Junzo Chino

Overview:

Clinical Research in Gynecologic Malignancies, Breast Malignancies, Radiation Oncology Resident Education, Stereotactic Radiation Therapy, and Brachytherapy

Positions:

Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology

Radiation Oncology
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 2004

Indiana University at Indianapolis

Director of Brachytherapy, Radiation Oncology

Duke University School of Medicine

Intern

Indiana University, School of Medicine

Resident, Radiation Oncology

Duke University School of Medicine

Chief Resident, Radiation Oncology

Duke University School of Medicine

American Board of Radiology (ABR)

American Board of Radiology

Publications:

Catastrophic health expenditures, insurance churn, and nonemployment among gynecologic cancer patients in the United States.

BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the financial burden of severe illness, including associations with higher rates of nonemployment, uninsurance, and catastrophic out-of-pocket health spending. Patients with gynecologic cancer often require expensive and prolonged treatments, potentially disrupting employment and insurance coverage access, and putting patients and their families at risk for catastrophic health expenditures. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of insurance churn, nonemployment, and catastrophic health expenditures among nonelderly patients with gynecologic cancer in the United States, to compare within subgroups and to other populations and assess for changes associated with the Affordable Care Act. STUDY DESIGN: We identified respondents aged 18 to 64 years from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2006 to 2017, who reported care related to gynecologic cancer in a given year, and a propensity-matched cohort of patients without cancer and patients with cancers of other sites, as comparison groups. We applied survey weights to extrapolate to the US population, and we described patterns of insurance churn (any uninsurance or insurance loss or change), catastrophic health expenditures (>10% annual family income), and nonemployment. Characteristics and outcomes between groups were compared with the adjusted Wald test. RESULTS: We identified 683 respondents reporting care related to a gynecologic cancer diagnosis from 2006 to 2017, representing an estimated annual population of 532,400 patients (95% confidence interval, 462,000-502,700). More than 64% of patients reported at least 1 of 3 primary negative outcomes of any uninsurance, part-year nonemployment, and catastrophic health expenditures, with 22.4% reporting at least 2 of 3 outcomes. Catastrophic health spending was uncommon without nonemployment or uninsurance reported during that year (1.2% of the population). Compared with patients with other cancers, patients with gynecologic cancer were younger and more likely with low education and low family income (≤250% federal poverty level). They reported higher annual risks of insurance loss (8.8% vs 4.8%; P=.03), any uninsurance (22.6% vs 14.0%; P=.002), and part-year nonemployment (55.3% vs 44.6%; P=.005) but similar risks of catastrophic spending (12.6% vs 12.2%; P=.84). Patients with gynecologic cancer from low-income families faced a higher risk of catastrophic expenditures than those of higher icomes (24.4% vs 2.9%; P<.001). Among the patients from low-income families, Medicaid coverage was associated with a lower risk of catastrophic spending than private insurance. After the Affordable Care Act implementation, we observed reductions in the risk of uninsurance, but there was no significant change in the risk of catastrophic spending among patients with gynecologic cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with gynecologic cancer faced high risks of uninsurance, nonemployment, and catastrophic health expenditures, particularly among patients from low-income families. Catastrophic spending was uncommon in the absence of either nonemployment or uninsurance in a given year.
Authors
Albright, BB; Nitecki, R; Chino, F; Chino, JP; Havrilesky, LJ; Aviki, EM; Moss, HA
MLA Citation
Albright, Benjamin B., et al. “Catastrophic health expenditures, insurance churn, and nonemployment among gynecologic cancer patients in the United States.Am J Obstet Gynecol, Sept. 2021. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2021.09.034.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498609
PMID
34597606
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Published Date
DOI
10.1016/j.ajog.2021.09.034

Associations of Insurance Churn and Catastrophic Health Expenditures With Implementation of the Affordable Care Act Among Nonelderly Patients With Cancer in the United States.

Importance: Health insurance coverage is dynamic in the United States, potentially changing from month to month. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) aimed to stabilize markets and reduce financial burden, particularly among those with preexisting conditions. Objective: To describe the risks of insurance churn (ie, gain, loss, or change in coverage) and catastrophic health expenditures among nonelderly patients with cancer in the United States, assessing for changes associated with ACA implementation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, cross-sectional study uses data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a representative sample of the US population from 2005 to 2018. Respondents included were younger than 65 years, identified by health care use associated with a cancer diagnosis code in the given year. Statistical analysis was conducted from July 30, 2020, to January 5, 2021. Exposures: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survey weights were applied to generate estimates for the US population. Annual risks of insurance churn (ie, any uninsurance or insurance change or loss) and catastrophic health expenditures (spending >10% income) were calculated, comparing subgroups with the adjusted Wald test. Weighted multivariable linear regression was used to assess for changes associated with ACA implementation. Results: From 6069 respondents, we estimated a weighted mean of 4.78 million nonelderly patients (95% CI, 4.55-5.01 million; female patients: weighted mean, 63.9% [95% CI, 62.2%-65.7%]; mean age, 50.3 years [95% CI, 49.7-50.8 years]) with cancer annually in the United States. Patients with cancer experienced lower annual risks of insurance loss (5.3% [95% CI, 4.5%-6.1%] vs 7.6% [95% CI, 7.4%-7.8%]) and any uninsurance (14.6% [95% CI, 13.3%-16.0%] vs 24.1% [95% CI, 23.5%-24.7%]) but increased risk of catastrophic health expenditures (expenses alone: 12.4% [95% CI, 11.2%-13.6%] vs 6.3% [95% CI, 6.2%-6.5%]; including premiums: 26.6% [95% CI, 25.0%-28.1%] vs 16.5% [95% CI, 16.1%-16.8%]; P < .001) relative to the population without cancer. Patients with cancer from low-income families and with full-year private coverage were at particularly high risk of catastrophic health expenditures (including premiums: 81.7% [95% CI, 74.6%-88.9%]). After adjustment, low income was the factor most strongly associated with both insurance churn and catastrophic spending, associated with annual risk increases of 6.5% (95% CI, 4.2%-8.8%) for insurance loss, 17.3% (95% CI, 13.4%-21.2%) for any uninsurance, and 37.4% (95% CI, 33.3%-41.6%) for catastrophic expenditures excluding premiums (P < .001). In adjusted models relative to 2005-2009, full ACA implementation (2014-2018) was associated with a decreased annual risk of any uninsurance (-4.2%; 95% CI, -7.4% to -1.0%; P = .01) and catastrophic spending by expenses alone (-3.0%; 95% CI, -5.3% to -0.8%; P = .008) but not including premiums (0.4%; 95% CI, -2.8% to 4.5%; P = .82). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, US patients with cancer faced significant annual risks of insurance churn and catastrophic health spending. Despite some improvements with ACA implementation, large burdens remained, and further reform is needed to protect this population from excessive hardship.
Authors
Albright, BB; Chino, F; Chino, JP; Havrilesky, LJ; Aviki, EM; Moss, HA
MLA Citation
Albright, Benjamin B., et al. “Associations of Insurance Churn and Catastrophic Health Expenditures With Implementation of the Affordable Care Act Among Nonelderly Patients With Cancer in the United States.Jama Netw Open, vol. 4, no. 9, Sept. 2021, p. e2124280. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24280.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1496499
PMID
34495338
Source
pubmed
Published In
Jama Network Open
Volume
4
Published Date
Start Page
e2124280
DOI
10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24280

Medicaid Expansion Reduced Uninsured Surgical Hospitalizations And Associated Catastrophic Financial Burden.

An important function of health insurance is protecting enrollees from excessively burdensome charges for unanticipated medical events. Unexpected surgery can be financially catastrophic for uninsured people. By targeting the low-income uninsured population, Medicaid expansion had the potential to reduce the financial risks associated with these events. We used two data sources (state-level data for forty-four states and patient-level data for four states) to estimate the association of Medicaid expansion with uninsured surgical hospitalizations among nonelderly adults. Uninsured surgery cases were typically admitted through the emergency department-often for common emergency procedures-and 99 percent of them were estimated to be associated with financially catastrophic visit charges. We found that Medicaid expansion was associated with reductions in both the share (6.20 percent) and the population rate (7.85 per 10,000) of uninsured surgical discharges in expansion versus nonexpansion states. Our estimates suggest that in 2019 alone, adoption of Medicaid expansion in nonexpansion states could have prevented more than 50,000 incidences of catastrophic financial burden resulting from uninsured surgery.
Authors
Albright, BB; Chino, F; Chino, JP; Havrilesky, LJ; Aviki, EM; Moss, HA
MLA Citation
Albright, Benjamin B., et al. “Medicaid Expansion Reduced Uninsured Surgical Hospitalizations And Associated Catastrophic Financial Burden.Health Aff (Millwood), vol. 40, no. 8, Aug. 2021, pp. 1294–303. Pubmed, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02496.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1493191
PMID
34339246
Source
pubmed
Published In
Health Aff (Millwood)
Volume
40
Published Date
Start Page
1294
End Page
1303
DOI
10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02496

Changes in cancer mortality rates after the adoption of the Affordable Care Act.

Authors
Lee, A; Shah, K; Chino, JP; Chino, F
MLA Citation
Lee, Anna, et al. “Changes in cancer mortality rates after the adoption of the Affordable Care Act.Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 38, no. 15, 2020.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1468063
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Journal of Clinical Oncology : Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Volume
38
Published Date

A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Radiation Sequence in Women With Stage IIIC Endometrial Cancer.

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of sequence and type of adjuvant therapy for patients with stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma (EC) on outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study, patients with stage IIIC EC who had surgical staging and received both adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) were included. Adjuvant treatment regimens were classified as adjuvant chemotherapy followed by sequential RT (upfront chemo), which was predominant sequence; RT with concurrent chemotherapy followed by chemotherapy (concurrent); systemic chemotherapy before and after RT (sandwich); adjuvant RT followed by chemotherapy (upfront RT); or chemotherapy concurrent with vaginal cuff brachytherapy alone (chemo-brachy). Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: A total of 686 eligible patients were included with a median follow-up of 45.3 months. The estimated 5-year OS and RFS rates were 74% and 66%, respectively. The sequence and type of adjuvant therapy were not correlated with OS or RFS (adjusted P = .68 and .84, respectively). On multivariate analysis, black race, nonendometrioid histology, grade 3 tumor, stage IIIC2, and presence of adnexal and cervical involvement were associated with worse OS and RFS (all P < .05). Regardless of the sequence of treatment, the most common site of first recurrence was distant metastasis (20.1%). Vaginal only, pelvic only, and paraortic lymph node (PALN) recurrences occurred in 11 (1.6%),15 (2.2 %), and 43 (6.3 %) patients, respectively. Brachytherapy alone was associated with a higher rate of PALN recurrence (15%) compared with external beam radiation therapy (5%) P < .0001. CONCLUSIONS: The sequence and type of combined adjuvant therapy did not affect OS or RFS rates. Brachytherapy alone was associated with a higher rate of PALN recurrence, emphasizing the role of nodal radiation for stage IIIC EC. The vast proportion of recurrences were distant despite systemic chemotherapy, highlighting the need for novel regimens.
Authors
Hathout, L; Wang, Y; Wang, Q; Vergalasova, I; Elshaikh, MA; Dimitrova, I; Damast, S; Li, JY; Fields, EC; Beriwal, S; Keller, A; Kidd, EA; Usoz, M; Jolly, S; Jaworski, E; Leung, EW; Donovan, E; Taunk, NK; Chino, J; Natesan, D; Russo, AL; Lea, JS; Albuquerque, KV; Lee, LJ
MLA Citation
Hathout, Lara, et al. “A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Radiation Sequence in Women With Stage IIIC Endometrial Cancer.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, vol. 110, no. 5, Aug. 2021, pp. 1423–31. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.055.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1475703
PMID
33677053
Source
pubmed
Published In
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys
Volume
110
Published Date
Start Page
1423
End Page
1431
DOI
10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.02.055