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Davis, James

Overview:

Dr. James Davis is the Medical Director for Duke Center for Smoking Cessation, Director of the Duke Smoking Cessation Program and  Director of the Duke-UNC Tobacco Treatment Specialist Credentialing Program.  Dr. Davis is a practicing Hospitalist (Internal Medicine)  and is a tobacco dependence instructor for the Duke University School of Nursing, Duke Psychiatry and Family Practice Residency programs.  His research has focused on development of mindfulness-based treatments for smoking cessation and he is currently principal investigator on an NIH funded clinical trial assessing “adaptive” quit smoking medication protocols and assessing the effectiveness of an the Duke Smoking Cessation Program.  Dr. Davis is Co-Investigator on a trial assessing decision making in Lung Cancer Screening and several trials on the use of E-cigarettes as a treatment for smokers.  

Positions:

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Medicine, General Internal Medicine
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1997

M.D. — Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

Internal Medicine Residency,

Mayo Clinic

News:

Grants:

Randomized-Controlled Smoking Cessation Trial on Varenicline vs. Varenicline-based Adaptive Pharmacotherapy with Cross-Randomization to High vs. Low Intensity Behavioral Therapy

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
Pfizer, Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
November 30, 2016
End Date
November 29, 2021

The Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Alkaloids in E-Cigarette Use and Dependence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
February 15, 2015
End Date
November 30, 2018

Lung Cancer Screening Implementation: Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care

Administered By
Medicine, General Internal Medicine
AwardedBy
Portland VA Research Foundation
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
January 01, 2016
End Date
December 31, 2017

Publications:

Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

Cigarette smoking has been implicated in causing many cancers and cancer deaths. There is mounting evidence indicating that smoking negatively impacts cancer treatment efficacy and overall survival. The NCCN Guidelines for Smoking Cessation have been created to emphasize the importance of smoking cessation and establish an evidence-based standard of care in all patients with cancer. These guidelines provide recommendations to address smoking in patients and outlines behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for smoking cessation throughout the continuum of oncology care.

Authors
Shields, PG; Herbst, RS; Arenberg, D; Benowitz, NL; Bierut, L; Luckart, JB; Cinciripini, P; Collins, B; David, S; Davis, J; Hitsman, B; Hyland, A; Lang, M; Leischow, S; Park, ER; Purcell, WT; Selzle, J; Silber, A; Spencer, S; Tanvetyanon, T; Tiep, B; Tindle, HA; Tucker-Seeley, R; Urbanic, J; Hooper, MW; Weksler, B; Whitlock, CW; Wood, DE; Burns, J; Scavone, J
MLA Citation
Shields, PG, Herbst, RS, Arenberg, D, Benowitz, NL, Bierut, L, Luckart, JB, Cinciripini, P, Collins, B, David, S, Davis, J, Hitsman, B, Hyland, A, Lang, M, Leischow, S, Park, ER, Purcell, WT, Selzle, J, Silber, A, Spencer, S, Tanvetyanon, T, Tiep, B, Tindle, HA, Tucker-Seeley, R, Urbanic, J, Hooper, MW, Weksler, B, Whitlock, CW, Wood, DE, Burns, J, and Scavone, J. "Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology." Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN 14.11 (November 2016): 1430-1468.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/13073
PMID
27799513
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
Volume
14
Issue
11
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1430
End Page
1468

Mindfulness training for smokers via web-based video instruction with phone support: a prospective observational study.

Many smokers are unable to access effective behavioral smoking cessation therapies due to location, financial limitations, schedule, transportation issues or other reasons. We report results from a prospective observational study in which a promising novel behavioral intervention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers was provided via web-based video instruction with telephone-based counseling support.Data were collected on 26 low socioeconomic status smokers. Participants were asked to watch eight video-based classes describing mindfulness skills and how to use these skills to overcome various core challenges in tobacco dependence. Participants received eight weekly phone calls from a smoking cessation coach who provided general support and answered questions about the videos. On the quit day, participants received two weeks of nicotine patches.Participants were a mean of 40.5 years of age, smoked 16.31 cigarettes per day for 21.88 years, with a mean of 6.81 prior failed quit attempts. Participants completed a mean of 5.55 of 8 online video classes with a mean of 23.33 minutes per login, completed a mean of 3.19 of 8 phone coach calls, and reported a mean meditation practice time of 12.17 minutes per day. Smoking abstinence was defined as self-reported abstinence on a smoking calendar with biochemical confirmation via carbon monoxide breath-test under 7 parts per million. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 4 and 6-months post-quit of 23.1% and 15.4% respectively. Participants showed a significant pre- to post-intervention increase in mindfulness as measured by the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, and a significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in the Anxiety Sub-scale of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale.Results suggest that Mindfulness Training for Smokers can be provided via web-based video instruction with phone support and yield reasonable participant engagement on intervention practices and that intervention efficacy and mechanism of effect deserve further study.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02164656 , Registration Date June 13, 2014.

Authors
Davis, JM; Manley, AR; Goldberg, SB; Stankevitz, KA; Smith, SS
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Manley, AR, Goldberg, SB, Stankevitz, KA, and Smith, SS. "Mindfulness training for smokers via web-based video instruction with phone support: a prospective observational study." BMC complementary and alternative medicine 15 (March 29, 2015): 95-.
PMID
25886752
Source
epmc
Published In
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume
15
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
95
DOI
10.1186/s12906-015-0618-3

Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control.

Smoking continues to take an enormous toll on society, and although most smokers would like to quit, most are unsuccessful using existing therapies. These findings call on researchers to develop and test therapies that provide higher rates of long-term smoking abstinence. We report results of a randomized controlled trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment using mindfulness training to a matched control based on the American Lung Association's Freedom From Smoking program. Data were collected on 175 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2011-2012 in a medium sized midwestern city. A significant difference was not found in the primary outcome; intent-to-treat biochemically confirmed 6-month smoking abstinence rates were mindfulness=25.0%, control=17.9% (p=0.35). Differences favoring the mindfulness condition were found on measures of urges and changes in mindfulness, perceived stress, and experiential avoidance. While no significant differences were found in quit rates, the mindfulness intervention resulted in positive outcomes.

Authors
Davis, JM; Manley, AR; Goldberg, SB; Smith, SS; Jorenby, DE
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Manley, AR, Goldberg, SB, Smith, SS, and Jorenby, DE. "Randomized trial comparing mindfulness training for smokers to a matched control." Journal of substance abuse treatment 47.3 (September 2014): 213-221.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11686
PMID
24957302
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Volume
47
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
213
End Page
221
DOI
10.1016/j.jsat.2014.04.005

Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in mindfulness training for smokers.

Stress is a well-known predictor of smoking relapse, and cortisol is a primary biomarker of stress. The current pilot study examined changes in levels of cortisol in hair within the context of two time-intensity matched behavioral smoking cessation treatments: mindfulness training for smokers and a cognitive-behavioral comparison group.Eighteen participants were recruited from a larger randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation.Hair samples (3 cm) were obtained 1 month after quit attempt, allowing for a retrospective analysis of hair cortisol at preintervention and post-quit attempt time periods. Self-reported negative affect was also assessed before and after treatment.Both groups received a 7-week intensive intervention using mindfulness or cognitive-behavioral strategies.Cortisol significantly decreased from baseline to 1 month after quit attempt in the entire sample (d=-0.35; p=.005). In subsequent repeated-measures analysis of variance models, time by group and time by quit status interaction effects were not significant. However, post hoc paired t tests yielded significant pre-post effects among those randomly assigned to the mindfulness condition (d=-0.48; p=.018) and in those abstinent at post-test (d=-0.41; p=.004). Decreased hair cortisol correlated with reduced negative affect (r=.60; p=.011).These preliminary findings suggest that smoking cessation intervention is associated with decreased hair cortisol levels and that reduced hair cortisol may be specifically associated with mindfulness training and smoking abstinence. RESULTS support the use of hair cortisol as a novel objective biomarker in future research.

Authors
Goldberg, SB; Manley, AR; Smith, SS; Greeson, JM; Russell, E; Van Uum, S; Koren, G; Davis, JM
MLA Citation
Goldberg, SB, Manley, AR, Smith, SS, Greeson, JM, Russell, E, Van Uum, S, Koren, G, and Davis, JM. "Hair cortisol as a biomarker of stress in mindfulness training for smokers." Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 20.8 (August 2014): 630-634.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11687
PMID
24963659
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume
20
Issue
8
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
630
End Page
634
DOI
10.1089/acm.2014.0080

The secret ingredient in mindfulness interventions? A case for practice quality over quantity.

As mindfulness-based interventions become increasingly widespread, interest has grown in better understanding which features of these treatments produce beneficial effects. The present study examined the relative contribution of mindfulness practice time and practice quality in predicting psychological functioning (negative affect, emotion regulation, quality of life, mindfulness). Data were drawn from a randomized clinical trial of mindfulness training for smokers and assessed outcomes at posttreatment (n = 43) and 5-month follow-up (n = 38). The intervention included instruction in mindfulness techniques targeted to smoking cessation and relapse prevention and was composed of 10 group meetings over 8 weeks. Data from 8 treatment groups were used. Mindfulness practice quality was measured weekly over the course of treatment, and multilevel modeling was used to estimate trajectories of change in practice quality. The measure of practice quality was shown to be valid and reliable, with change in practice quality predicting change in psychological functioning at both posttreatment (β = .31, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.56], p = .022) and follow-up (β = .45 [0.16, 0.73], p = .002), even when controlling for practice time. Practice time predicted outcomes at posttreatment (β = .31 [0.05, 0.57], p = .019) but not at follow-up (β = .16 [-0.14, 0.47], p = .293). Neither practice time nor change in practice quality predicted smoking abstinence at 1 month or 6 months postquit. Results support the importance of practice quality as a relevant aspect of mindfulness interventions.

Authors
Goldberg, SB; Del Re, AC; Hoyt, WT; Davis, JM
MLA Citation
Goldberg, SB, Del Re, AC, Hoyt, WT, and Davis, JM. "The secret ingredient in mindfulness interventions? A case for practice quality over quantity." Journal of counseling psychology 61.3 (July 2014): 491-497.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11685
PMID
25019551
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Counseling Psychology
Volume
61
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
491
End Page
497
DOI
10.1037/cou0000032

Randomized trial on mindfulness training for smokers targeted to a disadvantaged population.

We report the results of a randomized trial comparing a novel smoking cessation treatment Mindfulness Training for Smokers (MTS) to a usual care therapy (Controls), which included the availability of a tobacco quit line and nicotine patches. Data were collected from 196 low socioeconomic status smokers in 2010-2011 in Madison, Wisconsin. Participants were randomized to either MTS or a telephonic quit line. The primary outcome was 6-month smoking abstinence measured by carbon monoxide breath testing and Time-Line Follow-Back. Among treatment initiators (randomized participants who participated in the intervention), abstinence rates were significantly different between the MTS (38.7%) and control (20.6%, p = .05) groups. Study limitations are also discussed. Results suggest that further study is warranted.

Authors
Davis, JM; Goldberg, SB; Anderson, MC; Manley, AR; Smith, SS; Baker, TB
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Goldberg, SB, Anderson, MC, Manley, AR, Smith, SS, and Baker, TB. "Randomized trial on mindfulness training for smokers targeted to a disadvantaged population." Substance use & misuse 49.5 (April 2014): 571-585.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11684
PMID
24611852
Source
epmc
Published In
Substance Use & Misuse (Informa)
Volume
49
Issue
5
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
571
End Page
585
DOI
10.3109/10826084.2013.770025

Providing premedical students with quality clinical and research experience: the Tobacco Science Scholars Program.

Undergraduate premedical students face a formidable decision as they work to determine whether to pursue a profession in medicine. Exposure to clinical medicine and research is essential to inform students what it might be like to be a physician. Undergraduates, however, face a number of obstacles to obtaining the kind of quality clinical and research experience needed to make an informed decision. Growing regulations designed to protect patient confidentiality, though undeniably important, pose a barrier to students seeking patient contact. Traditional passive physician shadowing often does not provide ample opportunities for one-on-one patient interaction or problem solving. Finally, research opportunities available to students typically are not associated with clinical work and therefore do not provide an experiential model of how empirical evidence informs medical practice. This report describes the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health's Tobacco Science Scholars Program, a pilot program designed to address some of these barriers. While fulfilling institutional requirements for patient contact, the program provides students with an active model of clinical patient interaction and problem solving, with a research experience integrated into these clinical experiences so that undergraduates better understand how research informs clinical medicine.

Authors
Davis, JM; Anderson, MC; Stankevitz, KA; Manley, AR
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Anderson, MC, Stankevitz, KA, and Manley, AR. "Providing premedical students with quality clinical and research experience: the Tobacco Science Scholars Program." WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin 112.5 (October 2013): 195-198.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11692
PMID
24734413
Source
epmc
Published In
WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Volume
112
Issue
5
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
195
End Page
198

Pilot randomized trial on mindfulness training for smokers in young adult binge drinkers.

We report results of a pilot study designed to test a novel smoking cessation intervention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers (MTS), in smokers age 18-29 years with regular episodes of binge drinking. Mindfulness is a cognitive skill of applying close moment-to-moment attention to experience with a mental posture of acceptance and non-reactivity. The MTS intervention consisted of six weekly classes that provided instruction on how to use mindfulness to manage known precursors of smoking relapse including smoking triggers, strong emotions, stressful situations, addictive thoughts, urges, and withdrawal symptoms.The MTS intervention was compared to Interactive Learning for Smokers (ILS), a time/intensity matched control group using daily non-directed walking instead of mindfulness meditation. Recruitment was conducted primarily at local technical colleges. Primary outcome measures included biochemically-confirmed smoking abstinence and reduction in alcohol use at the end of treatment (2-weeks post-quit attempt).The sample (N = 55) was 70.9% male, with a mean age of 21.9 years, and a mean of 11.76 alcoholic drinks consumed per week. Intent-to-treat analysis showed biochemically-confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 2-weeks post-quit for MTS = 20.0% and ILS = 4.0%, p = .08. Secondary analysis showed number of drinks per week in the first 2-weeks post-quit correlated with smoking relapse at 2-weeks post-quit (p < .01).This pilot study demonstrated that Mindfulness Training for Smokers shows promise for smoking cessation and alcohol use reduction in treating young adult smokers with alcohol abuse. Results suggest the need for a study with larger sample size and methods that reduce attrition.ClnicalTrial.gov, NCT01679236.

Authors
Davis, JM; Mills, DM; Stankevitz, KA; Manley, AR; Majeskie, MR; Smith, SS
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Mills, DM, Stankevitz, KA, Manley, AR, Majeskie, MR, and Smith, SS. "Pilot randomized trial on mindfulness training for smokers in young adult binge drinkers." BMC complementary and alternative medicine 13 (September 3, 2013): 215-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11689
PMID
24006963
Source
epmc
Published In
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume
13
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
215
DOI
10.1186/1472-6882-13-215

The role of therapeutic alliance in mindfulness interventions: therapeutic alliance in mindfulness training for smokers.

Mindfulness-based interventions have enjoyed a marked increase in support within biomedical and psychological research and practice in the past two decades. Despite the widespread application of these treatments for a range of psychological and medical conditions, there remains a lack of consensus regarding mechanisms through which these interventions effect change. One plausible yet underexplored mechanism is the therapeutic alliance between participants and mindfulness instructors.In this report, data are presented on therapeutic alliance from the mindfulness arm (n = 37) of a randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based smoking cessation treatment.Results suggest that client-reported therapeutic alliance measured midtreatment did not significantly predict primary smoking outcomes. Alliance did predict improvement in posttreatment scores on several outcome variables linked to mindfulness practice, including emotion regulation (β = -.24, p = .042), mindfulness (β = .33, p = .007), negative affect (β = -.33, p = .040), as well as treatment compliance (β = .39, p = .011).Implications of these relationships and the possible role of therapeutic alliance in mindfulness treatments are explored.

Authors
Goldberg, SB; Davis, JM; Hoyt, WT
MLA Citation
Goldberg, SB, Davis, JM, and Hoyt, WT. "The role of therapeutic alliance in mindfulness interventions: therapeutic alliance in mindfulness training for smokers." Journal of clinical psychology 69.9 (September 2013): 936-950.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11688
PMID
23775222
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Clinical Psychology
Volume
69
Issue
9
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
936
End Page
950
DOI
10.1002/jclp.21973

An fMRI investigation of the impact of withdrawal on regional brain activity during nicotine anticipation.

Previous research indicates that drug motivational systems are instantiated in structures that process information related to incentive, motivational drive, memorial, motor/habit, craving, and cognitive control processing. The present research tests the hypothesis that activity in such systems will be powerfully affected by the combination of drug anticipation and drug withdrawal. Event-related fMRI was used to examine activation in response to a preinfusion warning cue in two experimental sessions that manipulated withdrawal status. Significant cue-induced effects were seen in the caudate, ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus, the insula, subcallosal gyrus, nucleus accumbens, and anterior cingulate. These results suggest that withdrawal and nicotine anticipation produce (1) different motor preparatory and inhibitory response processing and (2) different craving related processing.

Authors
Gloria, R; Angelos, L; Schaefer, HS; Davis, JM; Majeskie, M; Richmond, BS; Curtin, JJ; Davidson, RJ; Baker, TB
MLA Citation
Gloria, R, Angelos, L, Schaefer, HS, Davis, JM, Majeskie, M, Richmond, BS, Curtin, JJ, Davidson, RJ, and Baker, TB. "An fMRI investigation of the impact of withdrawal on regional brain activity during nicotine anticipation." Psychophysiology 46.4 (July 2009): 681-693.
PMID
19490513
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
46
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
681
End Page
693
DOI
10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00823.x

Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients.

The aim of this report is to determine the frequency of aberrant drug behaviors and their relationship to substance abuse disorders in a large primary sample of patients receiving opioids for chronic pain.The data utilized for this report was obtained from 904 chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy from their primary care physician. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 aberrant drug behaviors reported in the clinical literature. The diagnosis of a current substance use disorder was determined using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition(DSM-IV) criteria.The average duration of chronic pain in the sample was 16 years and for opioid therapy, 6.4 years. Of the patients, 80.5% reported one or more lifetime aberrant drug behaviors. The most frequent behaviors reported included early refills (41.7%), increase dose without physician consent (35.7%), and felt intoxicated from opioids (32.2%). Only 1.1% of subjects with 1-3 aberrant behaviors (N = 464, 51.2%) met DSM-IV criteria for current opioid dependence compared with 9.9% of patients with four or more behaviors (N = 264, 29.3%). Persons with positive urine toxicology tests for cocaine were 14 times more likely to report four or more behaviors than no behaviors (14.1% vs 1.1%). A logistic model found that subjects who reported four or more aberrant behaviors were more likely to have a current substance use disorder (odds ratio [OR] 10.14; 3.72, 27.64), a positive test for cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 3.01; 1.74, 15.4), an Addiction Severity Index (ASI) psychiatric composite score >0.5 (OR 2.38; 1.65, 3.44), male gender (OR 2.08: 1.48, 2.92), and older age (OR 0.69; 0.59, 0.81) compared with subjects with three or fewer behaviors. Pain levels, employment status, and morphine equivalent dose do not enter the model.Patients who report four or more aberrant drug behaviors are associated with a current substance use disorder and illicit drug use, whereas subjects with up to three aberrant behaviors have a very low probability of a current substance abuse disorder. Four behaviors--oversedated oneself, felt intoxicated, early refills, increase dose on own--appear useful as screening questions to predict patients at greatest risk for a current substance use disorders.

Authors
Fleming, MF; Davis, J; Passik, SD
MLA Citation
Fleming, MF, Davis, J, and Passik, SD. "Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients." Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.) 9.8 (November 2008): 1098-1106.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11691
PMID
18721174
Source
epmc
Published In
Pain Medicine
Volume
9
Issue
8
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1098
End Page
1106
DOI
10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00491.x

Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources.

The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.

Authors
Slagter, HA; Lutz, A; Greischar, LL; Francis, AD; Nieuwenhuis, S; Davis, JM; Davidson, RJ
MLA Citation
Slagter, HA, Lutz, A, Greischar, LL, Francis, AD, Nieuwenhuis, S, Davis, JM, and Davidson, RJ. "Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources." PLoS biology 5.6 (June 2007): e138-.
PMID
17488185
Source
epmc
Published In
PLoS biology
Volume
5
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
e138
DOI
10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138

A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers.

Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment, non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (with minor modifications) as a smoking intervention.MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress.18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9 cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18 subjects (56%) achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress.The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger comparative trial.

Authors
Davis, JM; Fleming, MF; Bonus, KA; Baker, TB
MLA Citation
Davis, JM, Fleming, MF, Bonus, KA, and Baker, TB. "A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers." BMC complementary and alternative medicine 7 (January 25, 2007): 2-.
PMID
17254362
Source
epmc
Published In
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume
7
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
2
DOI
10.1186/1472-6882-7-2

Optimizing Clinical Trial Enrollment Methods Through "Goal Programming"

Authors
Davis, JM
MLA Citation
Davis, JM. "Optimizing Clinical Trial Enrollment Methods Through "Goal Programming"." Applied Clinical Trials: your peer-reviewed guide to global clinical trials management: 46-50.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11690
Source
manual
Published In
Applied Clinical Trials: your peer-reviewed guide to global clinical trials management
Start Page
46
End Page
50
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