.2009.130

Racial Discrimination and Physical Activity Among Low-Income-Housing Residents

Background: Although discrimination has been identified as a potential determinant of existing racial/ethnic health disparities, no studies have investigated whether racial discrimination contributes to disparities in physical activity. Purpose: The primary aim of the current study was to examine the association between interpersonal racial discrimination and physical activity. Methods: Baseline data were collected during 2004-2005 among a predominately black and Hispanic sample of adult residents living in 12 low-income-housing sites in Boston MA (n=1055). Residents reported experiences of lifetime racial discrimination during interviewer-administered surveys and wore a pedometer for 5 days to measure physical activity. For analyses, performed in 2009, linear regression models with a cluster design were conducted to predict physical activity, measured as steps per day. Results: Nearly 48% of participants reported ever experiencing racial discrimination, and discrimination was most commonly experienced on the street or in a public setting. No association was found between discrimination and physical activity, when examined in bivariate, multivariable, or race-stratified models. Conclusions: The current results indicate that self-reported racial discrimination is not a key determinant of physical activity among residents living in low-income housing. However, additional research is warranted to address current limitations of this study. © 2009 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Authors
Shelton, RC; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG; McNeill, LH; Goldman, RE; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Shelton, RC, Puleo, E, Bennett, GG, McNeill, LH, Goldman, RE, and Emmons, KM. "Racial Discrimination and Physical Activity Among Low-Income-Housing Residents." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 37.6 (2009): 541-545.
PMID
19944922
Source
scival
Published In
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume
37
Issue
6
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
541
End Page
545
DOI
10.1016/j.amepre.2009.07.018

Colorectal cancer screening: Prevalence among low-income groups with health insurance

We examined the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a low-income, racial/ethnic minority sample, among whom 97 percent had health insurance that covered CRC screening. This is a model for examining the impact of health insurance on racial/ethnic disparities in screening. Screening rates (67 percent self-reported; 52 percent adjusted based on a validation substudy) were higher than among similar population-based samples who have lower levels of insurance coverage. There were no differences by race/ethnicity. This study suggests that insurance coverage for CRC screening should be considered as part of a comprehensive approach to address CRC disparities. ©2009 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Authors
Emmons, KM; Lobb, R; Puleo, E; Bennett, G; Stoffel, E; Syngal, S
MLA Citation
Emmons, KM, Lobb, R, Puleo, E, Bennett, G, Stoffel, E, and Syngal, S. "Colorectal cancer screening: Prevalence among low-income groups with health insurance." Health Affairs 28.1 (2009): 169-177.
PMID
19124867
Source
scival
Published In
Health Affairs
Volume
28
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
169
End Page
177
DOI
10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.169

Influence of activity monitor location and bout duration on free-living physical activity

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) system. Study 2 participants wore AMs at the same locations for 3 days. Variables included time (T MV min/day) and AEE (AEE MV kcal/ day) for each monitor location and BD above a moderate-vigorous (MV) intensity. T MV and AEE MV in Study 1 were similar across AMs to IDEEA values at BD = 10 min, as was T MV in Study 2. This suggests that ankle-, wrist- and hip-worn AMs can provide similar PA outcome values during free-living monitoring at 10-min BDs. © 2009 by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

Authors
Heil, DP; Bennett, GG; Bond, KS; Webster, MD; Wolin, KY
MLA Citation
Heil, DP, Bennett, GG, Bond, KS, Webster, MD, and Wolin, KY. "Influence of activity monitor location and bout duration on free-living physical activity." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 80.3 (2009): 424-433.
PMID
19791628
Source
scival
Published In
Research quarterly for exercise and sport
Volume
80
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
424
End Page
433

Colorectal cancer prevention for low-income, sociodemographically-diverse adults in public housing: Baseline findings of a randomized controlled trial

Background. This paper presents the study design, intervention components, and baseline data from Open Doors to Health, a study designed to address social contextual factors in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention for low-income, racial/ethnic minority populations. Methods. A cluster randomized design with 12 housing sites as the primary sampling units was used: 6 sites were assigned to a "Peer-led plus Screening Access" (PL) condition, and 6 were assigned to "Screening Access only" (SCR) condition. Study-related outcomes were CRC screening, physical activity (measured as mean steps/day), and multivitamin use. Results. At baseline (unweighted sample size = 1554), two-thirds self-reported that they were current with screening recommendations for CRC (corrected for medical records validation, prevalence was 52%), with half having received a colonoscopy (54%); 96% had health insurance. Mean steps per day was 5648 (se mean = 224), and on average 28% of the sample reported regular multivitamin use. Residents reported high levels of social support [mean = 4.40 (se = .03)] and moderately extensive social networks [mean = 2.66 (se = .02)]. Conclusion. Few studies have conducted community-based studies in public housing communities; these data suggest areas for improvement and future opportunities for intervention development and dissemination. Findings from the randomized trial will determine the effectiveness of the intervention on our health-related outcomes as well as inform future avenues of research. © 2009 McNeill et al.

Authors
McNeill, LH; Coeling, M; Puleo, E; Suarez, EG; Bennett, GG; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
McNeill, LH, Coeling, M, Puleo, E, Suarez, EG, Bennett, GG, and Emmons, KM. "Colorectal cancer prevention for low-income, sociodemographically-diverse adults in public housing: Baseline findings of a randomized controlled trial." BMC Public Health 9 (2009).
PMID
19765309
Source
scival
Published In
BMC Public Health
Volume
9
Publish Date
2009
DOI
10.1186/1471-2458-9-353

The delivery of public health interventions via the internet: Actualizing their potential

The Internet increasingly serves as a platform for the delivery of public health interventions. The efficacy of Internet interventions has been demonstrated across a wide range of conditions. Much more work remains, however, to enhance the potential for broad population dissemination of Internet interventions. In this article, we examine the effectiveness of Internet interventions, with particular attention to their dissemination potential.We discuss several considerations (characterizing reach rates, minimizing attrition, promoting Web site utilization, use of tailored messaging and social networking) that may improve the implementation of Internet interventions and their associated outcomes. We review factors that may influence the adoption of Internet interventions in a range of potential dissemination settings. Finally, we present several recommendations for future research that highlight the potential importance of better understanding intervention reach, developing consensus regarding Web site usage metrics, and more broadly integratingWeb 2.0 functionality. Copyright © 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Glasgow, RE
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, and Glasgow, RE. "The delivery of public health interventions via the internet: Actualizing their potential." Annual Review of Public Health 30 (2009): 273-292.
PMID
19296777
Source
scival
Published In
Annual Review of Public Health
Volume
30
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
273
End Page
292
DOI
10.1146/annurev.publhealth.031308.100235

The association between racial and gender discrimination and body mass index among residents living in lower-income housing

Background: Research on the association between self-reported racial or gender discrimination and body mass index (BMI) has been limited and inconclusive to date, particularly among lower-income populations. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to examine the association between self-reported racial and gender discrimination and BMI among a sample of adult residents living in 12 urban lower-income housing sites in Boston, Masschusetts (USA). Methods: Baseline survey data were collected among 1,307 (weighted N51907) study participants. For analyses, linear regression models with a cluster design were conducted using SUDAAN and SAS statistical software. Results: Our sample was predominately Black (weighted n=956) and Hispanic (weighted n=857), and female (weighted n=1420), with a mean age of 49.3 (SE: .40) and mean BMI of 30.2 kg m-2 (SE: .19). Nearly 47% of participants reported ever experiencing racial discrimination, and 24.8% reported ever experiencing gender discrimination. In bivariate and multivariable linear regression models, no main effect association was found between either racial or gender discrimination and BMI. Conclusions: While our findings suggest that self-reported discrimination is not a key determinant of BMI among lower-income housing residents, these results should be considered in light of study limitations. Future researchers may want to investigate this association among other relevant samples, and other social contextual and cultural factors should be explored to understand how they contribute to disparities.

Authors
Shelton, RC; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG; McNeill, LH; Sorensen, G; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Shelton, RC, Puleo, E, Bennett, GG, McNeill, LH, Sorensen, G, and Emmons, KM. "The association between racial and gender discrimination and body mass index among residents living in lower-income housing." Ethnicity and Disease 19.3 (2009): 251-257.
PMID
19769005
Source
scival
Published In
Ethnicity & disease
Volume
19
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
251
End Page
257

Biobehavioral aspects on late-life morbidities

Authors
Whitfield, KE; Bromell, L; Bennett, G; Edwards, CL
MLA Citation
Whitfield, KE, Bromell, L, Bennett, G, and Edwards, CL. "Biobehavioral aspects on late-life morbidities." Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics 29.1 (2009): 57-74.
Source
scival
Published In
Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Volume
29
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
57
End Page
74
DOI
10.1891/0198-8794.29.57

Misestimation of peer tobacco use: understanding disparities in tobacco use.

Blacks experience disproportionately elevated rates of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Blacks experience delayed smoking initiation relative to other racial/ethnic groups, highlighting the importance of examining smoking correlates occurring in late adolescence/early adulthood. The current study reports data collected as part of an ongoing collaborative effort to assess alcohol and drug use on the campuses of historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Two-thousand, two-hundred, seventy-seven African-American subjects, aged 20.3 +/- 3.9 (range 18-53), completed the CORE Alcohol and Drug survey and a brief demographic questionnaire. Results indicated that 90% of all subjects overestimated the rate of smoking among their peers. Overestimating was associated with a > 80% increase in the risk of smoking. These data highlight the need to correct misinformation regarding smoking norms among students at some HBCUs.

Authors
Edwards, CL; Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Johnson, S; Fowler, S; Whitfield, KE; Askew, S; MacKinnon, D; McDougald, C; Hubbard, R; Wellington, C; Feliu, M; Robinson, E
MLA Citation
Edwards, CL, Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Johnson, S, Fowler, S, Whitfield, KE, Askew, S, MacKinnon, D, McDougald, C, Hubbard, R, Wellington, C, Feliu, M, and Robinson, E. "Misestimation of peer tobacco use: understanding disparities in tobacco use." J Natl Med Assoc 100.3 (March 2008): 299-302.
PMID
18390023
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
100
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
299
End Page
302

A non-linear role of religiosity in cardiovascular reactivity to personally-relevant stress? The moderating role of educational attainment

Authors
Merritt, M; Roethel, A; Roche, K; Edwards, CL; Bennett, GG; Koenig, HG; Abdullah, M
MLA Citation
Merritt, M, Roethel, A, Roche, K, Edwards, CL, Bennett, GG, Koenig, HG, and Abdullah, M. "A non-linear role of religiosity in cardiovascular reactivity to personally-relevant stress? The moderating role of educational attainment." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 35 (March 2008): S127-S127.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
35
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
S127
End Page
S127

Colorectal cancer screening awareness and intentions among low income, sociodemographically diverse adults under age 50

Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates in the US are suboptimal, particularly among lower income and racial/ethnically diverse groups. If specific populations have limited awareness of screening when they reach age 50, there may be delays in screening adoption. This study investigated sociodemographic and social contextual factors associated with awareness of CRC and intentions to be screened at age 50 among 692 low income, racial, and ethnic minority adults living in low income housing. The majority of respondents (62%) were between ages 30 and 49, and 94% had some form of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid). About 70% reported having heard about CRC screening; 66% reported intentions to be screened at age 50. In multivariable analyses, screening awareness was associated with age and education. Immigrants who had English as a second language had lower awareness. Females tended to have higher awareness if they had private insurance; there were no differences among males. Multivariable analyses found that screening intentions were higher among men, those with more role responsibilities, more role conflicts, and higher levels of social cohesion. It is important to identify opportunities for maximizing screening uptake among those who become age-eligible for screening if we are to make a significant impact on CRC disparities. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Authors
Emmons, K; Puleo, E; McNeill, LH; Bennett, G; Chan, S; Syngal, S
MLA Citation
Emmons, K, Puleo, E, McNeill, LH, Bennett, G, Chan, S, and Syngal, S. "Colorectal cancer screening awareness and intentions among low income, sociodemographically diverse adults under age 50." Cancer Causes and Control 19.10 (2008): 1031-1041.
PMID
18478340
Source
scival
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
19
Issue
10
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1031
End Page
1041
DOI
10.1007/s10552-008-9167-0

Validation of the international physical activity questionnaire-short among blacks

Background: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) has been evaluated against accelerometer-determined physical activity measures in small homogenous samples of adults in the United States. There is limited information about the validity of the IPAQ-S in diverse US samples. Methods: 142 Blacks residing in low-income housing completed the IPAQ-S and wore an accelerometer for up to 6 days. Both 1 - and. 10-minute accelerometer bouts were used, to define time spent in light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Results: We found fair agreement between the IPAQ-S and accelerometer-determined physical activity (r = .26 for 10-minute bout, r = .36 for 1-minute bout). Correlations were higher among men than women. When we classified participants as meeting physical activity recommendations, agreement was low (kappa = .04, 10-minute; kappa = .21, 1-minute); only 25% of individuals were classified the same by both instruments (10-minute bout). Conclusions: In one of the few studies to assess the validity of a self-reported physical activity measure among Blacks, we found moderate correlations with accelerometer data, though correlations were weaker for women. Correlations were smaller when IPAQ-S data were compared using a 10- versus a 1-minute bout definition. There was limited evidence for agreement between the instruments when classifying participants as meeting physical activity recommendations. © 2008 Human Kinetics, Inc.

Authors
Wolin, KY; Heil, DP; Askew, S; Matthews, CE; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, Heil, DP, Askew, S, Matthews, CE, and Bennett, GG. "Validation of the international physical activity questionnaire-short among blacks." Journal of Physical Activity and Health 5.5 (2008): 746-760.
PMID
18820348
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of physical activity & health
Volume
5
Issue
5
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
746
End Page
760

Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Screening by Family History

Purpose: Prostate cancer (CaP) is disproportionately prevalent among black, compared to white, men. Additionally, men with a family history of CaP have 75% to 80% higher risk of CaP. Therefore we examined racial variation in the association of family history of CaP and self-reported prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Methods: Data were obtained from the 2005 NHIS, including the Cancer Control Module supplement. We restricted the study sample to men over the age of 40 who reported having "ever heard of a PSA test" (N = 1,744). Men were considered to have a positive family history if either their biological father or at least one biological brother had been diagnosed with CaP. SUDAAN 9.0 was used to perform descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: Men with a family history of CaP were more likely to have a PSA test than those who never had a PSA test (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-2.5). Among blacks, men with a family history were not significantly more likely to have a PSA test. Conclusions: Despite having the highest risk of cancer, black men with a family history are not screened more than black men without a family history. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Authors
Drake, BF; Lathan, CS; Okechukwu, CA; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Drake, BF, Lathan, CS, Okechukwu, CA, and Bennett, GG. "Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Screening by Family History." Annals of Epidemiology 18.7 (2008): 579-583.
PMID
18486487
Source
scival
Published In
Annals of Epidemiology
Volume
18
Issue
7
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
579
End Page
583
DOI
10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.02.004

Unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, ethnic identification, and smoking among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American study

Objectives. We examined the relations of self-report of general unfair treatment and self-report of race/ethnicity-specific discrimination with current smoking among Asian Americans. We investigated whether ethnic identification moderated either association. Methods. Weighted logistic regressions were performed among 1977 Asian Americans recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003). Results. In weighted multivariate logistic regression models including both general unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination, odds of current smoking were higher among Asian Americans who reported high levels of unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.13, 6.95) and high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 0.94, 6.12) compared with those who reported no unfair treatment and discrimination, respectively. High levels of ethnic identification moderated racial/ethnic discrimination (F3 = 3.25; P = .03). High levels of ethnic identification were associated with lower probability of current smoking among participants reporting high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that experiences of unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination are risk factors for smoking among Asian Americans. Efforts to promote ethnic identification may be effective in mitigating the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on smoking in this population.

Authors
Chae, DH; Takeuchi, DT; Barbeau, EM; Bennett, GG; Lindsey, J; Krieger, N
MLA Citation
Chae, DH, Takeuchi, DT, Barbeau, EM, Bennett, GG, Lindsey, J, and Krieger, N. "Unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, ethnic identification, and smoking among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American study." American Journal of Public Health 98.3 (2008): 485-492.
PMID
18235073
Source
scival
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
98
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
485
End Page
492
DOI
10.2105/AJPH.2006.102012

Nativity and cigarette smoking among lower income blacks: Results from the healthy directions study

Blacks in the United States bear the greatest disease burden associated with cigarette smoking. Previous studies have shown that the rapidly increasing population of foreign-born Blacks has lower smoking rates compared to their native-born counterparts. However, less is known about whether cigarette smoking among Blacks varies by region of birth (US, Africa, or the Caribbean), generational status, or acculturation. We examined the association between nativity and cigarette smoking among 667 Black adult men and women enrolled in the Harvard Cancer Prevention Program project. In multi-variable analyses, US-born Blacks were more likely to be smokers compared to those born in the Caribbean (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.34) or in Africa (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.08, and 0.74). Language acculturation was positively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.17, and 5.85). We found that US-born Blacks were more likely to be current cigarette smokers than those born in either Caribbean or African countries. Our findings highlight the importance of intervening early new Black immigrants to stem the uptake of cigarette smoking behaviors as individuals become acculturated. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Okechukwu, CA; Arthur, CM; Askew, S; Sorensen, G; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Okechukwu, CA, Arthur, CM, Askew, S, Sorensen, G, and Emmons, KM. "Nativity and cigarette smoking among lower income blacks: Results from the healthy directions study." Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 10.4 (2008): 305-311.
PMID
17924192
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Volume
10
Issue
4
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
305
End Page
311
DOI
10.1007/s10903-007-9088-0

Low discretionary time as a barrier to physical activity and intervention uptake

Objective: To determine whether self-reported discretionary time was associated with physical activity and uptake of a physical activity promotion intervention in a multi-ethnic urban sample. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported discretionary time with hours/week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline and physical activity intervention uptake. Results: Low levels of discretionary time were significantly (P<0.01) associated with fewer hours/week (β=-0.78, 95%CI= -1.34, -0.22) of physical activity at baseline. Discretionary time was not associated with physical activity intervention uptake. Conclusion: Lack of discretionary time may serve as barrier to physical activity, but its importance on intervention uptake is less clear.

Authors
Wolin, KY; Bennett, GG; McNeill, LH; Sorensen, G; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, Bennett, GG, McNeill, LH, Sorensen, G, and Emmons, KM. "Low discretionary time as a barrier to physical activity and intervention uptake." American Journal of Health Behavior 32.6 (2008): 563-569.
PMID
18442336
Source
scival
Published In
American Journal of Health Behavior
Volume
32
Issue
6
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
563
End Page
569
DOI
10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.6.563

Alcohol disorders among Asian Americans: Associations with unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identification (the national latino and Asia Americans Study, 2002-2003)

Study Objective: To examine history of alcohol abuse/dependence disorder in relation to unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identification among Asian Americans. Design: Weighted multivariate analyses of cross-sectional national survey data predicting lifetime history of alcohol abuse/dependence disorders. Setting: USA, Asian Americans. Participants: 2007 Asian American adults recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS; 2002-2003). Results: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, Asian Americans who reported experiencing unfair treatment had higher odds of history of alcohol abuse/dependence disorder (OR 5.26, 95% Cl 1.90 to 14.56). Participants who reported high levels of ethnic identification had lower odds of history of alcohol abuse/dependence disorders (OR 0.46, 95% Cl 0.23 to 0.90). Ethnic identification moderated the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination (p = 0.097). Among participants with low levels of ethnic identification, racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with greater odds of having a history of alcohol disorder compared with those with high levels of ethnic identification. Conclusions: Social hazards such as unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination should be considered in the development of programmes addressing alcohol disorders among Asian Americans. Interventions that promote ethnic identification in this population may be particularly relevant in mitigating the negative influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on alcohol disorders.

Authors
Chae, DH; Takeuchi, DT; Barbeau, EM; Bennett, GG; Lindsey, JC; Stoddard, AM; Krieger, N
MLA Citation
Chae, DH, Takeuchi, DT, Barbeau, EM, Bennett, GG, Lindsey, JC, Stoddard, AM, and Krieger, N. "Alcohol disorders among Asian Americans: Associations with unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, and ethnic identification (the national latino and Asia Americans Study, 2002-2003)." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62.11 (2008): 973-979.
PMID
18854501
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Volume
62
Issue
11
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
973
End Page
979
DOI
10.1136/jech.2007.066811

Interrelations of socioeconomic position and occupational and leisure-time physical activity in the national health and nutrition examination survey

Background: The interrelations between various physical activity domains have received little empirical attention in the United States. Of particular interest, given, the potential applicability to traditionally underserved communities, is the nature of the association between occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Methods: 5448 adult men and women who participated in NHANES 1999-2000 were included in analyses. Linear regression was used to examine the bivariate and multivariable associations of OPA and education with LTPA. Generalized logit models were used to examine the association of education with OPA. Results: We found no association between education and LTPA. OPA was significantly positively associated with LTPA (P < .001 ). The association between OPA and. LTPA was not strongest among those with low education and held only for men in gender-stratified analysis. Education was inversely associated with OPA (P < .00.1) in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Our findings lend preliminary support to the hypothesis that OPA is an important determinant of LTPA, particularly in men. This provides additional support to calls for assessment of OPA, particularly among individuals of low social class.

Authors
Wolin, KY; Bennett, GG
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, and Bennett, GG. "Interrelations of socioeconomic position and occupational and leisure-time physical activity in the national health and nutrition examination survey." Journal of Physical Activity and Health 5.2 (2008): 229-241.
PMID
18382032
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of physical activity & health
Volume
5
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
229
End Page
241

Neuropsychological assessment, neuroimaging, and neuropsychiatric evaluation in pediatric and adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD).

Traditionally, neuropsychological deficits due to Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) have been understudied in adults. We have begun to suspect, however, that symptomatic and asymptomatic Cerebrovascular Events (CVE) may account for an alarming number of deficits in this population. In the current brief review, we critically evaluated the pediatric and adult literatures on the neurocognitive effects of SCD. We highlighted the studies that have been published on this topic and posit that early detection of CVE via neurocognitive testing, neuropsychiatric evaluations, and neuroimaging may significantly reduce adult cognitive and functional morbidities.

Authors
Edwards, CL; Raynor, RD; Feliu, M; McDougald, C; Johnson, S; Schmechel, D; Wood, M; Bennett, GG; Saurona, P; Bonner, M; Wellington, C; DeCastro, LM; Whitworth, E; Abrams, M; Logue, P; Edwards, L; Martinez, S; Whitfield, KE
MLA Citation
Edwards, CL, Raynor, RD, Feliu, M, McDougald, C, Johnson, S, Schmechel, D, Wood, M, Bennett, GG, Saurona, P, Bonner, M, Wellington, C, DeCastro, LM, Whitworth, E, Abrams, M, Logue, P, Edwards, L, Martinez, S, and Whitfield, KE. "Neuropsychological assessment, neuroimaging, and neuropsychiatric evaluation in pediatric and adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD)." Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 3.6 (December 2007): 705-709.
PMID
19300604
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment
Volume
3
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
705
End Page
709

RACIAL SEGREGATION AND OBESITY AMONG BLACKS

Authors
Wolin, KY; Bennett, GG; James, SA
MLA Citation
Wolin, KY, Bennett, GG, and James, SA. "RACIAL SEGREGATION AND OBESITY AMONG BLACKS." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 33 (December 2007): S30-S30.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
33
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
S30
End Page
S30

Discrimination, dispositions, and cardiovascular responses to stress.

OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that past exposure to discrimination may influence perceptions of, and physiological responses to, new challenges. The authors examined how race and trait levels of hostility and optimism interact with past exposure to discrimination to predict physiological reactivity and recovery during an anger recall task. DESIGN: A community sample of 165 normotensive Black and White adults participated in an anger recall task while having their cardiovascular function monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood pressure and heart rate indicators of physiological reactivity and recovery. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Participants had higher reactivity and slower recovery to the anger recall task when they had high past discrimination, low cynicism, or high optimism. The pattern of effects was similar for both racial groups, but Blacks had more acute reactivity and slower recovery than Whites. These results are consistent with the perspective of discrimination as a chronic stressor that is related to acute stress responses, particularly for Blacks.

Authors
Richman, LS; Bennett, GG; Pek, J; Siegler, I; Williams, RB
MLA Citation
Richman, LS, Bennett, GG, Pek, J, Siegler, I, and Williams, RB. "Discrimination, dispositions, and cardiovascular responses to stress." Health Psychol 26.6 (November 2007): 675-683.
PMID
18020838
Source
pubmed
Published In
Health Psychology
Volume
26
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
675
End Page
683
DOI
10.1037/0278-6133.26.6.675

Safe to walk? Neighborhood safety and physical activity among public housing residents

Background: Despite its health benefits, physical inactivity is pervasive, particularly among those living in lower-income urban communities. In such settings, neighborhood safety may impact willingness to be regularly physically active. We examined the association of perceived neighborhood safety with pedometer-determined physical activity and physical activity selfefficacy. Methods and Findings: Participants were 1,180 predominantly racial/ethnic minority adults recruited from 12 urban low-income housing complexes in metropolitan Boston. Participants completed a 5-d pedometer data-collection protocol and self-reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in the ability to be physically active). Gender-stratified bivariate and multivariable random effects models were estimated to account for within-site clustering. Most participants reported feeling safe during the day, while just over one-third (36%) felt safe at night. We found no association between daytime safety reports and physical activity among both men and women. There was also no association between night-time safety reports and physical activity among men (p 1/4 0.23) but women who reported feeling unsafe (versus safe) at night showed significantly fewer steps per day (4,302 versus 5,178, p 1/4 0.01). Perceiving one's neighborhood as unsafe during the day was associated with significantly lower odds of having high physical activity self-efficacy among both men (OR 0.40, p 1/4 0.01) and women (OR 0.68, p 1/4 0.02). Conclusions: Residing in a neighborhood that is perceived to be unsafe at night is a barrier to regular physical activity among individuals, especially women, living in urban low-income housing. Feeling unsafe may also diminish confidence in the ability to be more physically active. Both of these factors may limit the effectiveness of physical activity promotion strategies delivered in similar settings. © 2007 Bennett et al.

Authors
Bennett, GG; McNeill, LH; Wolin, KY; Duncan, DT; Puleo, E; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, McNeill, LH, Wolin, KY, Duncan, DT, Puleo, E, and Emmons, KM. "Safe to walk? Neighborhood safety and physical activity among public housing residents." PLoS Medicine 4.10 (2007): 1599-1607.
PMID
17958465
Source
scival
Published In
PLoS medicine
Volume
4
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1599
End Page
1607
DOI
10.1371/journal.pmed.0040306

Immigration and obesity among lower income blacks

Objective: Our objective was to examine the associations of nativity, immigrant generation, and language acculturation with obesity among lower income black adult men and women. Research Methods and Procedures: Data from 551 black adult men and women were collected from participants in the Healthy Directions-Health Centers Study. Race/ethnicity and nativity were self-reported. Language acculturation was defined using participants' first language, preferred reading language, and language spoken at home. Mixed model logistic regression models were estimated to account for within-health center clustering. Results: Foreign-born blacks had a lower obesity risk, compared with all U.S.-born participants, in multivariable analyses [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.38, 0.84]. Among U.S.-born participants, those with foreign-born parents were significantly less likely to be obese than individuals with U.S.-born parents (OR = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.37, 0.80). Low-moderate language acculturation also decreased the odds of being obese (OR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23, 0.88). Discussion: Our findings suggest a protective effect of foreign-born status and low-moderate language acculturation on obesity risk among lower income black immigrants. These data highlight the importance of more frequently examining nativity in obesity-related research conducted among blacks. Copyright © 2007 NAASO.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Askew, S; Fletcher, R; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Askew, S, Fletcher, R, and Emmons, KM. "Immigration and obesity among lower income blacks." Obesity 15.6 (2007): 1391-1394.
PMID
17557975
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
15
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1391
End Page
1394
DOI
10.1038/oby.2007.166

Feasibility of using a web-based nutrition intervention among residents of multiethnic working-class neighborhoods.

INTRODUCTION: Using the Internet to promote behavior change is becoming more desirable as Internet use continues to increase among diverse audiences. Yet we know very little about whether this medium is useful or about different strategies to encourage Internet use by various populations. This pilot study tested the usefulness of a Web-based intervention designed to deliver nutrition-related information to and increase fruit and vegetable consumption among adults from working-class neighborhoods. METHODS: Participants (N = 52) had access to the Web site for 6 weeks and received three e-mail reminders encouraging them to eat fruits and vegetables. The Web site provided information about overcoming barriers to healthy eating, accessing social support for healthy eating, setting goals for healthy eating, and maintaining a healthy diet, including recipes. We collected data on participants' use of the Web site, their Internet access and use, and their fruit and vegetable consumption. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 46 years, 73% were white, 46% did not have a college degree, and 12% had household incomes at or below 185% of the federal poverty index. They reported consuming an average of 3.4 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. More than half of the participants owned a computer, 75% logged onto the Web site at least once, and those who visited the site averaged 3.8 visits and viewed an average of 24.5 pages. The number of log-ons per day declined over the study period; however, reminder e-mails appeared to motivate participants to return to the Web site. Roughly 74% of participants viewed information on goal setting, 72% viewed information on dietary tracking, and 56% searched for main course recipes. CONCLUSION: The results of this pilot study suggest that Internet-based health messages have the potential to reach a large percentage of adults from working-class neighborhoods who have access to the Internet.

Authors
McNeill, LH; Viswanath, K; Bennett, GG; Puleo, E; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
McNeill, LH, Viswanath, K, Bennett, GG, Puleo, E, and Emmons, KM. "Feasibility of using a web-based nutrition intervention among residents of multiethnic working-class neighborhoods." Preventing chronic disease 4.3 (2007): A55-.
PMID
17572959
Source
scival
Published In
Preventing Chronic Diseases: Public health research, practice, and policy
Volume
4
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
A55

Lifecourse socioeconomic position and weight change among blacks: The pitt county study

Objective: The elevated prevalence of obesity among U.S. blacks has been attributed to low socioeconomic position (SEP), despite inconsistent empirical findings. It is unclear whether low SEP at various lifecourse stages differentially influences adulthood BMI and BMI change. Research Methods and Procedures: Among 1167 black adults in the Pitt County Study, we examined independent cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SEP, measured in childhood and adulthood, and BMI and 13-year BMI change. Low vs. high childhood SEP was measured by parental occupation and childhood household deprivation; low vs. high adulthood SEP was assessed by employment status, education, and occupation. Using childhood and adulthood SEP, four lifecourse SEP categories were created: low-low, low-high, high-low, high-high. Results: We found no consistent associations between SEP and BMI or BMI change among men. Among women, we observed the expected inverse association between SEP and BMI at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, socio-economically advantaged women demonstrated larger 13-year increases in BMI: skilled vs. unskilled parental occupation (6.1 vs. 4.8 kg/m2, p = 0.04); college-educated vs. < high school (6.2 vs. 4.5 kg/m2, p = 0.04); white-collar vs. blue-collar job (5.8 vs. 4.8 kg/m2, p = 0.05); and high-high vs. low-low lifecourse SEP (6.5 vs. 4.6 kg/m2, p = 0.02). Discussion: For women in this black cohort, lower SEP predicted earlier onset of obesity; however, low SEP was less predictive of BMI increases over time. Our findings demonstrate complex patterns of association between SEP and BMI change among black women. Copyright © 2007 NAASO.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; James, SA
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, and James, SA. "Lifecourse socioeconomic position and weight change among blacks: The pitt county study." Obesity 15.1 (2007): 172-181.
PMID
17228045
Source
scival
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
15
Issue
1
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
172
End Page
181
DOI
10.1038/oby.2007.522

Barriers and facilitators to home computer and internet use among urban novice computer users of low socioeconomic position

Background: Despite the increasing penetration of the Internet and amount of online health information, there are significant barriers that limit its widespread adoption as a source of health information. One is the "digital divide," with people of higher socioeconomic position (SEP) demonstrating greater access and usage compared to those from lower SEP groups. However, as the access gap narrows over time and more people use the Internet, a shift in research needs to occur to explore how one might improve Internet use as well as website design for a range of audiences. This is particularly important in the case of novice users who may not have the technical skills, experience, or social connections that could help them search for health information using the Internet. The focus of our research is to investigate the challenges in the implementation of a project to improve health information seeking among low SEP groups. The goal of the project is not to promote health information seeking as much as to understand the barriers and facilitators to computer and Internet use, beyond access, among members of lower SEP groups in an urban setting.Objective: The purpose was to qualitatively describe participants' self-identified barriers and facilitators to computer and Internet use during a 1-year pilot study as well as the challenges encountered by the research team in the delivery of the intervention.Methods: Between August and November 2005, 12 low-SEP urban individuals with no or limited computer and Internet experience were recruited through a snowball sampling. Each participant received a free computer system, broadband Internet access, monthly computer training courses, and technical support for 1 year as the intervention condition. Upon completion of the study, participants were offered the opportunity to complete an in-depth semistructured interview. Interviews were approximately 1 hour in length and were conducted by the project director. The interviews were held in the participants' homes and were tape recorded for accuracy. Nine of the 12 study participants completed the semistructured interviews. Members of the research team conducted a qualitative analysis based on the transcripts from the nine interviews using the crystallization/immersion method.Results: Nine of the 12 participants completed the in-depth interview (75% overall response rate), with three men and six women agreeing to be interviewed. Major barriers to Internet use that were mentioned included time constraints and family conflict over computer usage. The monthly training classes and technical assistance components of the intervention surfaced as the most important facilitators to computer and Internet use. The concept of received social support from other study members, such as assistance with computer-related questions, also emerged as an important facilitator to overall computer usage.Conclusions: This pilot study offers important insights into the self-identified barriers and facilitators in computer and Internet use among urban low-SEP novice users as well as the challenges faced by the research team in implementing the intervention.

Authors
Kontos, EZ; Bennett, GG; Viswanath, K
MLA Citation
Kontos, EZ, Bennett, GG, and Viswanath, K. "Barriers and facilitators to home computer and internet use among urban novice computer users of low socioeconomic position." Journal of Medical Internet Research 9.4 (2007): e31-.
PMID
17951215
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of medical Internet research
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
e31
DOI
10.2196/jmir.9.4.e31

Body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among members of an urban community fitness center: A questionnaire survey

Background. Development of effective behavioral interventions to promote weight control and physical activity among diverse, underserved populations is a public health priority. Community focused wellness organizations, such as YMCAs, could provide a unique channel with which to reach such populations. This study assessed health behaviors and related characteristics of members of an urban YMCA facility. Methods. We surveyed 135 randomly selected members of an urban YMCA facility in Massachusetts to examine self-reported (1) physical activity, (2) dietary behaviors, (3) body mass index, and (4) correlates of behavior change among short-term (i.e., one year or less) and long-term (i.e., more than one year) members. Chi-square tests were used to assess bivariate associations between variables, and multivariate linear regression models were fit to examine correlates of health behaviors and weight status. Results. Eighty-nine percent of short-term and 94% of long-term members reported meeting current physical activity recommendations. Only 24% of short-term and 19% of long-term members met fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations, however, and more than half were overweight or obese. Length of membership was not significantly related to weight status, dietary behaviors, or physical activity. Most respondents were interested in changing health behaviors, in the preparation stage of change, and had high levels of self-efficacy to change behaviors. Short-term members had less education (p = 0.02), lower household incomes (p = 0.02), and were less likely to identify as white (p = 0.005) than long-term members. In multivariate models, females had lower BMI than males (p = 0.003) and reported less physical activity (p = 0.008). Physical activity was also inversely associated with age (p = 0.0004) and education (p = 0.02). Conclusion. Rates of overweight/obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption suggested that there is a need for a weight control intervention among members of an urban community YMCA. Membership in such a community wellness facility alone might not be sufficient to help members maintain a healthy weight. The data indicate that YMCA members are interested in making changes in their dietary and physical activity behaviors. Targeting newer YMCA members might be an effective way of reaching underserved populations. These data will help inform the development of a weight control intervention tailored to this setting. © 2007 Kaphingst et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Kaphingst, KA; Bennett, GG; Sorensen, G; Kaphingst, KM; O'Neil, AE; McInnis, K
MLA Citation
Kaphingst, KA, Bennett, GG, Sorensen, G, Kaphingst, KM, O'Neil, AE, and McInnis, K. "Body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among members of an urban community fitness center: A questionnaire survey." BMC Public Health 7 (2007).
PMID
17655750
Source
scival
Published In
BMC Public Health
Volume
7
Publish Date
2007
DOI
10.1186/1471-2458-7-181

Exploring social contextual correlates of computer ownership and frequency of use among urban, low-income, public housing adult residents

Background: As advances in computer access continue to be made, there is a need to better understand the challenges of increasing access for racial/ethnic minorities, particularly among those with lower incomes. Larger social contextual factors, such as social networks and neighborhood factors, may influence computer ownership and the number of places where individuals have access to computers. Objectives: We examined the associations of sociodemographic and social contextual factors with computer ownership and frequency of use among 1554 adults living in urban public housing. Methods: Bivariate associations between dependent variables (computer ownership and regular computer use) and independent variables were used to build multivariable logistic models adjusted for age and site clusters. Results: Participants (N = total weighted size of 2270) were on average 51.0 (± 21.4) years old, primarily African American or Hispanic, and earned less than US $20000 per year. More than half owned a computer, and 42% were regular computer users. Reporting computer ownership was more likely if participants lived above the poverty level (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.39-2.29), completed high school (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.70-3.55), were in financial hardship (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.06-1.81), were employed and supervised others (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.08-3.46), and had multiple role responsibilities (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.31-3.61). Regular computer use was more likely if participants were non-Hispanic (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.30-2.91), lived above the poverty level (OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.90-4.24), completed high school (OR = 4.43, 95% CI = 3.04-6.46), were employed and supervised others (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.37-4.22), felt safe in their neighborhood (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.08-2.30), and had greater social network ties (OR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.26-7.59). Conclusions: Disparities in computer ownership and use are narrowing, even among those with very low incomes; however, identifying factors that contribute to disparities in access for these groups will be necessary to ensure the efficacy of future technology-based interventions. A unique finding of our study is that it may be equally as important to consider specific social contextual factors when trying to increase access and use among low-income minorities, such as social network ties, household responsibilities, and neighborhood safety.

Authors
McNeill, LH; Puleo, E; Bennett, GG; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
McNeill, LH, Puleo, E, Bennett, GG, and Emmons, KM. "Exploring social contextual correlates of computer ownership and frequency of use among urban, low-income, public housing adult residents." Journal of Medical Internet Research 9.4 (2007): e35-.
PMID
18093903
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of medical Internet research
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
e35
DOI
10.2196/jmir.9.4.e35

Reconsideration of the training of psychiatrists and mental health professionals: helping to make soup.

For many years, we have known of deficits in our system of training mental health professionals, particularly in recognizing and integrating diversity. Recently, we have begun to understand that our literature must more authentically reflect the experiences of all people that we serve. The current paper suggests that a comprehensive biopsychosocial conceptualization of normal and abnormal behavior for all individuals is necessary to truly begin to reduce mental health disparities. The authors argue that factors such as racial, ethnic and cultural differences must be integrated into research before the literature will begin to change in a fashion that is beneficial to the mental health training process.

Authors
Edwards, CL; Primm, A; Johnson, S; Feliu, M; O'Garo, K; Bennett, GG; Robinson, E; McDougald, C; Byrd, G; Harrison, O; Whitfield, K; Killough, AL
MLA Citation
Edwards, CL, Primm, A, Johnson, S, Feliu, M, O'Garo, K, Bennett, GG, Robinson, E, McDougald, C, Byrd, G, Harrison, O, Whitfield, K, and Killough, AL. "Reconsideration of the training of psychiatrists and mental health professionals: helping to make soup." J Natl Med Assoc 98.9 (September 2006): 1498-1500.
PMID
17019918
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
98
Issue
9
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1498
End Page
1500

Response to "The need for logical application-based extensions in sickle cell disease research findings to changing lives in the ethnic context".

Authors
Edwards, C; Wood, M; Robinson, E; Byrd, G; Bennett, GG; Whitfield, K
MLA Citation
Edwards, C, Wood, M, Robinson, E, Byrd, G, Bennett, GG, and Whitfield, K. "Response to "The need for logical application-based extensions in sickle cell disease research findings to changing lives in the ethnic context"." J Natl Med Assoc 98.7 (July 2006): 1207-. (Letter)
PMID
16895300
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
98
Issue
7
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1207

Perceived racism and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery to personally relevant stress.

This study evaluated cardiovascular responses (CVR) to an active speech task with blatantly discriminatory (BRC) versus neutral (NRC) stimuli and an anger recall task in a sample of Black men (N = 73; age 18 to 47). Diastolic blood pressure scores were higher for NRC versus BRC stimuli during anger recall (p = .05). Moreover, persons in the NRC group who perceived high levels of racism (vs. no racism or BRC group) during active speech showed larger increases in blood pressure across postspeech rest, anger recall, and subsequent rest (p = .03). The notable elevation in CVR in response to an ambiguous event extends current models of racism suggesting that subtle racism is a psychosocial stressor that erodes health through chronically elevated CVR.

Authors
Merritt, MM; Bennett, GG; Williams, RB; Edwards, CL; Sollers, JJ
MLA Citation
Merritt, MM, Bennett, GG, Williams, RB, Edwards, CL, and Sollers, JJ. "Perceived racism and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery to personally relevant stress." Health Psychol 25.3 (May 2006): 364-369.
PMID
16719608
Source
pubmed
Published In
Health Psychology
Volume
25
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
364
End Page
369
DOI
10.1037/0278-6133.25.3.364

Sources of variability in John Henryism.

OBJECTIVES: To decompose sources of individual differences in coping as measured by John Henryism among African Americans. METHODS: Analyses described in this study are based on the pairwise responses from 180 pairs of same-sex, African-American twin pairs who participated in the Carolina African-American Twins Study of Aging (CAATSA). The sample consisted of 85 monozygotic (MZ) and 95 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. RESULTS: Environmental factors account for most of the variance (65%) in John Henryism scores, with the remaining variance attributable to additive genetic factors (35%). The test of the genetic component suggested that the 35% represented a statistically significant proportion of variance. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of recent studies on African Americans and health outcomes have focused on the impact of psychosocial factors on diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, with relatively little attention to possible genetic contributors. Previous research on psychosocial indices and their relationship to cardiovascular health among African Americans has focused on assessment and epidemiological explorations rather than understanding the etiology of variability in such measures.

Authors
Whitfield, KE; Brandon, DT; Robinson, E; Bennett, G; Merritt, M; Edwards, C
MLA Citation
Whitfield, KE, Brandon, DT, Robinson, E, Bennett, G, Merritt, M, and Edwards, C. "Sources of variability in John Henryism." J Natl Med Assoc 98.4 (April 2006): 641-647.
PMID
16623079
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
98
Issue
4
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
641
End Page
647

Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease.

There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substance abuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substance abuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abused substances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substance abusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substance abusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease.

Authors
Edwards, C; Whitfield, K; Sudhakar, S; Pearce, M; Byrd, G; Wood, M; Feliu, M; Leach-Beale, B; DeCastro, L; Whitworth, E; Abrams, M; Jonassaint, J; Harrison, MO; Mathis, M; Scott, L; Johnson, S; Durant, L; Holmes, A; Presnell, K; Bennett, G; Shelby, R; Robinson, E
MLA Citation
Edwards, C, Whitfield, K, Sudhakar, S, Pearce, M, Byrd, G, Wood, M, Feliu, M, Leach-Beale, B, DeCastro, L, Whitworth, E, Abrams, M, Jonassaint, J, Harrison, MO, Mathis, M, Scott, L, Johnson, S, Durant, L, Holmes, A, Presnell, K, Bennett, G, Shelby, R, and Robinson, E. "Parental substance abuse, reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease." J Natl Med Assoc 98.3 (March 2006): 420-428.
PMID
16573309
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
98
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
420
End Page
428

Television viewing and pedometer-determined physical activity among multiethnic residents of low-income housing

Objectives. We evaluated the association between television viewing and pedometer-determined physical activity among predominantly racial/ethnic minority residents of low-income housing in metropolitan Boston in 2005. Methods. We used mixed models to analyze the association between reported hours of television viewing and pedometer-determined steps per day among 486 adults. We also examined whether television viewing was associated with the achievement of 10000 steps per day. Results. There was a mean 3.6 hours of average daily television watching. In multivariable analyses, each hour of television viewing on an average day was associated with 144(95% confidence interval [CI] =-276,-12) fewer steps per day and a decreased likelihood of accumulating 10000 steps per day (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.71, 0.99). Weekday and weekend television viewing were each also associated with fewer steps per day. Conclusions. Average daily television viewing was associated with reductions in total pedometer-determined physical activity levels (approximately 520 steps per day) in this lower-income sample. As part of a comprehensive physical activity promotion plan, recommendations to reduce television viewing should be made.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Viswanath, K; Askew, S; Puleo, E; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Viswanath, K, Askew, S, Puleo, E, and Emmons, KM. "Television viewing and pedometer-determined physical activity among multiethnic residents of low-income housing." American Journal of Public Health 96.9 (2006): 1681-1685.
PMID
16873736
Source
scival
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
96
Issue
9
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1681
End Page
1685
DOI
10.2105/AJPH.2005.080580

Does race/ethnicity moderate the association between job strain and leisure time physical activity?

Background: Racial/ethnic minorities report myriad barriers to regular leisure time physical activity (LTPA), including the stress and fatigue resulting from their occupational activities. Purpose: We sought to investigate whether an association exists between job strain and LTPA, and whether it is modified by race or ethnicity. Methods: Data were collected from 1,740 adults employed in 26 small manufacturing businesses in eastern Massachusetts. LTPA and job strain data were self-reported. Adjusted mean hours of LTPA per week are reported. Results: In age and gender adjusted analyses, reports of job strain were associated with LTPA. There was a significant interaction between job strain and race or ethnicity (p = .04). Whites experiencing job strain reported 1 less hr of LTPA per week compared to Whites not reporting job strain. Collectively, racial/ethnic minorities reporting job strain exhibited comparatively higher levels of LTPA compared to their counterparts with no job strain, although patterns for individual groups did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Job strain was associated with LTPA in a lower income, multiethnic population of healthy adult men and women. The association between job strain and LTPA was modified by race or ethnicity, highlighting the importance of investigating the differential effects of psychosocial occupational factors on LTPA levels by race or ethnicity. © 2006 by The Society of Behavioral Medicine.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Avrunin, JS; Stoddard, AM; Sorensen, G; Barbeau, E; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Avrunin, JS, Stoddard, AM, Sorensen, G, Barbeau, E, and Emmons, KM. "Does race/ethnicity moderate the association between job strain and leisure time physical activity?." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 32.1 (2006): 60-67.
PMID
16827630
Source
scival
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
32
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
60
End Page
67
DOI
10.1207/s15324796abm3201_7

Pedometer-determined physical activity among multiethnic low-income housing residents

Purpose: We sought to characterize pedometer-determined physical activity among a predominantly racial and ethnic minority sample of adults residing in low-income housing. Methods: Data were collected from 433 participants at baseline in a randomized colon cancer prevention intervention trial conducted within low-income housing communities. Using random effects models to control for clustering within housing sites, we examined variation in daily steps by several sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Participants recorded a mean of 5326 (± 3871 SD) daily steps over a 5-d sampling period. Significantly lower levels of pedometer-determined physical activity were found among older-aged participants (P < 0.0001), women (P = 0.02), those who were overweight and obese (P = 0.03), those reporting no weekly exercise (P = 0.04), as well as among nonworking individuals (P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found by education or income. In multivariable analyses, age, gender, body mass index, and employment status remained significantly associated with steps. Conclusions: These findings suggest a high prevalence of physical inactivity among low-income housing residents. These data, derived from a well-characterized sample, provide useful estimates for the investigation of pedometers as measures of total accumulated physical activity among lower-income, racial and ethnic minority populations. Copyright © 2006 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Puleo, E; Emmons, KM
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Puleo, E, and Emmons, KM. "Pedometer-determined physical activity among multiethnic low-income housing residents." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38.4 (2006): 768-773.
PMID
16679995
Source
scival
Published In
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume
38
Issue
4
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
768
End Page
773
DOI
10.1249/01.mss.0000210200.87328.3f

Attitudes regarding overweight, exercise, and health among Blacks (United States)

Objective: To investigate Blacks'views regarding the connections among overweight, exercise, and health. Methods: A national randomized telephone survey of 986 US Blacks, conducted between 6 July 2004 and 15 July 2004. Results: The majority (65%) of respondents reported their weight as average or underweight. Most participants also reported being regularly physically active in the last month (84.5%). The majority of participants reported believing that it is possible to be overweight and healthy. Most acknowledged the connection between exercise and health, and just over half of respondents identified the association between overweight and cancer risk. There was little sociodemographic variation in responses, although findings differed by self-reported overweight and physical activity. Conclusions: Some Blacks may underestimate the extent of their overweight, perhaps resulting from the high prevalence of the condition in the population. Gaps exist in Blacks' recognition of the connection between weight and health, although the importance of exercise for health promotion was widely acknowledged. These data may highlight an important target for intervention attention. © Springer-Verlag 2006.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Goodman, M; Samplin-Salgado, M; Carter, P; Dutton, S; Hill, R; Emmons, K
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Goodman, M, Samplin-Salgado, M, Carter, P, Dutton, S, Hill, R, and Emmons, K. "Attitudes regarding overweight, exercise, and health among Blacks (United States)." Cancer Causes and Control 17.1 (2006): 95-101.
PMID
16411058
Source
scival
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
17
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
95
End Page
101
DOI
10.1007/s10552-005-0412-5

Satisfied or unaware? Racial differences in perceived weight status

Background: Obesity is disproportionately prevalent among many racial/ ethnic minority communities. The efficacy of weight control efforts in these groups may depend on individual's ability to accurately perceive their weight status. We examined whether racial/ethnic differences exist in weight status misperception among overweight adults. Methods: Nationally-representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 were examined. Participants included overweight and obese adult men (n = 3115) and women (n = 3437). Weight status misperception was identified among respondents who self-reported being "about the right weight/ underweight." Results: Blacks (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.71, 2.54) were twice as likely and Hispanics (OR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33, 2.17) were 70-percent more likely than Whites to misperceive their weight, in models adjusted for age, education, income, marital status, self-reported health, and self-reported medical diagnosis of overweight. Black overweight (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.26, 3.26) and obese (OR = 3.56, 95% CI: 1.57, 8.11) women were considerably more likely to exhibit misperception compared to their White female counterparts. Odds of misperception were higher among overweight Black (OR = 2.20, 95%CI: 1.54, 3.15), Hispanic (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.75), and obese Black men (OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.22), compared to White men. Conclusion: Weight status misperceptions among the overweight are more common among Blacks, and Hispanic men. The persistence of racial/ethnic differences after adjustment for medical diagnosis of overweight may suggest some resistance to physician weight counseling. Identifying strategies to correct weight status misperceptions status may be necessary to ensure the efficacy of clinical and public health obesity interventions conducted among these groups. © 2006 Bennett and Wolin; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, and Wolin, KY. "Satisfied or unaware? Racial differences in perceived weight status." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 3 (2006).
Source
scival
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Volume
3
Publish Date
2006
DOI
10.1186/1479-5868-3-40

Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults.

We examined the association between perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use in 2129 African American college students in North Carolina. Age-adjusted and multivariate analyses evaluated the effect of harassment on daily and less-than-daily tobacco use. Harassed participants were twice as likely to use tobacco daily (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval=1.94, 2.08) compared with those with no reported harassment experiences. Experiences of racial/ethnic harassment may contribute to tobacco use behaviors among some African American young adults.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Wolin, KY; Robinson, EL; Fowler, S; Edwards, CL
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Wolin, KY, Robinson, EL, Fowler, S, and Edwards, CL. "Perceived racial/ethnic harassment and tobacco use among African American young adults." Am J Public Health 95.2 (February 2005): 238-240.
PMID
15671457
Source
pubmed
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
95
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
238
End Page
240
DOI
10.2105/AJPH.2004.037812

Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples

Introduction Few papers address the methodological challenges in recruiting participants for studies of cancer prevention interventions designed for multiracial and multiethnic working-class populations. This paper reports the results of the sample selection and survey methods for two grouprandomized intervention studies. Methods The two group-randomized intervention studies, Healthy Directions-Small Business (HD-SB) and Healthy Directions-Health Centers (HD-HC), included a worksitebased study in 26 small manufacturing businesses and a study in 10 outpatient health centers. We used selection and recruitment methods to obtain a multiracial and multiethnic working-class study sample. In 2000 and 2001, we assessed baseline measures of sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral outcomes by self-report. We then computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results Of the 1740 participants in the HD-SB study, 68% were non-Hispanic whites, and 76% had working-class occupations. In the HD-HC study, 59% of 2219 participants were non-Hispanic whites. Among those who worked, 51% had working-class occupations. Large percentages of both samples reported not meeting recommended guidelines for the target behaviors. For example, 86% of members of both samples consumed fewer than the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The ICCs for the four target behaviors in HD-SB were between 0.006 and 0.02. In the HD-HC study, the ICCs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.003. Conclusion The two studies were successful in recruiting multiracial and multiethnic working-class participants. Researchers will find the estimates of the primary outcomes and their ICCs useful for planning future studies.

Authors
Stoddard, AM; Krieger, N; Barbeau, EM; Bennett, GG; Fay, ME; Sorensen, G; Emmons, K
MLA Citation
Stoddard, AM, Krieger, N, Barbeau, EM, Bennett, GG, Fay, ME, Sorensen, G, and Emmons, K. "Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples." Preventing Chronic Disease 2.4 (January 1, 2005).
Source
scopus
Published In
Preventing Chronic Diseases: Public health research, practice, and policy
Volume
2
Issue
4
Publish Date
2005

Depressive symptoms and prospective incidence of colorectal cancer in women

The authors examined depressive symptoms and prospective incidence of colorectal cancer and distal colorectal adenomas in 81,612 women without prior cancer from the Nurses' Health Study; 400 cases of colorectal cancer and 680 distal colorectal adenomas accrued between 1992 and the year 2000. Depressive symptoms were assessed in 1992 and 1996 with the five-question Mental Health Index (MHI-5), a subscale of the Short-Form 36 health status survey. Scores ranged from 0 to 100, and women with scores between 0 and 52 were defined as having significant depressive symptomatology. The authors also created four categories across the range of Mental Health Index scores: 0-52, 53-75, 76-85, and 86-100 (referent). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the extent of depressive symptoms and colorectal events. Analyses were stratified by body mass index. In multivariate analyses with updated exposure, women with the highest levels of depressive symptoms had an elevated risk of incident colorectal cancer (hazard ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 2.11) compared with women with the lowest levels of symptoms (ptrend = 0.04). Associations appeared stronger in overweight women. However, depressive symptoms were unrelated to risk of colorectal adenomas. Associations are consistent with a possible role in late promotion of the disease. Copyright © 2005 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.

Authors
Kroenke, CH; Bennett, GG; Fuchs, C; Giovannucci, E; Kawachi, I; Schernhammer, E; Holmes, MD; Kubzansky, LD
MLA Citation
Kroenke, CH, Bennett, GG, Fuchs, C, Giovannucci, E, Kawachi, I, Schernhammer, E, Holmes, MD, and Kubzansky, LD. "Depressive symptoms and prospective incidence of colorectal cancer in women." American Journal of Epidemiology 162.9 (2005): 839-848.
PMID
16207809
Source
scival
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
162
Issue
9
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
839
End Page
848
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwi302

A brief review of the pathophysiology, associated pain, and psychosocial issues in sickle cell disease.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disorder of the blood. The disease produces significantly abnormal hemoglobin (Hgb) molecules in red blood cells (RBCs). The sickling of RBCs occurs when partially or totally deoxygenated Hgb molecules distort their normal disk shape, producing stiff, sticky, sickle-shaped cells that obstruct small blood vessels and produce vasoocclusion as well as the disruption of oxygen to body tissues. Because tissue damage can occur at multiple foci, patients with SCD are at risk for other medical complications including, but not limited to, delayed growth and sexual maturation; acute and chronic pulmonary dysfunction; stroke; aseptic necrosis of the hip, shoulders, or both; sickle cell retinopathy; dermal ulcers; and severe chronic pain. The chronicity of the illness combined with frequent hospitalizations for pain and other medical management can contribute significantly to impaired psychosocial functioning, altered intra- and interpersonal relationships, and reduced quality of life. Unlike previous qualitative reviews of SCD, this article describes the relevant clinical and research data on the relation between psychosocial functioning and SCD in adult and child populations. The authors discuss the significant role of psychosocial issues in the trajectory and management of the disease and conclude that understanding the pathophysiology of SCD without thoroughly understanding the equally important psychosocial influences is misunderstanding SCD.

Authors
Edwards, CL; Scales, MT; Loughlin, C; Bennett, GG; Harris-Peterson, S; De Castro, LM; Whitworth, E; Abrams, M; Feliu, M; Johnson, S; Wood, M; Harrison, O; Killough, A
MLA Citation
Edwards, CL, Scales, MT, Loughlin, C, Bennett, GG, Harris-Peterson, S, De Castro, LM, Whitworth, E, Abrams, M, Feliu, M, Johnson, S, Wood, M, Harrison, O, and Killough, A. "A brief review of the pathophysiology, associated pain, and psychosocial issues in sickle cell disease." Int J Behav Med 12.3 (2005): 171-179. (Review)
PMID
16083320
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
12
Issue
3
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
171
End Page
179
DOI
10.1207/s15327558ijbm1203_6

Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples.

INTRODUCTION: Few papers address the methodological challenges in recruiting participants for studies of cancer prevention interventions designed for multiracial and multiethnic working-class populations. This paper reports the results of the sample selection and survey methods for two group-randomized intervention studies. METHODS: The two group-randomized intervention studies, Healthy Directions-Small Business (HD-SB) and Healthy Directions-Health Centers (HD-HC), included a worksite-based study in 26 small manufacturing businesses and a study in 10 outpatient health centers. We used selection and recruitment methods to obtain a multiracial and multiethnic working-class study sample. In 2000 and 2001, we assessed baseline measures of sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral outcomes by self-report. We then computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). RESULTS: Of the 1740 participants in the HD-SB study, 68% were non-Hispanic whites, and 76% had working-class occupations. In the HD-HC study, 59% of 2219 participants were non-Hispanic whites. Among those who worked, 51% had working-class occupations. Large percentages of both samples reported not meeting recommended guidelines for the target behaviors. For example, 86% of members of both samples consumed fewer than the recommended five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The ICCs for the four target behaviors in HD-SB were between 0.006 and 0.02. In the HD-HC study, the ICCs ranged from 0.0004 to 0.003. CONCLUSION: The two studies were successful in recruiting multiracial and multiethnic working-class participants. Researchers will find the estimates of the primary outcomes and their ICCs useful for planning future studies.

Authors
Stoddard, AM; Krieger, N; Barbeau, EM; Bennett, GG; Fay, ME; Sorensen, G; Emmons, K
MLA Citation
Stoddard, AM, Krieger, N, Barbeau, EM, Bennett, GG, Fay, ME, Sorensen, G, and Emmons, K. "Methods and baseline characteristics of two group-randomized trials with multiracial and multiethnic working-class samples." Preventing chronic disease 2.4 (2005): A10-.
PMID
16164814
Source
scival
Published In
Preventing Chronic Diseases: Public health research, practice, and policy
Volume
2
Issue
4
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
A10

Low educational attainment, John Henryism, and cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from personally relevant stress.

OBJECTIVE: The John Henryism hypothesis proposes that a high level of John Henryism (JH: high-effort coping with psychosocial demands) is predictive of hypertension at low but not high socioeconomic status (SES). The objectives of the present study were to determine whether high JH and low SES (education, income, job status, and job strain) were associated with increased cardiovascular responses to laboratory social stressors. METHODS: Subjects were 58 normotensive, healthy black men age 23 to 47 years. The procedure included the completion of psychosocial questionnaires and participation in a psychophysiological reactivity protocol. The reactivity protocol involved the following experimental tasks and associated recovery periods: an active speech task and an anger recall task. Measures of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were obtained continuously using a Finapres beat-to-beat blood pressure monitor throughout the reactivity protocol. RESULTS: At high JH, low (compared with high) education level was linked with higher DBP during anger recall and final recovery, higher SBP during final recovery, and higher HR and RPP during speech preparation and final recovery (p <.05). Among subjects with low education, high (vs. low) JH was associated with higher SBP, HR, and RPP during final recovery (p <.05). CONCLUSIONS: John Henryism may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease among people with low education by increased cardiovascular reactivity and prolonged recovery to stress.

Authors
Merritt, MM; Bennett, GG; Williams, RB; Sollers, JJ; Thayer, JF
MLA Citation
Merritt, MM, Bennett, GG, Williams, RB, Sollers, JJ, and Thayer, JF. "Low educational attainment, John Henryism, and cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from personally relevant stress." Psychosom Med 66.1 (January 2004): 49-55.
PMID
14747637
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume
66
Issue
1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
49
End Page
55

Stress, coping, and health outcomes among African-Americans: A review of the John Henryism hypothesis

The John Henryism (JH) hypothesis argues that prolonged high-effort coping with chronic psychosocial stressors may be associated with elevated risk for negative health outcomes among those without sufficient socioeconomic resources. Early JH studies found a significant association between high JH, low socioeconomic status, and hypertension among African-Americans. More recently, these findings have been extended to a wide array of health status outcomes, including cardiovascular reactivity, neurohormonal secretion, and negative health behaviors. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of JHs conceptual bases and empirical support. Limitations of the construct are discussed and recommendations are made to guide future theoretical and research efforts in the area.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Merritt, MM; III, JJS; Edwards, CL; Whitfield, KE; Brandon, DT; Tucker, RD
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Merritt, MM, III, JJS, Edwards, CL, Whitfield, KE, Brandon, DT, and Tucker, RD. "Stress, coping, and health outcomes among African-Americans: A review of the John Henryism hypothesis." Psychology and Health 19.3 (2004): 369-383.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychology and Health
Volume
19
Issue
3
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
369
End Page
383
DOI
10.1080/0887044042000193505

Perceived Racism and Affective Responses to Ambiguous Interpersonal Interactions among African American Men

The current study examined affective responses to ambiguous interpersonal interactions containing both ambiguous and overtly racist content. Participants included 74 African American males (ages 18-47), half of whom heard a depiction of a negative social interaction with blatantly racist content (BRC). The remaining participants heard a similar scenario containing no racist content (NRC). Negative affect scores were higher for those in the BRC group, yet individuals in the ambiguous (NRC) condition who reported perceptions of racism in the scenario showed greater negative affect reactivity than those who saw no racism in the scenario. Among those in the NRC group, self-reported past experiences with racial discrimination moderated the effect of perceived racism on negative affect. The authors conclude that the perception of racial discrimination, in particular when evaluating ambiguous situations, may have profound affective consequences for Black men.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Merritt, MM; Edwards, CL; III, JJS
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Merritt, MM, Edwards, CL, and III, JJS. "Perceived Racism and Affective Responses to Ambiguous Interpersonal Interactions among African American Men." American Behavioral Scientist 47.7 (2004): 963-976.
Source
scival
Published In
American Behavioral Scientist
Volume
47
Issue
7
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
963
End Page
976
DOI
10.1177/0002764203261070

Ethnicity, education, and the cortisol response to awakening: A preliminary investigation

Objective. To explore the associations among ethnicity, educational attainment, and cortisol secretion. Design. Participants included 63 white (n = 31) and African-American (n = 32) adult men and women. Subjects provided salivary cortisol samples immediately upon awakening and again, 30 minutes later. Results. Analyses adjusted for relevant covariates revealed a steeper awakening response among whites with higher education compared to other groups. Cortisol levels were significantly lower among African-American participants with lower levels of education. All effects were independent of perceived stress. Conclusions. These preliminary findings demonstrate significant ethnic and education-related differences in awakening cortisol secretion responses. Our data highlight the importance of considering ethnicity and the moderating effects of social class when examining the associations among social contextual factors and cortisol secretion.

Authors
Bennett, GG; Merritt, MM; Wolin, KY
MLA Citation
Bennett, GG, Merritt, MM, and Wolin, KY. "Ethnicity, education, and the cortisol response to awakening: A preliminary investigation." Ethnicity and Health 9.4 (2004): 337-347.
PMID
15570679
Source
scival
Published In
Ethnicity and Health
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
337
End Page
347
DOI
10.1080/1355785042000285366

Religiosity enhances cardiovascular reactivity among black males with low education

Authors
Merritt, MM; Bennett, GG; Williams, RB
MLA Citation
Merritt, MM, Bennett, GG, and Williams, RB. "Religiosity enhances cardiovascular reactivity among black males with low education." PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE 62.1 (2000): 139-139.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume
62
Issue
1
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
139
End Page
139

Hypermasculinity and academic goal-setting: an exploratory study

The relation between gender-role percepts and academic goal-setting was explored. An inventory examining the aspects of masculinity that would facilitate or inhibit academic goal-setting was developed based on a literature review of how masculinity relates to academic behaviors. A diverse sample of students (120 male, 147 female, 14 not indicating sex) was measured on three aspects of sex and academic goal-setting behavior. Factor analysis confirmed the content validity of masculine factors having facilitative (Mastery Competitiveness) and inhibitory (Antisocial Competitiveness) academic properties. Regression analyses indicated that sex-role orientations (Competitiveness and Hypermasculinity) significantly predicted academic goal-setting behaviors (R2 = .136). Finally, men scored higher than women on the subscales measuring Hypermasculinity and Antisocial or Competitiveness, while there were no sex differences on the Mastery Competitiveness subscale. The implications of these findings and suggestions for research are discussed.

Authors
Lasane, TP; Howard, WL; Czopp, AM; Sweigard, PN; Bennett, GG; Carvajal, F
MLA Citation
Lasane, TP, Howard, WL, Czopp, AM, Sweigard, PN, Bennett, GG, and Carvajal, F. "Hypermasculinity and academic goal-setting: an exploratory study." Psychological Reports 85.2 (1999): 487-496.
PMID
10611780
Source
scival
Published In
Psychological Reports
Volume
85
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
487
End Page
496

Roll 'em!: The effects of picture motion on emotional responses

An experiment investigated the effects of picture motion on individuals' emotional reactions to images. Participants in the study viewed moving and still versions of 27 different images extracted from a variety of film and television programs. Subjective measures (self-reports) and physiological data (skin conductance and heart rate) were obtained to provide convergent data on affective responses. Results indicate that picture motion significantly increased arousal, particularly when the image was already arousing. Both skin conductance and self-report data supported this finding. Picture motion also tended to prompt more heart-rate deceleration, most likely reflecting a greater allocation of attention to the more arousing images. In this study, the influence of picture motion on affective valence was evident only in the self-report measures; positive images were experienced as more positive and negative images as more negative when the image contained motion. © 1998 Broadcast Education Association.

Authors
Detenber, BH; Simons, RF; Jr, GGB
MLA Citation
Detenber, BH, Simons, RF, and Jr, GGB. "Roll 'em!: The effects of picture motion on emotional responses." Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 42.1 (1998): 113-127.
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media
Volume
42
Issue
1
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
113
End Page
127
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