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Im, Eun OK

Overview:

Dr. Im is currently the Associate Dean for Research Development and Regulatory Affairs at Duke University, School of Nursing. Dr. Im received a BSN with an honor (magna cum laude) and a MPH from Seoul National University in South Korea. She received her second Master's degree (MSN) from the University of California, San 
Francisco (UCSF), and finally a PhD in nursing from UCSF in 1997. She also had 1.5 years of postdoctoral study at UCSF. She was an endowed chair/professor at the University of Texas at Austin (La Quinta Motor Inns Centennial Professor, 2007 to 2011) and the University of Pennsylvania (Majorie O. Rendell Endowed Chair, 2011-2016). She is currently Mary T. Champagne Professor at Duke University (2016 to present).

Dr. Im's most outstanding contribution to nursing is a research program that adopts Internet and computer technologies to eliminate gender and ethnic disparities. She has taken the lead in this burgeoning field, and her current studies are among the first of their kind to use these technologies to build nursing knowledge. She has also gained national and international recognition as a methodologist and theorist in international cross-cultural women’s health through more than 350 papers, abstracts, and chapters (over 170 refereed journal articles) and over 320 international and national multi-disciplinary presentations. Dr. Im has been on more than 45 research review panels of the NIH, and has been a reviewer for the PCORI and the American Heart Association. Dr. Im is a senior editor of the Journal of Transcultural Nursing, is on the editorial boards of 8 journals including the Advances in Nursing Science and the Research in Nursing and Health, and is on 13 editorial review boards. She has numerous national and international awards, one of which is the 2014 International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame Award from the Sigma Theta Tau International. Recently, she was selected as one of the 2019 NINR Director's lecturers.

Dr. Im's program of research can be described as feminist-driven Internet research on gender and ethnic differences in health/illness experience of midlife women. Dr. Im's doctoral research and post-doctoral study focused on international cross-cultural women’s health research. Then, her work extended to oncology areas, and she developed Internet research methodology as an area of expertise. She further integrated this line of work with research projects on gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain, menopausal symptoms, and physical activity as the principal investigator through a series of NIH-funded, R01 awards. She has obtained about 17.5 million dollars (9.1 million as the PI) of research funding through R01s and other grants (4 R01s as the PI and over 30 other grants as the PI).

Dr. Im’s dedication to teaching and mentoring a new generation of scholars is reflected in her efforts made to individually mentor more than 55 doctoral and post-doctoral scholars, 90 undergraduate students, and 60 research assistants (counting only since Sep. 2002). Also, her national and international invited lectures, presentations, book chapters, and service activities represent her efforts to raise a next generation of nurses and to make advances in nursing science. Dr. Im has taught courses on nursing theory, nursing philosophy, critical literature review, research methods, and global women’s health issues.

Positions:

Mary T. Champagne Professor of Nursing

School of Nursing
School of Nursing

Professor in the School of Nursing, with tenure

School of Nursing
School of Nursing

Associate Dean, Research Development and Regulatory Affairs

School of Nursing
School of Nursing

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 1997

Ph.D. — University of California - San Francisco

News:

Grants:

To Enhance Breast Cancer Survivorship of Asian Americans

Administered By
School of Nursing
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2016
End Date
May 31, 2021

Awards:

The Distinguished Contributions for Nursing Science Award . Duke University School of Nursing & Alumni Association.

Type
School
Awarded By
Duke University School of Nursing & Alumni Association
Date
April 01, 2017

Finalist for Aetna Susan B. Anthony Award for Excellence in Research on Older Women and Public Health. American Public Health Association.

Type
Scholarly Society
Awarded By
American Public Health Association
Date
November 01, 2015

2014 International Nurse Researcher Hall of Fame Award. Sigma Theta Tau International.

Type
Scholarly Society
Awarded By
Sigma Theta Tau International
Date
June 01, 2014

Invited participant, NIH/NINR 2014 June Technology Workshop (Innovative Questions Workshop to set future strategic plans for the NINR). National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR).

Type
National
Awarded By
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
Date
June 01, 2014

Marjorie O. Rendell Endowed Chair. University of Pennsylvania.

Type
University
Awarded By
University of Pennsylvania
Date
January 01, 2011

Centennial Alumni Recognition Award. the 100th Celebration of College of Nursing at Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Type
International
Awarded By
the 100th Celebration of College of Nursing at Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Date
October 01, 2007

La Quinta Motor Inns. Inc. Centennial Professor in Nursing. University of Texas, Austin.

Type
University
Awarded By
University of Texas, Austin
Date
January 01, 2007

Fellow, American Academy of Nursing (FAAN). American Academy of Nursing.

Type
Scholarly Society
Awarded By
American Academy of Nursing
Date
November 01, 2005

D. Jean Wood Nursing Scholarship Award. Southern Nursing Research Society.

Type
Scholarly Society
Awarded By
Southern Nursing Research Society
Date
February 01, 2005

Ed and Molly Smith Centennial Fellowship. The University of Texas at Austin.

Type
School
Awarded By
The University of Texas at Austin
Date
January 01, 2005

Dean’s Excellence Award, Writing Award. The University of Texas at Austin.

Type
School
Awarded By
The University of Texas at Austin
Date
January 01, 2004

Ed and Molly Smith Centennial Fellowship. The University of Texas at Austin.

Type
School
Awarded By
The University of Texas at Austin
Date
January 01, 2002

American Nurses Foundation Scholar. American Nurses Foundation .

Type
Scholarly Society
Awarded By
American Nurses Foundation
Date
January 01, 2001

President Award. The Korean Nurses’ Association.

Type
Other
Awarded By
The Korean Nurses’ Association
Date
February 01, 1989

Education Committee Chairman Award. City of Seoul, Korea.

Type
Other
Awarded By
City of Seoul, Korea
Date
February 01, 1985

Publications:

Barriers to Acupuncture Use Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

Increasing evidence suggests that acupuncture may be helpful to manage common symptoms and treatment side effects among breast cancer (BC) survivors. Acupuncture usage among BC survivors remains low with little known about the barriers to its utilization. We evaluated perceived barriers to acupuncture use among BC survivors and explored the sociodemographic variations of such barriers.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis at an urban academic cancer center on 593 postmenopausal women with a history of stage I-III hormone receptor-positive BC who were taking or had taken an aromatase inhibitor. We used the modified Attitudes and Beliefs about Complementary and Alternative Medicine instrument to evaluate patients' perceived barriers to acupuncture. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine sociodemographic factors associated with perceived barrier scores.The most common barriers were lack of knowledge about acupuncture (41.6%), concern for lack of insurance coverage (25.0%), cost (22.3%), and difficulty finding qualified acupuncturists (18.6%). Compared with whites, minority patients had higher perceived barriers to use acupuncture (β coefficient = 1.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.3-2.9, P = .013). Patients with lower education had higher barriers to use acupuncture (β coefficient = 4.23, 95% confidence interval = 3.0-5.4, P < .001) compared with patients with college education or above.Lack of knowledge and concerns for insurance coverage and cost are the common barriers to acupuncture use among BC survivors, especially among minority patients with lower education. Addressing these barriers may lead to more equitable access to acupuncture treatment for BC survivors from diverse backgrounds.

Authors
Bao, T; Li, Q; DeRito, JL; Seluzicki, C; Im, E-O; Mao, J
MLA Citation
Bao, T, Li, Q, DeRito, JL, Seluzicki, C, Im, E-O, and Mao, J. "Barriers to Acupuncture Use Among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis." Integrative Cancer Therapies 17.3 (September 2018): 854-859.
PMID
29338443
Source
epmc
Published In
Integrative Cancer Therapies
Volume
17
Issue
3
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
854
End Page
859
DOI
10.1177/1534735418754309

What to Consider in a Culturally Tailored Technology-Based Intervention?

The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in implementing a culturally tailored technology-based intervention among Asian American survivors of breast cancer. In a large-scale technology-based breast cancer intervention study, research team members wrote memos on issues in implementing a culturally tailored technology-based intervention and plausible reasons for the issues. Then, the content of the research diaries was analyzed, along with written records of the research team. The practical issues found in the research process included those related to (1) technology literacy and preferences; (2) language issues; (3) cultural attitudes, beliefs, and values; (4) intervention staff competence; (5) security and confidentiality issues; and (6) time and geographical constraints. Based on the issues, several recommendations are proposed for future research using culturally tailored technology-based interventions among racial and ethnic minorities.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Hu, Y; Kim, S; Choi, H; Hamajima, Y; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Hu, Y, Kim, S, Choi, H, Hamajima, Y, and Chee, E. "What to Consider in a Culturally Tailored Technology-Based Intervention?." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 36.9 (September 2018): 424-429.
PMID
29927767
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
36
Issue
9
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
424
End Page
429
DOI
10.1097/cin.0000000000000450

Prevalence and risk factors for fatigue among breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitors.

Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom experienced by cancer survivors. This study sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for fatigue among breast cancer (BC) survivors receiving aromatase inhibitors (AIs).We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among postmenopausal women with stage 0 to III BC receiving adjuvant AI therapy at the outpatient breast oncology clinic of a large university hospital. Participants with a score ≥4 on the 'worst fatigue' item of the Brief Fatigue Inventory were classified as having moderate or severe fatigue. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors.Among 1103 participants, 616 (55.8%) had moderate or severe fatigue. In the multivariate logistic regression model, women younger than 55 years were significantly more likely to report moderate to severe fatigue than women older than 65 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-2.35; p = 0.023). Compared to women with high school or less education, women with college or more education were significantly more likely to report moderate to severe fatigue (AOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.02-1.91; p = 0.037). Increasing body mass index (BMI) was significantly associated with increased risk of experiencing moderate to severe fatigue (overweight: AOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84, p = 0.042; obesity: AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.53-2.81, p < 0.001). Fatigue was significantly correlated with pain severity (r = 0.48, p < 0.001) and insomnia (r = 0.62, p < 0.001).Moderate to severe fatigue complaints exceed 50% among AI users. Fatigue is highly related to younger age, higher education level, higher BMI, pain severity and insomnia.

Authors
Mao, H; Bao, T; Shen, X; Li, Q; Seluzicki, C; Im, E-O; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Mao, H, Bao, T, Shen, X, Li, Q, Seluzicki, C, Im, E-O, and Mao, JJ. "Prevalence and risk factors for fatigue among breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitors." European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 101 (September 2018): 47-54.
PMID
30014974
Source
epmc
Published In
European Journal of Cancer
Volume
101
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
47
End Page
54
DOI
10.1016/j.ejca.2018.06.009

An Emerging Integrated Middle-Range Theory on Asian Women's Leadership in Nursing.

Asian cultures reflect patriarchal cultural values and attitudes, which likely have influenced women leaders in their countries differently from women in Western cultures. However, virtually no leadership theories have been developed to reflect the experiences and development of nursing leaders from Asian cultures. The purpose of this article is to present an emerging integrated middle-range theory on Asian women's leadership in nursing.Using an integrative approach, the theory was developed based on three major sources: the leadership frames of Bolman and Deal, literature reviews, and exemplars/cases from five different countries.The theory includes two main domains (leadership frames and leadership contexts). The domain of leadership frames includes human resources/networks, structure/organization, national/international politics, and symbols. The domain of leadership contexts includes cultural contexts, sociopolitical contexts, and gendered contexts.This theory will help understand nursing leadership in Asian cultures and provide directions for future nurse leaders in this ever-changing globalized world.

Authors
Im, E-O; Broome, ME; Inouye, J; Kunaviktikul, W; Oh, EG; Sakashita, R; Yi, M; Huang, L-H; Tsai, H-M; Wang, H-H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Broome, ME, Inouye, J, Kunaviktikul, W, Oh, EG, Sakashita, R, Yi, M, Huang, L-H, Tsai, H-M, and Wang, H-H. "An Emerging Integrated Middle-Range Theory on Asian Women's Leadership in Nursing." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 29.4 (July 2018): 318-325.
PMID
29478380
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
29
Issue
4
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
318
End Page
325
DOI
10.1177/1043659618760397

Theory Development Strategies for Middle-Range Theories.

The purpose of this article is to present an analysis on the theory development strategies that have been used to develop middle-range theories through an integrated literature review and to provide directions for future theoretical development in nursing. First, theory development strategies that have been suggested and used in nursing are briefly discussed. Second, the methods used for the analysis are described. Then, 4 themes reflecting the theory development strategies that have been used to develop middle-range theories are discussed. Finally, suggestions for future theoretical development in nursing are made on the basis of the findings.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Theory Development Strategies for Middle-Range Theories." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 41.3 (July 2018): 275-292.
PMID
29901468
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
41
Issue
3
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
275
End Page
292
DOI
10.1097/ans.0000000000000215

The relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women: The structural equation modeling.

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women. This secondary analysis was conducted with the data from 980 midlife women that were collected from 2005 to 2013 using the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The model had the highest fit indices for non-Hispanic (NH) White midlife women, and prominent racial/ethnic differences were observed in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms. In all racial/ethnic groups (except in Hispanic women), perceived health status was significantly positively associated with menopausal symptoms (β = -0.149 for NH African-American; β = -0.207 for NH Asians; β = -0.162 for NH Whites). Body mass index was significantly positively associated with menopausal symptoms only in NH Asians (β = 0.118) and Hispanics (β = 0.210). The racial/ethnic differences in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms could have resulted from the different cultural contexts in which women undergo during their menopausal transitions. Further cultural studies on the associations of racial/ethnic-specific factors with menopausal symptoms would help in understanding possible causes for racial/ethnic differences in the factors significantly associated with menopausal symptoms.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "The relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women: The structural equation modeling." Women & Health (April 9, 2018): 1-17.
PMID
29630476
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
1
End Page
17
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2018.1450321

Clusters of midlife women identified by cognitive symptoms.

The study aimed to identify clusters of midlife women by their cognitive symptoms and to examine racial/ethnic differences in the clusters.This secondary analysis was conducted on the data from 1054 midlife women of multi-ethnic groups in two Internet studies (conducted from 2005 to 2013).Only the data from the questions on background characteristics, health status, and menopausal status and the Cognitive Symptom Index for Midlife Women were used for this secondary analysis. The data were analyzed using factor analyses, hierarchical cluster analyses, chi-square tests, multinomial logistic analyses, and analyses of covariance.Four clusters were extracted: the low total symptom group (Cluster 1; 49.9%), the low-moderate total symptom group with high tertiary symptoms (Cluster 2; 17.3%), the high-moderate total symptom group with low tertiary symptoms (Cluster 3; 21.2%); and the high total symptom group (Cluster 4; 11.7%). There were significant differences in the level of education, employment status, family income, marital status, social support, the country of birth, race/ethnicity, body mass index, perceived general health, diagnosed disease(s), access to health care, and menopausal status among the clusters (p < .01). There were significant racial/ethnic differences in the total numbers and total severity scores of tertiary symptoms in Cluster 1. Also, there were significant racial/ethnic differences in individual symptoms in each cluster.Racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cognitive symptoms and multiple factors that might differently influence their cognitive symptoms need to be considered in health care for midlife women in menopausal transition.

Authors
Im, E-O; Hu, Y; Cheng, C-Y; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Hu, Y, Cheng, C-Y, Ko, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Clusters of midlife women identified by cognitive symptoms." Maturitas 110 (April 2018): 33-40.
PMID
29563033
Source
epmc
Published In
Maturitas
Volume
110
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
33
End Page
40
DOI
10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.01.013

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Symptoms During the Menopausal Transition.

The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cognitive symptoms among four major racial/ethnic groups in the United States and to determine multiple factors that influenced the women's cognitive symptoms. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two larger studies among 1,054 midlife women. The instruments included multiple questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status, and the Cognitive Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using multiple logistic and Poisson regression analyses. There existed significant racial/ethnic differences in the total numbers and total severity scores of cognitive symptoms ( p < .01); non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Socioeconomic status and health and menopausal status were significant factors that influenced cognitive symptoms across racial/ethnic groups ( p < .05). Further studies on racial/ethnic differences in cognitive symptoms are needed with diverse groups of midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Hu, Y; Cheng, C-Y; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Hu, Y, Cheng, C-Y, Ko, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cognitive Symptoms During the Menopausal Transition." Western Journal of Nursing Research (March 2018): 193945918767660-null.
PMID
29606085
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Publish Date
2018
Start Page
193945918767660
DOI
10.1177/0193945918767660

The Influence of Social Structure on Cancer Pain and Quality of Life.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether social structure is associated with cancer pain and quality of life using the Social Structure and Personality Research Framework. This study was a secondary analysis of data from 480 cancer patients. The measurements included socioeconomic variables, self-reported cancer pain using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF), and quality of life measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale (FACT-G). The data were analyzed using moderated multiple regression. Cancer pain and quality of life differed significantly with income. The associations between income and pain and quality of life were significant only for the high education group (≥ partial college), and these associations were greater for Caucasians than for their counterparts ( p < .05). When developing interventions, nurses should consider the influence of socioeconomic variables on pain and quality of life while considering possible moderating factors such as education.

Authors
Ham, O-K; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Ham, O-K, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "The Influence of Social Structure on Cancer Pain and Quality of Life." Western Journal of Nursing Research 39.12 (December 2017): 1547-1566.
PMID
27703078
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
39
Issue
12
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
1547
End Page
1566
DOI
10.1177/0193945916672663

Midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms: A cluster analysis.

Menopausal transition, in which biological and psychosocial changes are caused due to estrogen fluctuations, has been reported to increase cardiovascular risk among midlife women. The purposes of this study were to identify the clusters of midlife women by cardiovascular symptoms and to examine racial/ethnic differences in the clusters. This was a secondary analysis, in which hierarchical cluster and multinomial logistic analyses were conducted with the data (N = 966) collected in two previous studies. Three clusters were adopted: Cluster 1 (high vasomotor and low cardiorespiratory), Cluster 2 (low vasomotor and high cardiorespiratory and high discomfort/pain), and Cluster 3 (high discomfort/pain and high indigestion).

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Chee, E, Chee, W, and Mao, JJ. "Midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms: A cluster analysis." Health Care for Women International 38.12 (December 2017): 1275-1288.
PMID
28532290
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
38
Issue
12
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
1275
End Page
1288
DOI
10.1080/07399332.2017.1332626

The use of multiple languages in a technology-based intervention study: A discussion paper.

With an increasing number of racial/ethnic minorities in the U.S., nursing research frequently involves the use of multiple languages, especially to promote the understanding of educational materials related to nursing care. Furthermore, with a recent emphasis on innovation in health-related research, the use of technology is prominent in nursing research. However, practical issues in the use of multiple languages, especially in technology-based intervention studies, have rarely been reported and/or discussed in nursing literature. The purpose of this paper is to identify practical issues in conducting a technology-based intervention study using multiple languages among Asian American breast cancer survivors.In a large-scale technology-based breast cancer intervention study, research team members wrote memos on issues in translation process and plausible reasons for the issues. Then, the memos and written records were analyzed using a content analysis. By using individual words as the unit of analysis, line-by-line coding was done, and idea categories representing practical issues were extracted from the codes.Six themes representing the practical issues were extracted. Issues were found in recruiting and retaining bilingual research team members; maintaining consistency in translation process; keeping cultural and conceptual equivalence; repeating IRB protocol modifications; finding and using existing translated versions; and arranging technological aspects related to electronic multiple-language versions.The use of multiple languages in a technology-based intervention study is feasible. However, it is necessary to effectively manage unforeseen challenges through various strategies.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, SJ; Hu, Y; Cheng, C-Y; Iikura, A; Inohara, A; Kim, S; Hamajima, Y; Yeo, S-A; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, SJ, Hu, Y, Cheng, C-Y, Iikura, A, Inohara, A, Kim, S, Hamajima, Y, Yeo, S-A, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "The use of multiple languages in a technology-based intervention study: A discussion paper." Applied Nursing Research : Anr 38 (December 2017): 147-152.
PMID
29241508
Source
epmc
Published In
Applied Nursing Research : Anr
Volume
38
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
147
End Page
152
DOI
10.1016/j.apnr.2017.10.011

Associations of Immigration Transition to Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced in Menopausal Transition.

The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of immigration transition to cardiovascular symptoms among 4 major racial/ethnic groups of 1054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 2 large national survey studies. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including hierarchical multiple regressions. Immigrants reported fewer numbers (t = 5.268, P < .01) and lower severity scores (t = 5.493, P < .01) of cardiovascular symptoms compared with nonimmigrants. Self-reported racial/ethnic identify was a significant factor influencing cardiovascular symptoms (P < .01).

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Associations of Immigration Transition to Cardiovascular Symptoms Experienced in Menopausal Transition." Family & Community Health 40.4 (October 2017): 357-366.
PMID
28820790
Source
epmc
Published In
Family & Community Health
Volume
40
Issue
4
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
357
End Page
366
DOI
10.1097/FCH.0000000000000166

Effect of a Health Literacy-Considered Diabetes Self-Management Program for Older Adults in South Korea.

The current randomized controlled study evaluated the effects of a health literacy-considered diabetes self-management program on diabetes-related parameters: diabetes self-management knowledge (DSK), diabetes health beliefs (DHB), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), diabetes self-management behavior (DSMB), and diabetes biomarkers. Fifty-one Korean older adults with diabetes completed 12 weekly sessions that were developed based on their health literacy and health-related characteristics. The results indicate significant posttest differences between groups in DSK (p = 0.046), DSE (p = 0.046), DSMB (p = 0.012), and the DSMB self-monitored blood glucose subscale (p = 0.002). Significant pre-post changes between groups were observed in the DHB benefit subscale (p = 0.043), DSE (p = 0.006), DSMB (p = 0.008), DSMB diet (p = 0.029), and the self-monitored blood glucose subscale (p < 0.001). A significant pre-post difference was observed in the intervention group's HbA1c levels (p = 0.008). The program effectively improved participants' DSK, DHB, DSE, and DSMB values, which may be helpful for improving HbA1c levels. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(5):215-225.].

Authors
Lee, SJ; Song, M; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lee, SJ, Song, M, and Im, E-O. "Effect of a Health Literacy-Considered Diabetes Self-Management Program for Older Adults in South Korea." Research in Gerontological Nursing 10.5 (September 2017): 215-225.
PMID
28926669
Source
epmc
Published In
Research in Gerontological Nursing
Volume
10
Issue
5
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
215
End Page
225
DOI
10.3928/19404921-20170831-03

A culturally tailored Internet cancer support group for Asian American breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled pilot intervention study.

Introduction The necessity of culturally competent Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) for ethnic minorities has recently been highlighted in order to increase its attractiveness and usage. The purpose of this study was to determine the preliminary efficacy of a culturally tailored registered-nurse-moderated ICSG for Asian American breast cancer survivors in enhancing the women's breast cancer survivorship experience. Methods The study included two phases: (a) a usability test and an expert review; and (b) a randomized controlled pilot intervention study. The usability test was conducted among five Asian American breast cancer survivors using a one-month online forum, and the expert review was conducted among five experts using the Cognitive Walkthrough method. The randomized controlled pilot intervention study (a pre-test and post-test design) was conducted among 65 Asian American breast cancer survivors. The data were analysed using content analysis and descriptive and inferential statistics including the repeated ANOVA. Results All users and experts positively evaluated the program and provided their suggestions for the display, educational contents, and user-friendly structure. There were significant positive changes in the support care needs and physical and psychological symptoms ( p < 0.05) of the control group. There were significant negative changes in the uncertainty level of the intervention group ( p < 0.10). Controlling for background and disease factors, the intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in physical and psychological symptoms and quality of life ( p < 0.10). Discussion The findings supported the positive effects of ICSGs on support care needs, psychological and physical symptoms, and quality of life.

Authors
Chee, W; Lee, Y; Im, E-O; Chee, E; Tsai, H-M; Nishigaki, M; Yeo, SA; Schapira, MM; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Chee, W, Lee, Y, Im, E-O, Chee, E, Tsai, H-M, Nishigaki, M, Yeo, SA, Schapira, MM, and Mao, JJ. "A culturally tailored Internet cancer support group for Asian American breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled pilot intervention study." Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 23.6 (July 2017): 618-626.
PMID
27486198
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Volume
23
Issue
6
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
618
End Page
626
DOI
10.1177/1357633X16658369

Stress and premenstrual symptoms among Korean women studying in the U.S. and South Korea: A longitudinal web-based study.

Premenstrual symptoms have been reported to be highly correlated with levels of perceived stress; however, the magnitude of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships among perceived stress, acculturative stress, and premenstrual symptoms. The study used a 10-week longitudinal web-based design. A total of 98 female Korean international students studying in the U.S. and 89 Korean domestic students studying in South Korea were recruited using convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. The participants completed 10 weekly web-based surveys. Data were analyzed through descriptive analyses, linear multivariable mixed model regressions, t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regressions. The levels of both perceived stress and menstrual-related symptoms were higher during the premenstrual phase in Korean international students than in domestic students (p < .001). In Korean international students, perceived stress (β = 0.30; p < .001) and acculturative stress (β = 0.26; p < .01) were the most strongly related factors to the severity of premenstrual symptoms. Although perceived stress was significantly related to the symptoms in Korean domestic students, a history of sexual abuse was the strongest related factor (β = -0.28; p < .001). Because stress is a potentially modifiable factor, understanding its relationship to premenstrual symptoms can contribute to relieving these symptoms.

Authors
Lee, Y; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lee, Y, and Im, E-O. "Stress and premenstrual symptoms among Korean women studying in the U.S. and South Korea: A longitudinal web-based study." Women & Health 57.6 (July 2017): 665-684.
PMID
27105022
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
57
Issue
6
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
665
End Page
684
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2016.1181139

Improving menopausal symptoms through promoting physical activity: a pilot Web-based intervention study among Asian Americans.

OBJECTIVE:Based on previous studies, a Web-based physical activity promotion program with educational modules on menopausal symptoms and physical activity has been developed for Asian American midlife women to reduce their menopausal symptoms through increasing their physical activity. The purpose of this pilot randomized intervention study was to determine the efficacy of the Web-based program in improving menopausal symptom experience of Asian American midlife women. METHODS:This was a randomized repeated measures pretest/posttest (pretest, post 1 month, and post 3 months) control group study among 29 Asian American midlife women. Multiple instruments were used, including the Midlife Women's Symptom Index and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model growth curve analysis. RESULTS:Over time, total severity scores decreased for the control group (-0.53, P < 0.10), whereas they did not exhibit a meaningful change for the intervention group. Both study groups experienced improvement in active living habits over time, but such an improvement was greater for the intervention group (β = 0.29, P < 0.001) than for the control group (β = 0.08, P < 0.10). The time × group interactions for total severity scores were not statistically significant anymore after controlling for physical activity (-0.34 for the control group, P = 0.10). CONCLUSIONS:The findings supported the feasibility of a 3-month Web-based intervention for menopausal symptom management among Asian American midlife women and the preliminary efficacy of the program in increasing their physical activity.

Authors
Im, E-O; Kim, S; Ji, X; Park, S; Chee, E; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Kim, S, Ji, X, Park, S, Chee, E, Chee, W, and Tsai, H-M. "Improving menopausal symptoms through promoting physical activity: a pilot Web-based intervention study among Asian Americans." Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 24.6 (June 2017): 653-662.
PMID
28118298
Source
epmc
Published In
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
Volume
24
Issue
6
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
653
End Page
662
DOI
10.1097/gme.0000000000000825

What Is the Status Quo of Evidence-Based Community Health Nursing?

With an increasing emphasis on evidence-based nursing in general, evidence-based practice has become a buzzword among community health nurses in many countries. Despite the global interests, evidence-based community health nursing is not even clearly defined in the literature and very little is known about the current status of evidence-based community health nursing. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify the status quo of evidence-based nursing in community health nursing through an integrative literature review.Four electronic databases were searched from the earliest year to 2016 with combinations of keywords. Twenty-six eligible articles were reviewed, and the characteristics reflecting the current status of evidence-based community health nursing were extracted.Through the content analysis process, 6 characteristics were identified. First, in evidence-based community health nursing, the needs of clients, families, caregivers, and health care professionals were identified and assessed. Second, interventions were planned based on systematic reviews on various relevant sources. Third, various types of research methods were used. Fourth, available resources were assessed and used, and the findings of cost estimation, cost/effectiveness, or cost/benefit analyses were reported. Fifth, training, support, monitoring, and coordination were included as major components. Finally, the evidence used and/ or found in the studies was evaluated, disseminated, and updated as the last step.Community health nurses are required to continuously integrate, implement, evaluate, disseminate, and update their evidence for future evidence-based community health nursing.

Authors
Im, E-O; Kong, E-H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Kong, E-H. "What Is the Status Quo of Evidence-Based Community Health Nursing?." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 31.2 (May 2017): 156-178. (Review)
PMID
28482995
Source
epmc
Published In
Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Volume
31
Issue
2
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
156
End Page
178
DOI
10.1891/1541-6577.31.2.156

Clusters of midlife women by physical activity and their racial/ethnic differences.

The purpose of this study was to identify clusters of midlife women by physical activity and to determine racial/ethnic differences in physical activities in each cluster.This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 women (157 non-Hispanic [NH] Whites, 127 Hispanics, 135 NH African Americans, and 123 NH Asian) in a larger Internet study on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The instruments included the Barriers to Health Activities Scale, the Physical Activity Assessment Inventory, the Questions on Attitudes toward Physical Activity, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Behavioral Intention, and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analyses, analysis of variance, and multinominal logistic analyses.A three-cluster solution was adopted: cluster 1 (high active living and sports/exercise activity group; 48%), cluster 2 (high household/caregiving and occupational activity group; 27%), and cluster 3 (low active living and sports/exercise activity group; 26%). There were significant racial/ethnic differences in occupational activities of clusters 1 and 3 (all P < 0.01). Compared with cluster 1, cluster 2 tended to have lower family income, less access to health care, higher unemployment, higher perceived barriers scores, and lower social influences scores (all P < 0.01). Compared with cluster 1, cluster 3 tended to have greater obesity, less access to health care, higher perceived barriers scores, more negative attitudes toward physical activity, and lower self-efficacy scores (all P < 0.01).Midlife women's unique patterns of physical activity and their associated factors need to be considered in future intervention development.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Chee, E, Chee, W, and Mao, JJ. "Clusters of midlife women by physical activity and their racial/ethnic differences." Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 24.4 (April 2017): 417-425.
PMID
27846052
Source
epmc
Published In
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
Volume
24
Issue
4
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
417
End Page
425
DOI
10.1097/GME.0000000000000769

A cross-sectional survey of pain catastrophising and acupuncture use among breast cancer survivors.

Treatment-related joint pain affects almost half of all women with breast cancer using aromatase inhibitors and is a major reason for terminating treatment. Although acupuncture is becoming an increasingly popular, evidence-based option for treating pain, little is known about the potential influence of psychological factors on acupuncture use.We aimed to evaluate the association between pain catastrophising and use of acupuncture in breast cancer survivors experiencing arthralgia.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of arthralgic breast cancer patients. Patients were asked if they had used acupuncture since their cancer diagnosis. The Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) was used to measure negative coping styles related to the experience of pain. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between pain catastrophising and acupuncture use, adjusting for covariates.Of the 424 participants, 69 (16%) reported use of acupuncture since their breast cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analyses, compared to those in the lowest PCS score tertile, patients with the highest PCS scores were more likely to have used acupuncture (p=0.03). In particular, patients with high levels of rumination (p=0.005) and magnification (p=0.008) were more likely to have used acupuncture. Helplessness was not associated with acupuncture use (p=0.23).High levels of pain catastrophising, and specifically the processes of rumination and magnification, were associated with greater acupuncture use. We believe this could have important implications for understanding which population is more likely to seek acupuncture treatment and how this alternative therapy could be better targeted to these patients.

Authors
Lee, I; Garland, SN; DeMichele, A; Farrar, JT; Im, E-O; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Lee, I, Garland, SN, DeMichele, A, Farrar, JT, Im, E-O, and Mao, JJ. "A cross-sectional survey of pain catastrophising and acupuncture use among breast cancer survivors." Acupuncture in Medicine : Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society 35.1 (March 2017): 38-43.
PMID
27177930
Source
epmc
Published In
Acupuncture in Medicine : Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Volume
35
Issue
1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
38
End Page
43
DOI
10.1136/acupmed-2016-011056

“Intersectionality” in Asian American women’s health

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "“Intersectionality” in Asian American women’s health." Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal 1.4 (January 5, 2017): 194-196.
Source
crossref
Published In
Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal
Volume
1
Issue
4
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
194
End Page
196
DOI
10.9741/23736658.1052

Web-based interventions for menopause: A systematic integrated literature review.

Advances in computer and Internet technologies have allowed health care providers to develop, use, and test various types of Web-based interventions for their practice and research. Indeed, an increasing number of Web-based interventions have recently been developed and tested in health care fields. Despite the great potential for Web-based interventions to improve practice and research, little is known about the current status of Web-based interventions, especially those related to menopause. To identify the current status of Web-based interventions used in the field of menopause, a literature review was conducted using multiple databases, with the keywords "online," "Internet," "Web," "intervention," and "menopause." Using these keywords, a total of 18 eligible articles were analyzed to identify the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause. Six themes reflecting the current status of Web-based interventions for menopause were identified: (a) there existed few Web-based intervention studies on menopause; (b) Web-based decision support systems were mainly used; (c) there was a lack of detail on the interventions; (d) there was a lack of guidance on the use of Web-based interventions; (e) counselling was frequently combined with Web-based interventions; and (f) the pros and cons were similar to those of Web-based methods in general. Based on these findings, directions for future Web-based interventions for menopause are provided.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Web-based interventions for menopause: A systematic integrated literature review." Maturitas 95 (January 2017): 24-30. (Review)
PMID
27889049
Source
epmc
Published In
Maturitas
Volume
95
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
24
End Page
30
DOI
10.1016/j.maturitas.2016.10.009

Immigration transition and sleep-related symptoms experienced during menopausal transition.

The transition due to immigration from one country to another country (referred to as immigration transition henceforth) is inherently stressful, placing an additional dimension of stress to midlife women in the menopausal transition. However, few studies have examined the association of immigration to sleep-related symptoms experienced by midlife women in the menopausal transition. The authors' purpose for this study was to explore the associations of immigration to sleep-related symptoms among four major racial/ethnic groups of 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of data from two national surveys that were collected from 2005 to 2013. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, immigration transition, and the Sleep Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square tests, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Immigrants reported fewer total numbers of and lower total severity scores of sleep-related symptoms than non-immigrants (p < .01). Yet, when background characteristics and health and menopausal status were controlled, self-reported racial/ethnic identity was the only significant factor associated with sleep-related symptoms (ΔR2 = 0.02, p < .01). Health-care providers need to consider self-reported racial/ethnic identity as a factor significantly related to sleep-related symptoms during the menopausal transition.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Immigration transition and sleep-related symptoms experienced during menopausal transition." Women & Health 57.1 (January 2017): 69-87.
PMID
26881786
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
57
Issue
1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
69
End Page
87
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2016.1153018

The effect of a culturally tailored web-based physical activity promotion program on Asian American midlife women’s depressive symptoms

Authors
Chee, W; Kim, S; Ji, X; Park, S; Chee, E; Tsai, H-M; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chee, W, Kim, S, Ji, X, Park, S, Chee, E, Tsai, H-M, and Im, E-O. "The effect of a culturally tailored web-based physical activity promotion program on Asian American midlife women’s depressive symptoms." Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal 1.4 (December 28, 2016): 162-173.
Source
crossref
Published In
Asian/Pacific Island Nursing Journal
Volume
1
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
162
End Page
173
DOI
10.9741/23736658.1044

A path analysis of stress and premenstrual symptoms in Korean international and Korean domestic students.

To identify the relationships between perceived stress, acculturative stress and premenstrual symptoms, among other associated factors (e.g. depressive symptoms, coping self-efficacy, perceived social support) of premenstrual symptoms suggested in the literature by testing the conceptual framework of the 'Stress and Premenstrual Experience Model: Women in Cultural Transition'.Level of perceived stress has been cited as a major influencing factor for women's premenstrual symptoms; however, how these two elements are related, including possible mediators and moderators, remains unclear.A longitudinal causal-comparative web-based study design.Data collection occurred between November, 2014 - February, 2015. The convenience sampling method was used to recruit 98 Korean international students and 89 Korean domestic students. Weekly surveys were conducted for 10 weeks to capture women's levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress and premenstrual symptoms from two menstrual cycles. The survey data collected during the premenstrual phase was analysed using path analyses.The hypothesized pathways based on the conceptual model were partially supported in the study. Depressive symptoms were a partial mediator between perceived stress and premenstrual symptoms and between acculturative stress and symptoms in Korean international students. The perceived social support was a moderator between perceived stress and premenstrual symptoms in Korean domestic students.This study proposes a revised conceptual model that will contribute to the understanding of stress and premenstrual symptom severity in women in the acculturation process and concludes with suggestions and implications for future nursing practice and research.

Authors
Lee, Y; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lee, Y, and Im, E-O. "A path analysis of stress and premenstrual symptoms in Korean international and Korean domestic students." Journal of Advanced Nursing 72.12 (December 2016): 3045-3059.
PMID
27377582
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume
72
Issue
12
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
3045
End Page
3059
DOI
10.1111/jan.13061

Practical Issues in Developing a Culturally Tailored Physical Activity Promotion Program for Chinese and Korean American Midlife Women: A Pilot Study.

With advances in computer technologies, Web-based interventions are widely accepted and welcomed by health care providers and researchers. Although the benefits of Web-based interventions on physical activity promotion have been documented, the programs have rarely targeted Asian Americans, including Asian American midlife women. Subsequently, culturally competent Web-based physical activity programs for Asian Americans may be necessary.The purpose of our study was to explore practical issues in developing and implementing a culturally competent Web-based physical activity promotion program for 2 groups of Asian American women-Chinese American and Korean American midlife women-and to provide implications for future research.While conducting the study, the research team members wrote individual memos on issues and their inferences on plausible reasons for the issues. The team had group discussions each week and kept the minutes of the discussions. Then, the memos and minutes were analyzed using a content analysis method.We identified practical issues in 4 major idea categories: (1) bilingual translators' language orientations, (2) cultural sensitivity requirement, (3) low response rate, interest, and retention, and (4) issues in implementation logistics.Based on the issues, we make several suggestions for the use of bilingual translators, motivational strategies, and implementation logistics.

Authors
Chee, W; Kim, S; Chu, T-L; Tsai, H-M; Ji, X; Zhang, J; Chee, E; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chee, W, Kim, S, Chu, T-L, Tsai, H-M, Ji, X, Zhang, J, Chee, E, and Im, E-O. "Practical Issues in Developing a Culturally Tailored Physical Activity Promotion Program for Chinese and Korean American Midlife Women: A Pilot Study." Journal of Medical Internet Research 18.11 (November 21, 2016): e303-null.
PMID
27872035
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Volume
18
Issue
11
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
e303
DOI
10.2196/jmir.6454

Issues in Developing and Evaluating a Culturally Tailored Internet Cancer Support Group.

The purpose of this article is to explore practical issues in developing and implementing a culturally tailored Internet Cancer Support Group for a group of ethnic minority patients with cancer-Asian Americans. Throughout the research process of the original study testing the Internet cancer support group, the research team made written records of practical issues and plausible rationales for the issues. Weekly group discussion among research team members was conducted, and the discussion records were evaluated and analyzed using a content analysis (with individual words as the unit of analysis). The codes from the analysis process were categorized into idea themes, through which the issues were extracted. The issues included those in (1) difficulties in using multiple languages, (2) collaboration with the information technology department and technical challenges, (3) difficulties in recruitment, (4) difficulties in retention, (5) optimal timing, and (6) characteristics of the users. Based on the findings, we suggest that researchers plan a workable translation process, check technical needs in advance, use multiple strategies to recruit and retain research participants, plan the right time for data collection, and consider characteristics of the users in the study design.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ji, X; Zhang, J; Kim, S; Lee, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M; Nishigaki, M; Yeo, SA; Schapira, M; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ji, X, Zhang, J, Kim, S, Lee, Y, Chee, E, Chee, W, Tsai, H-M, Nishigaki, M, Yeo, SA, Schapira, M, and Mao, JJ. "Issues in Developing and Evaluating a Culturally Tailored Internet Cancer Support Group." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 34.10 (October 2016): 462-469.
PMID
27379523
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
34
Issue
10
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
462
End Page
469
DOI
10.1097/CIN.0000000000000261

Internet Recruitment of Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors.

The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity;

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, Y; Ji, X; Zhang, J; Kim, S; Chee, E; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M; Nishigaki, M; Yeo, SA; Shapira, MM; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, Y, Ji, X, Zhang, J, Kim, S, Chee, E, Chee, W, Tsai, H-M, Nishigaki, M, Yeo, SA, Shapira, MM, and Mao, JJ. "Internet Recruitment of Asian American Breast Cancer Survivors." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 39.3 (July 2016): E17-E27.
PMID
27490884
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
39
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
E17
End Page
E27
DOI
10.1097/ANS.0000000000000131

Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Counseling Combined with Music Skipping Rope Exercise on Childhood Obesity.

The purpose was to evaluate the effects of a transtheoretical model (TTM) based exercise counseling offered with music skipping rope exercise on components of the TTM (stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy), body mass index, glucose, and lipid profile of overweight/obese children in Korea.This study used a nonequivalent pretest and posttest experimental study design. A total of 75 overweight/obese children participated in the study. Eight sessions of exercise counseling combined with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks were offered for children in the experimental group, while one session of exercise counseling with music skipping rope exercise for 12 weeks was offered for children in the control group. Outcomes were measured at baseline, and 6 months after the intervention.After the intervention, self-efficacy significantly improved among children in the experimental group (p = .049), while these children maintained their baseline BMI at 6-month follow-up (p > .05). Among children in the control group, BMI significantly increased (p < .05). Fasting blood sugar significantly increased for both groups after the intervention (p < .05). However, a greater increase was observed for the control group.Our study partially supports the hypothesis that a TTM-based exercise intervention is effective in maintaining BMI and improving self-efficacy of overweight/obese children. The TTM-based counseling combined with exercise classes has potential to control weight among overweight/obese children, while involvement of parents and children in the development of the theory-based intervention may generate further benefits regarding health and well-being of overweight/obese children.

Authors
Ham, OK; Sung, KM; Lee, BG; Choi, HW; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Ham, OK, Sung, KM, Lee, BG, Choi, HW, and Im, E-O. "Transtheoretical Model Based Exercise Counseling Combined with Music Skipping Rope Exercise on Childhood Obesity." Asian Nursing Research 10.2 (June 2016): 116-122.
PMID
27349668
Source
epmc
Published In
Asian Nursing Research
Volume
10
Issue
2
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
116
End Page
122
DOI
10.1016/j.anr.2016.03.003

Stress and Premenstrual Symptoms in Reproductive-Aged Women.

Premenstrual symptoms are often reported from reproductive-aged women worldwide. The etiologies of the symptoms are complex (e.g., biological and sociocultural factors), and require an international and multidisciplinary approach. A total of 48 studies were reviewed on how stress and premenstrual symptoms have been defined and measured, and major findings on relational patterns and other associated factors were examined. Subsequently, we discuss several trends and limitations identified from the review. Prospective studies, which use valid assessment measures and consider women's subjective and objective symptoms for several menstrual cycles, are necessary for a valid conclusion. More intervention studies and studies on various populations are needed.

Authors
Lee, Y; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lee, Y, and Im, E-O. "Stress and Premenstrual Symptoms in Reproductive-Aged Women." Health Care for Women International 37.6 (June 2016): 646-670. (Review)
PMID
25988289
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
37
Issue
6
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
646
End Page
670
DOI
10.1080/07399332.2015.1049352

Factors Associated With Perceived Health Status of Multiracial/Ethnic Midlife Women in the United States.

To identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and differences in the factors associated with perceived health status of midlife women in four broad racial/ethnic groups in the United States.A secondary analysis of Web-based survey data.Internet communities/groups among midlife women and Internet communities/groups of racial/ethnic minorities.Participants included 491 women 40 to 60 years of age who self-identified into four broad racial/ethnic categories (Hispanic, non-Hispanic [N-H] Asian American, N-H African American, or N-H White).Data related to participants' sociodemographic, behavioral, situational, and individual health factors and their coping resources were selected based on the Comprehensive Health Seeking and Coping Paradigm. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify racial/ethnic differences in perceived health status and race/ethnicity-specific factors associated with perceived health status among midlife women.Perceived health status did not differ by race/ethnicity; however, factors that were associated with perceived health status did vary by race/ethnicity. Among N-H White women, educational level, level of family income, obesity, and menopausal symptoms were significantly associated with perceived not healthy status. In Hispanic women, perceived level of physical activity and obesity were significantly associated with not healthy status. Perceived level of physical activity was the only factor significantly associated with not healthy status in N-H Asian American women, and the level of family income was the only factor associated with not healthy status in N-H African American women.In future intervention development, researchers need to consider differences among racial/ethnic groups in the factors associated with women's perceived health status.

Authors
Ko, Y; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Ko, Y, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Factors Associated With Perceived Health Status of Multiracial/Ethnic Midlife Women in the United States." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 45.3 (May 2016): 378-390.
PMID
27080909
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
45
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
378
End Page
390
DOI
10.1016/j.jogn.2016.02.010

The relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition: racial/ethnic differences.

The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between psychological and cardiovascular symptoms in a multiethnic group of midlife women while controlling for other influencing factors, and to determine the association of race/ethnicity to the relationships between psychological and cardiovascular symptoms.This was a secondary analysis of the data among 1,054 midlife women from two Internet surveys. The instruments included the questions on background characteristics, health, and menopause status and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. The data were analyzed using correlation analyses, chi-squared tests, analysis of variance, and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses.The total numbers and total severity scores of psychological symptoms were significantly related to those of cardiovascular symptoms as a whole and in each racial/ethnic group (P < 0.01). In total participants, both the total numbers and total severity scores of psychological symptoms were significantly associated with increased risk for cardiovascular symptoms after adjusting for race/ethnicity (P < 0.01), and there were no interactions between race/ethnicity and psychological symptoms. The existence of diagnosed cardiovascular diseases was significantly associated with the total numbers of and total severity scores of psychological symptoms only in Asian women.Further studies on the mechanisms through which psychological symptoms are related to cardiovascular symptoms are needed while controlling for race/ethnicity.

Authors
Im, E-O; Kim, J; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Kim, J, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "The relationships between psychological symptoms and cardiovascular symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition: racial/ethnic differences." Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 23.4 (April 2016): 396-402.
PMID
26645821
Source
epmc
Published In
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
Volume
23
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
396
End Page
402
DOI
10.1097/GME.0000000000000545

Practical issues in multi-lingual research.

With an increasing number of ethnic minority populations, the use of multiple languages in one research study has increased in recent years. The use of multiple languages helps increase comprehensiveness of educational materials and/or survey questionnaires, and promote ethnic minorities' participation in research. However, little has been clearly known about practical issues in using multiple languages in one research study.The purpose of this paper is to explore practical issues in using multiple languages in a study among diverse sub-ethnic groups of Asian American breast cancer survivors in order to propose future directions for the use of multiple languages in research projects.Throughout the research process, research team made written records of practical issues and possible reasons for the issues as they arose. Weekly group discussions among research team members were administered, and the written records of these discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis. The unit of analysis was individual words. The words in the data (memos and written records) were classified into idea categories that emerged from the coding process.The idea categories included issues in: (a) collaborators from various sub-ethnic groups; (b) IRB protocol submissions; (c) consistencies in translation process, (d) conceptual equivalence; (e) cultural differences; (f) existing translated versions; and (g) authorship issues. Based on the issues, we made the following suggestions for multi-lingual research: (a) networking and setting multiple communication channels with potential collaborators; (b) checking the institution's IRB policies related to the use of multiple languages; (c) setting the rules and procedures for translation process; (d) checking existing different language versions of instruments; and (e) setting the rules for authorship in advance.The suggestions made in this study would help the researchers be prepared in advance to deal with the challenges.

Authors
Im, E-O; Kim, S; Tsai, H-M; Nishigaki, M; Yeo, SA; Chee, W; Chee, E; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Kim, S, Tsai, H-M, Nishigaki, M, Yeo, SA, Chee, W, Chee, E, and Mao, JJ. "Practical issues in multi-lingual research." International Journal of Nursing Studies 54 (February 2016): 141-149.
PMID
25739658
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
54
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
141
End Page
149
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.02.008

Cluster analysis of midlife women's sleep-related symptoms: racial/ethnic differences.

The purpose of this study was to identify clusters of midlife women by sleep-related symptoms in multiethnic groups and to examine racial/ethnic differences in the clusters.This secondary analysis was conducted on data from 1,054 midlife women who participated in two cross-sectional descriptive national Internet surveys. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health, and menopause status, and the Sleep Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using hierarchical clustering methods, χ2 test, analysis of variance, and multinomial logistic regression analyses.A four-cluster solution was adopted: cluster 1 (low total symptoms group), cluster 2 (moderate physical and psychosomatic symptoms group), cluster 3 (moderate psychological symptoms group), and cluster 4 (high total symptoms group). There were significant differences in education, employment status, family income, social support, country of birth, race/ethnicity, body mass index, perceived general health, diagnosed disease, access to health care, and menopause status among clusters (P < 0.05). In cluster 1 only, there were significant racial/ethnic differences in the total number of total severity scores for physical symptoms (P < 0.01). When racial/ethnic differences in individual symptoms in each cluster were determined, there were no consistent racial/ethnic differences.Researchers need to consider that racial/ethnic differences could be prominent in midlife women with low sleep-related symptoms.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Cluster analysis of midlife women's sleep-related symptoms: racial/ethnic differences." Menopause (New York, N.Y.) 22.11 (November 2015): 1182-1189.
PMID
25871005
Source
epmc
Published In
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
Volume
22
Issue
11
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1182
End Page
1189
DOI
10.1097/GME.0000000000000460

The current status of theory evaluation in nursing.

To identify the current status of theory evaluation in nursing and provide directions for theory evaluation for future development of theoretical bases of nursing discipline.Theory evaluation is an essential component in development of nursing knowledge, which is a critical element in development of nursing discipline. Despite earlier significant efforts for theory evaluation in nursing, a recent decline in the number of theory evaluation articles was noted and there have been few updates on theory evaluation in nursing.Discussion paper.A total of 58 articles published from 2003-2014 were retrieved through searches using the PUBMED, PsyInfo and CINAHL. The articles were sorted by the area of evaluation and analysed to identify themes reflecting the theory evaluation process.Diverse ways of theory evaluation need to be continuously used in future theory evaluation efforts.Six themes reflecting the theory evaluation process were identified: (a) rarely using existing theory evaluation criteria; (b) evaluating specifics; (c) using various statistical analysis methods; (d) developing instruments; (e) adopting in practice and education; and (f) evaluating mainly middle-range theories and situation-specific theories.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "The current status of theory evaluation in nursing." Journal of Advanced Nursing 71.10 (October 2015): 2268-2278. (Review)
PMID
26016592
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume
71
Issue
10
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
2268
End Page
2278
DOI
10.1111/jan.12698

The Psychometric Properties of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index.

To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI) among four racial/ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.A secondary data analysis.Internet communities/groups.A total of 494 midlife women with symptoms of menopause who self-reported using an Internet survey and completed all sections of the MSI questionnaire.Data were collected from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The psychometric properties of the MSI were evaluated using measures of internal consistency, item-total correlation coefficients, and discriminant validity.There were statistically significant differences in marital status, employment, income, religion, country of birth, level of education, diagnosed disease, and self-reported health status across the four racial/ethnic groups. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR-20) coefficients for the three subscales of the MSI prevalence section (i.e., physical, psychological, and psychosomatic) ranged from 0.58 (psychosomatic symptoms in Whites) to 0.91 (psychological symptoms in Asian Americans). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three subscale scores ranged from 0.60 (psychosomatic symptoms in Whites) to 0.93 (psychological symptoms in Asian Americans). The mean scores of the MSI differed significantly by race/ethnicity among midlife women of each menopausal status, except for the prevalence section of the psychosocial symptoms.The MSI has demonstrated an acceptable reliability and appropriate discriminant validity across the four racial/ethnic groups, except in the domain of psychosomatic symptoms. Health care providers as well as researchers could use the MSI to assess the symptoms of menopause of midlife women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.

Authors
Kang, Y; Han, Y-R; Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Kang, Y, Han, Y-R, Chang, SJ, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "The Psychometric Properties of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 44.5 (September 2015): 600-609.
PMID
26285126
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
44
Issue
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
600
End Page
609
DOI
10.1111/1552-6909.12741

Transitions

Authors
Im, EO; Lee, Y
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Lee, Y. "Transitions." Issues of Cancer Survivorship: An Interdisciplinary Team Approach to Care. August 10, 2015.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2015

Consistency and Accuracy of Multiple Pain Scales Measured in Cancer Patients From Multiple Ethnic Groups.

Standardized pain-intensity measurement across different tools would enable practitioners to have confidence in clinical decision making for pain management.The purpose was to examine the degree of agreement among unidimensional pain scales and to determine the accuracy of the multidimensional pain scales in the diagnosis of severe pain.A secondary analysis was performed. The sample included a convenience sample of 480 cancer patients recruited from both the Internet and community settings. Cancer pain was measured using the Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS), the visual analog scale (VAS), the Faces Pain Scale (FPS), the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF), and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a receiver operating characteristic curve.The agreement between the VDS and VAS was 77.25%, whereas the agreement was 71.88% and 71.60% between the VDS and FPS, and VAS and FPS, respectively. The MPQ-SF and BPI-SF yielded high accuracy in the diagnosis of severe pain. Cutoff points for severe pain were more than 8 for the MPQ-SF and more than 14 for the BPI-SF, which exhibited high sensitivity and relatively low specificity.The study found substantial agreement between the unidimensional pain scales and high accuracy of the MPQ-SF and the BPI-SF in the diagnosis of severe pain.Use of 1 or more pain screening tools that have validated diagnostic accuracy and consistency will help classify pain effectively and subsequently promote optimal pain control in multiethnic groups of cancer patients.

Authors
Ham, O-K; Kang, Y; Teng, H; Lee, Y; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Ham, O-K, Kang, Y, Teng, H, Lee, Y, and Im, E-O. "Consistency and Accuracy of Multiple Pain Scales Measured in Cancer Patients From Multiple Ethnic Groups." Cancer Nursing 38.4 (July 2015): 305-311.
PMID
25068188
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
38
Issue
4
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
305
End Page
311
DOI
10.1097/NCC.0000000000000179

Physical activity and depressive symptoms in four ethnic groups of midlife women.

The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women (DIMW); and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS). The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, two-way ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ham, OK; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ham, OK, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Physical activity and depressive symptoms in four ethnic groups of midlife women." Western Journal of Nursing Research 37.6 (June 2015): 746-766.
PMID
24879749
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
37
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
746
End Page
766
DOI
10.1177/0193945914537123

Korean-Americans' Knowledge about Depression and Attitudes about Treatment Options.

The purpose of this pilot study was to explore first-generation Korean-Americans' knowledge about depression and attitudes about depression treatment options. Self-report survey data were gathered from 73 first-generation Korean-Americans (KAs) using instruments developed for this study. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including t-tests. Data indicated participants lacked knowledge about depression. Among all depression treatment options, exercise was the option that first-generation KAs were most willing to try and was rated as having the least shame attached to it. Taking an antidepressant was the option KAs reported being most unwilling to try and had the highest shame attached to it. No significant differences in knowledge about depression and attitudes about depression treatment options were found between low and high acculturation groups, with the exception that the high acculturation group demonstrated more agreement than the low acculturation group with the item that emotional symptoms, such as mood changes, can be depression symptoms. These results suggest that initiating depression treatment with exercise may be the most acceptable starting point in treating depression in first-generation KA immigrants.

Authors
Kim, E; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Kim, E, and Im, E-O. "Korean-Americans' Knowledge about Depression and Attitudes about Treatment Options." Issues in Mental Health Nursing 36.6 (June 2015): 455-463.
PMID
26241572
Source
epmc
Published In
Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Volume
36
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
455
End Page
463
DOI
10.3109/01612840.2014.997846

Risk Groups for Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Group of Midlife Women

Authors
Im, E
MLA Citation
Im, E. "Risk Groups for Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Group of Midlife Women." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing 44 (June 2015): S63-S63.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
44
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
S63
End Page
S63
DOI
10.1111/1552-6909.12634

Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ham, OK; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ham, OK, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis." Women & Health 55.5 (January 2015): 525-547.
PMID
25826460
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
55
Issue
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
525
End Page
547
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2015.1022813

Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory.

To develop successful physical activity promotion programs for midlife immigrant women, especially for Korean immigrant midlife women, concrete theoretical bases are needed. However, virtually no theoretical frameworks and/or theories exist that can explain the influences of immigration transition on the physical activity experience of midlife immigrant women in general or Korean immigrant midlife women in specific. The purpose of this article is to present a situation-specific theory on physical activity experience of Korean immigrant midlife women (SPAKIM) with its development process. An integrative approach was used to develop the theory based on the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity (MAPA) theory, the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and two studies on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The proposed theory includes nature of transitions, nonmodifiable and modifiable transition conditions, contexts of daily life, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts, and each major concept includes several related subconcepts. Because several concepts of the theory were developed mainly based on the literature review, the major concepts and related subconcepts need to be further developed and evaluated in future studies.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Nguyen, G; Stringer, L; Chee, W; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, Nguyen, G, Stringer, L, Chee, W, and Chee, E. "Korean immigrant women's physical activity experience: a situation-specific theory." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 29.1 (January 2015): 10-24.
PMID
25799693
Source
epmc
Published In
Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Volume
29
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
10
End Page
24
DOI
10.1891/1541-6577.29.1.10

Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p <.01). When controlling for background characteristics, self-reported racial/ethnic identity and immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Chee, E; Mao, JJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, Chee, W, Chee, E, and Mao, JJ. "Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States." Health Care for Women International 36.4 (January 2015): 439-456.
PMID
24875592
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
36
Issue
4
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
439
End Page
456
DOI
10.1080/07399332.2014.924518

Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity.

The purposes of the study were to develop a theoretical model to explain the relationships between immigration transition and midlife women's physical activity and test the relationships among the major variables of the model. A theoretical model, which was developed based on transitions theory and the midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity theory, consists of 4 major variables, including length of stay in the United States, country of birth, level of acculturation, and midlife women's physical activity. To test the theoretical model, a secondary analysis with data from 127 Hispanic women and 123 non-Hispanic (NH) Asian women in a national Internet study was used. Among the major variables of the model, length of stay in the United States was negatively associated with physical activity in Hispanic women. Level of acculturation in NH Asian women was positively correlated with women's physical activity. Country of birth and level of acculturation were significant factors that influenced physical activity in both Hispanic and NH Asian women. The findings support the theoretical model that was developed to examine relationships between immigration transition and physical activity; it shows that immigration transition can play an essential role in influencing health behaviors of immigrant populations in the United States. The NH theoretical model can be widely used in nursing practice and research that focus on immigrant women and their health behaviors. Health care providers need to consider the influences of immigration transition to promote immigrant women's physical activity.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, and Im, E-O. "Testing a Theoretical Model of Immigration Transition and Physical Activity." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 29.3 (January 2015): 177-188.
PMID
26502554
Source
epmc
Published In
Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Volume
29
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
177
End Page
188
DOI
10.1891/1541-6577.29.3.177

What makes an intervention culturally competent?

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "What makes an intervention culturally competent?." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 26.1 (January 2015): 5-null.
PMID
25085514
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
26
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
5
DOI
10.1177/1043659614545495

Practical guidelines for development of web-based interventions.

Despite a recent high funding priority on technological aspects of research and a high potential impact of Web-based interventions on health, few guidelines for the development of Web-based interventions are currently available. In this article, we propose practical guidelines for development of Web-based interventions based on an empirical study and an integrative literature review. The empirical study aimed at development of a Web-based physical activity promotion program that was specifically tailored to Korean American midlife women. The literature review included a total of 202 articles that were retrieved through multiple databases. On the basis of the findings of the study and the literature review, we propose directions for development of Web-based interventions in the following steps: (1) meaningfulness and effectiveness, (2) target population, (3) theoretical basis/program theory, (4) focus and objectives, (5) components, (6) technological aspects, and (7) logistics for users. The guidelines could help promote further development of Web-based interventions at this early stage of Web-based interventions in nursing.

Authors
Chee, W; Lee, Y; Chee, E; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chee, W, Lee, Y, Chee, E, and Im, E-O. "Practical guidelines for development of web-based interventions." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 32.10 (October 2014): 504-511.
PMID
25153046
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
32
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
504
End Page
511
DOI
10.1097/cin.0000000000000088

Physical activities and sleep-related symptoms in 4 major racial/ethnic groups of midlife women.

The purpose of this study was to determine racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's sleep-related symptoms, relationships between their physical activity and sleep-related symptoms, and specific factors associated with their sleep-related symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women in the United States. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ tests, analysis of variance, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses, and logistic regression analyses. The findings indicated that physical activities could improve midlife women's sleep-related symptoms, but the types of physical activities and racially/ethnically different factors associated with sleep-related symptoms need to be considered.

Authors
Im, E-O; Teng, H; Lee, Y; Kang, Y; Ham, OK; Chee, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Teng, H, Lee, Y, Kang, Y, Ham, OK, Chee, E, and Chee, W. "Physical activities and sleep-related symptoms in 4 major racial/ethnic groups of midlife women." Family & Community Health 37.4 (October 2014): 307-316.
PMID
25167071
Source
epmc
Published In
Family & Community Health
Volume
37
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
307
End Page
316
DOI
10.1097/fch.0000000000000041

Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes.

To evaluate the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Self-efficacy has been reported to be a key component of enhancing diabetes self-management, and many healthcare providers have paid attention to the instruments to accurately measure self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management.A psychometric test of an instrument measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management.A total of 278 Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited in one senior centre in Seoul, South Korea. The instrument included the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale and the summary of the Diabetes Self-care Activities. Item analyses, reliability including internal consistency and stability, and validity including exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and hypothesised relationships test were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale.The item-total correlation coefficients of all items were >0·30 and ranged from 0·47-0·73. The coefficient alpha for the internal consistency was 0·89, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for the stability was 0·90. Two factors were extracted from the exploratory factor analysis (factor 1, self-efficacy for diet-related self-management behaviours; factor 2, self-efficacy for diabetes self-management behaviours except diet), and the two-factor model for the confirmatory factor analysis had good fitness indices. The diabetes self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with the level of diabetes self-management.The findings supported that the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale was reliable and valid in measuring self-efficacy as related to diabetes self-management in Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes.The Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale can allow healthcare providers to effectively measure self-efficacy related to diabetes self-management so that they can provide the appropriate and adequate nursing care to Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Song, M; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, Song, M, and Im, E-O. "Psychometric evaluation of the Korean version of the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale among South Korean older adults with type 2 diabetes." Journal of Clinical Nursing 23.15-16 (August 2014): 2121-2130.
PMID
23876167
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Clinical Nursing
Volume
23
Issue
15-16
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2121
End Page
2130
DOI
10.1111/jocn.12133

Predictors of Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors: White and Asian American Women

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, and Chee, E. "Predictors of Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors: White and Asian American Women." Women & Therapy 37.3-4 (July 2014): 282-300.
Source
crossref
Published In
Women & Therapy
Volume
37
Issue
3-4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
282
End Page
300
DOI
10.1080/02703149.2014.897554

Ethnic differences in the clusters of menopausal symptoms.

Our purpose for this study was to identify clusters of midlife women by menopausal symptoms in a multiethnic sample, and to determine ethnic differences in the clusters. This was a secondary analysis of data from 501 women in a larger Internet study on menopausal symptom experiences. The data were analyzed using factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and multinominal logistic analysis. A three cluster solution was adopted (F = 575.71, p <.01). The clusters differed significantly in the country of birth and ethnicity (p <.05). Only in the low symptomatic cluster were there significant ethnic differences in menopausal symptoms.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, and Chee, W. "Ethnic differences in the clusters of menopausal symptoms." Health Care for Women International 35.5 (May 2014): 549-565.
PMID
23980651
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
35
Issue
5
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
549
End Page
565
DOI
10.1080/07399332.2013.815752

A path analysis of Internet health information seeking behaviors among older adults.

The Internet has emerged as an innovative tool that older adults can use to obtain health-related information. However, the relationships among predictors of Internet health information seeking behaviors (IHISB) in this population are not well understood. To fill this gap, this study examined the direct and indirect pathways of potential predictors of IHISB among older South Korean adults, using the modified Technology Acceptance Model 3. Participants were 300 older South Korean adults who had used the Internet to obtain health information within the past month. Data were collected via a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed through structural equation modeling. Two variables-prior experience and behavioral intention to use-had positive direct effects on IHISB. These findings imply that health care providers promoting IHISB among older adults should consider these individuals' prior experience with the Internet and their willingness to use the Internet as a source of health information.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, and Im, E-O. "A path analysis of Internet health information seeking behaviors among older adults." Geriatric Nursing (New York, N.Y.) 35.2 (March 2014): 137-141.
PMID
24332965
Source
epmc
Published In
Geriatric Nursing (New York, N.Y.)
Volume
35
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
137
End Page
141
DOI
10.1016/j.gerinurse.2013.11.005

Effects of the Body Mass Index on Menopausal Symptoms Among Asian American Midlife Women Using Two Different Classification Systems – CNE Post Test

Authors
Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Im, E
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, Chee, W, and Im, E. "Effects of the Body Mass Index on Menopausal Symptoms Among Asian American Midlife Women Using Two Different Classification Systems – CNE Post Test." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing 43.1 (January 2014): E8-E9.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
43
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
E8
End Page
E9
DOI
10.1111/1552-6909.12262

Effects of the body mass index on menopausal symptoms among Asian American midlife women using two different classification systems.

To explore the effects of the body mass index (BMI) on menopausal symptoms among Asian American midlife women using two different classification systems: the international classification and the BMI classification for public health action among Asian populations.Secondary analysis using data from two large Internet survey studies.Communities and groups of midlife women on the Internet.A total of 223 Asian American midlife women who were recruited over the Internet.The Midlife Women's Symptom Index and self-reports of height and weight were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using multiple analyses of covariance.No significant differences in the prevalence and severity scores among three subscales and total menopausal symptoms according to the international classification were found. When the BMI classification for public health action among Asian populations was used as an independent variable, significant differences were found in the severity scores of three subscales and total menopausal symptoms. Results of the post-hoc analyses showed that Asian American midlife women who were in the BMI classification for high risk had significantly more severe menopausal symptoms than those who were in the BMI classification for increased risk.For Asian American women, BMI categorized using the BMI classification for Asian populations is more closely related to the severity of menopausal symptoms than BMI categorized using the international classification. Nurses need to consider the BMI classification for Asian populations when they develop interventions to prevent and alleviate menopausal symptoms among Asian American midlife women.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Effects of the body mass index on menopausal symptoms among Asian American midlife women using two different classification systems." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 43.1 (January 2014): 84-96.
PMID
24355039
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
43
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
84
End Page
96
DOI
10.1111/1552-6909.12261

The status quo of situation-specific theories.

The purpose of this article is to explore the status quo of situation-specific theories through an integrated literature review on situation-specific theories that have been published since 1999. The literature was searched through multiple databases including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO and analyzed in terms of purpose of theorizing, types of theorizing, sources of theorizing, and linkages to research or practice. Four themes reflecting the current status of situation-specific theories were extracted: (a) explicitly claimed and not explicitly claimed situation-specific theories; (b) multiple philosophical bases; (c) unique theorizing process; and (d) providing clear directions for nursing interventions but rarely evaluated. Nurses need to continuously make their efforts to develop theoretical bases that could closely link theory, research, and practice in nursing and that could adequately serve new nursing needs and challenges.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "The status quo of situation-specific theories." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 28.4 (January 2014): 278-298. (Review)
PMID
25577859
Source
epmc
Published In
Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Volume
28
Issue
4
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
278
End Page
298
DOI
10.1891/1541-6577.28.4.278

Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, and Im, E-O. "Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes." Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 28.2 (January 2014): 113-126.
PMID
25087324
Source
epmc
Published In
Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
Volume
28
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
113
End Page
126
DOI
10.1891/1541-6577.28.2.113

Situation-specific theories from the middle-range transitions theory.

The purpose of this article was to analyze the theory development process of the situation-specific theories that were derived from the middle-range transitions theory. This analysis aims to provide directions for future development of situation-specific theories. First, transitions theory is concisely described with its history, goal, and major concepts. Then, the approach that was used to retrieve the situation-specific theories derived from transitions theory is described. Next, an analysis of 6 situation-specific theories is presented. Finally, 4 themes reflecting commonalities and variances in the theory development process are discussed with implications for future theoretical development.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Situation-specific theories from the middle-range transitions theory." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 37.1 (January 2014): 19-31. (Review)
PMID
24469086
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
37
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
19
End Page
31
DOI
10.1097/ans.0000000000000014

Diversities and complexities in the health of Asian women.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Diversities and complexities in the health of Asian women." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 43.1 (January 2014): 82-83.
PMID
24354439
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
43
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
82
End Page
83
DOI
10.1111/1552-6909.12264

Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: a secondary analysis.

To explore the effect of diverse types of women's physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA.Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies.A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008-2010.A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data.The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both non-Hispanic Asians and non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively.Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women's physical activities within the cultural context.

Authors
Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Chang, SJ, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: a secondary analysis." Journal of Advanced Nursing 69.9 (September 2013): 1953-1965.
PMID
23171423
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume
69
Issue
9
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1953
End Page
1965
DOI
10.1111/jan.12056

Symptom clusters among multiethnic groups of cancer patients with pain.

OBJECTIVE: Considering recent inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience, there is a need to clarify the association of ethnicity to cancer pain experience through diverse approaches. However, there currently exist only a small number of studies on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience in general, and few symptom cluster studies specifically related to ethnic differences in cancer pain experience. The purpose of this study was to cluster cancer patients who reported similar cancer pain experience, and to determine ethnic differences in the clusters. METHOD: This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger Internet study on cancer pain experience of four major ethnic groups of cancer patients in the United States. Only 388 subjects who responded to the questions on cancer pain, cancer symptoms, and functional status were included for this secondary analysis. The data were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis and multinomial logistic analysis. RESULTS: A three-cluster solution was adopted: 1) Cluster 1 with low pain, low symptoms, and high functional status, 2) Cluster 2 with moderate pain, low symptoms, and moderate functional staus, and 3) Cluster 3 with high pain, moderate symptoms, and low functional status. In Cluster 2, there were ethnic difference in the cancer pain and funtional status scores; Asian Americans reported lower pain scores than did other ethnic groups, and African Americans had higher funtional status scores than did other ethnic groups. In Cluster 3, there were ethnic difference in the symptom scores (p < 0.05); African Americans reported higher symptom scores than did whites. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: The results of this study add an important piece of information on ethnic differences in symptom clusters. This study suggests further national scope studies on clustering multiethnic groups of cancer patients by cancer pain experience.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, and Chee, W. "Symptom clusters among multiethnic groups of cancer patients with pain." Palliative & Supportive Care 11.4 (August 2013): 295-305.
PMID
23040247
Source
epmc
Published In
Palliative & Supportive Care
Volume
11
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
295
End Page
305
DOI
10.1017/s1478951512000314

Racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity.

Women's racial/ethnic-specific attitudes toward physical activity have been pointed out as a plausible reason for their low participation rates in physical activity. However, very little is actually known about racial/ethnic commonalities and differences in midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The purpose of this study was to explore commonalities and differences in midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity among 4 major racial/ethnic groups in the United States (whites, Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians).This was a secondary analysis of the qualitative data from a larger study that explored midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Qualitative data from 4 racial/ethnic-specific online forums among 90 midlife women were used for this study. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis, and themes reflecting commonalties and differences in the women's attitudes toward physical activity across the racial/ethnic groups were extracted.The themes reflecting the commonalities were: 1) physical activity is good for health, 2) not as active as I could be, 3) physical activity was not encouraged, 4) inherited diseases motivated participation in physical activity, and 5) lack of accessibility to physical activity. The themes reflecting the differences were: 1) physical activity as necessity or luxury, 2) organized versus natural physical activity, 3) individual versus family-oriented physical activity, and 4) beauty ideal or culturally accepted physical appearance.Developing an intervention that could change the social influences and environmental factors and address the women's racial/ethnic-specific attitudes would be a priority in increasing physical activity of racial/ethnic minority midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Hwang, H; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; Walker, L; Brown, A
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Hwang, H, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, Walker, L, and Brown, A. "Racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity." Journal of Midwifery & Women'S Health 58.4 (July 2013): 440-450.
PMID
23931661
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Midwifery and Women'S Health
Volume
58
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
440
End Page
450
DOI
10.1111/j.1542-2011.2012.00259.x

Maternal health needs and interest in screening for depression and health behaviors during pediatric visits.

INTRODUCTION: Our aims were to assess postpartum health care barriers; health status (including depression and health behaviors); missed opportunities to discuss maternal health at health visits; acceptability of maternal screening in pediatric settings; and association of these variables with income level and race/ethnicity. METHOD: A mail survey was used with names randomly drawn from birth files and balanced for race/ethnicity and income level. RESULTS: The adjusted response rate was 27.6%, with 41% reporting one or more health care barrier(s), 22% screening positive for depression, and 30% screening positive for alcohol abuse. Women of lower income were eight times more likely than those of higher income to have health care barriers (adjusted odds ratio = 8.15; 95% confidence interval: 3.60, 18.44). Missed discussions of postpartum depression or behavioral health during pediatric or other health care visits ranged from 26% to 79%. Acceptability of discussing topics, including depression, smoking, and alcohol use at pediatric care visits generally exceeded 85%. DISCUSSION: Postpartum women experienced income-associated barriers to health care and generally had favorable views about maternal screening in pediatric settings.

Authors
Walker, LO; Im, E-O; Tyler, DO
MLA Citation
Walker, LO, Im, E-O, and Tyler, DO. "Maternal health needs and interest in screening for depression and health behaviors during pediatric visits." Journal of Pediatric Health Care : Official Publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners 27.4 (July 2013): 267-277.
PMID
22240267
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Health Care : Official Publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
Volume
27
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
267
End Page
277
DOI
10.1016/j.pedhc.2011.11.008

Practical guidelines for feminist research in nursing.

With increasing interests in oppressed groups, the number of feminist studies in nursing has steadily increased. Despite the increasing number of feminist studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines for feminist research in nursing. In this article, guidelines for feminist research in nursing are proposed on the basis of 3 previous feminist studies. First, characteristics of feminist research are concisely described. Then, the 3 studies that are the basis for the guidelines are described. Finally, practical guidelines for feminist nursing research are proposed on the basis of 10 idea categories related to issues/concerns from the 3 studies.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Practical guidelines for feminist research in nursing." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 36.2 (April 2013): 133-145.
PMID
23644265
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
36
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
133
End Page
145
DOI
10.1097/ans.0b013e318290204e

Web-based interventions in nursing.

With recent advances in computer and Internet technologies and high funding priority on technological aspects of nursing research, researchers at the field level began to develop, use, and test various types of Web-based interventions. Despite high potential impacts of Web-based interventions, little is still known about Web-based interventions in nursing. In this article, to identify strengths and weaknesses of Web-based nursing interventions, a literature review was conducted using multiple databases with combined keywords of "online," "Internet" or "Web," "intervention," and "nursing." A total of 95 articles were retrieved through the databases and sorted by research topics. These articles were then analyzed to identify strengths and weaknesses of Web-based interventions in nursing. A strength of the Web-based interventions was their coverage of various content areas. In addition, many of them were theory-driven. They had advantages in their flexibility and comfort. They could provide consistency in interventions and require less cost in the intervention implementation. However, Web-based intervention studies had selected participants. They lacked controllability and had high dropouts. They required technical expertise and high development costs. Based on these findings, directions for future Web-based intervention research were provided.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chang, SJ. "Web-based interventions in nursing." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 31.2 (February 2013): 94-102. (Review)
PMID
23254365
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
31
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
94
End Page
102
DOI
10.1097/nxn.0b013e3182771868

New mothers' interest in web-based health promotion: association with healthcare barriers, risk status, and user characteristics.

OBJECTIVE: Our first aim was to assess the contributions of health-related risks, barriers to healthcare, and user characteristics to new mothers' interest in two Web-based health programs: postpartum weight loss or parenting advice. Our second aim was to determine if the preceding proximal variables diminished associations of income level with interest in Web-based health programs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A mail survey of a stratified random sample was conducted with a resulting analytic sample that included 121 white/Anglo, African American, or Hispanic women of higher and lower income. Weight risk (being overweight or obese) and psychosocial/behavioral risk (alcohol use, depression, smoking) were the predictors of interest in a weight loss program and parenting advice, respectively. Financial, structural, and function factors served as barriers to care. Frequency of Internet use assessed user characteristics. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors. RESULTS: Being overweight (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.18, 14.11) was the only variable to affect likelihood of interest in an Internet-based weight loss program; income level was not a significant predictor. Having two or more psychosocial/behavioral risks (adjusted OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.50, 0.92) was the only predictor of interest in Internet-based parenting advice; income level was not a significant predictor after adjusting for other variables (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.19, 1.55). CONCLUSIONS: The type of risk and program topic decreased or increased likelihood of interest in Internet-based programming. Weight risks increased interest in weight loss programming, but psychosocial/behavioral risks deceased interest in parenting advice.

Authors
Walker, LO; Im, E-O; Vaughan, MW
MLA Citation
Walker, LO, Im, E-O, and Vaughan, MW. "New mothers' interest in web-based health promotion: association with healthcare barriers, risk status, and user characteristics." Telemedicine Journal and E Health : the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association 18.10 (December 2012): 785-790.
PMID
23095005
Source
epmc
Published In
Telemedicine Journal and E Health : the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Volume
18
Issue
10
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
785
End Page
790
DOI
10.1089/tmj.2012.0008

Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums.

With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 30.11 (November 2012): 604-611.
PMID
22918135
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
30
Issue
11
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
604
End Page
611
DOI
10.1097/NXN.0b013e318266cade

A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing.

As faculty members, we frequently find that first-year doctoral students in nursing are confused about how to conduct a systematic integrated literature review. This could be due to its vague definition and a lack of recent literature that provides directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review. This article aims to provide directions for conducting a systematic integrated literature review by identifying the essential components of published literature reviews in nursing. To achieve this goal, the literature was searched by using the keywords nursing, systematic, and review in multiple databases. A total of 267 articles were selected and are included in this systematic integrated literature review. The articles were then sorted by study design and analyzed in six areas of interests. Finally, a practical guideline for conducting systematic integrated literature reviews is proposed based on the analysis of the literature.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chang, SJ. "A systematic integrated literature review of systematic integrated literature reviews in nursing." The Journal of Nursing Education 51.11 (November 2012): 632-640. (Review)
PMID
22978273
Source
epmc
Published In
The Journal of Nursing Education
Volume
51
Issue
11
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
632
End Page
640
DOI
10.3928/01484834-20120914-02

Attitudes of women in midlife to web-based interventions for promoting physical activity.

We explored the attitudes of women at midlife to web-based interventions for promoting physical activity. 145 women volunteered to participate in one of four online forums. The forums were for four major racial/ethnic groups. 90 volunteers were recruited for the online forums (29 Whites, 23 Hispanics, 21 African Americans, and 17 Asians). Two sets of topics on attitudes to physical activity and racial/ethnic contexts were used. Each topic had some introductory questions and related prompts, and these were posted on the online forum sites in a serial fashion during the six-month period. We used a thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged: (1) 'a matter of the source of the information'; (2) 'I can pace myself'; (3) 'lack of interpersonal interactions'; and (4) 'culture-specificity and low cost.' The women in all ethnic groups thought that the source of the information was much more important than the medium of the information (e.g. web-based, booklet or face-to-face). They liked the self-controllability in web-based interventions. They preferred web-based interventions to other types of interventions because of easy accessibility, but they were concerned about lack of interpersonal interaction. None of the White or African American women indicated the need for culture-specificity in web-based interventions, but Hispanic and Asian women indicated that culture-specific interventions should be provided. Web-based interventions appear to have several advantages over conventional approaches to promoting physical activity.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Chee, W; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, Chee, W, and Chee, E. "Attitudes of women in midlife to web-based interventions for promoting physical activity." Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 18.7 (October 26, 2012): 419-422.
PMID
23104771
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Volume
18
Issue
7
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
419
End Page
422
DOI
10.1258/jtt.2012.120514

Asian American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity.

To explore Asian American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity using a feminist perspective.A qualitative online forum study.Internet communities/groups for midlife women and ethnic minorities.A total of 17 Asian American women recruited through the Internet using a convenience sampling method.A 6-month qualitative online forum was conducted using 17 online forum topics. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis.Three major themes related to Asian American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity were extracted from the data: keeping traditions, not a priority, and not for Asian girls. Because Asian American midlife women were busy in keeping their cultural traditions, they rarely found time for physical activity. The women gave the highest priority to their children, and physical activity was the lowest priority in their busy lives. Also, the women were rarely encouraged to participate in physical activity during their childhoods, and they perceived that their weak and small bodies were not appropriate for physical activity.Several implications for future development of physical activity promotion programs for this specific population have been suggested based on the findings.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Hwang, H; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; Lee, H; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Hwang, H, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, Lee, H, and Chee, E. "Asian American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 41.5 (September 2012): 650-658.
PMID
22789126
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
41
Issue
5
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
650
End Page
658
DOI
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2012.01392.x

A national internet survey on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity.

BACKGROUND: Despite an increasing number of studies of midlife women's physical activity, little is known about how attitudes toward physical activity of midlife women from diverse ethnic groups influence the women's physical activity. OBJECTIVES: To explore ethnic differences in midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity and determine the relationships between the attitudes and their actual participation in physical activity while considering other influencing factors. METHODS: The Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity model was used to guide the study. This was a cross-sectional Internet survey study of 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Physical Activity Assessment Inventory; a modified Barriers to Health Activities Scale; the Questions on Attitudes Toward Physical Activity, Subjective Norm, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Behavioral Intention; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, correlation, hierarchical multiple regression, and path analyses. RESULTS: There were significant ethnic differences in the attitude scores (F = 2.58, p < .05), but no ethnic differences in the physical activity scores. Interestingly, there were significant ethnic differences in the occupational physical activity scores (F = 5.68, p < .01). Attitude scores accounted for 5% of total variances of the physical activity scores (F(ch) = 43.52, p < .01). The direct paths from the attitude scores (p < .01), the self-efficacy scores (p < .01), and the barrier scores (p < .05) to the physical activity scores were statistically significant. DISCUSSION: Ethnic differences in the women's attitudes toward physical activity need to be considered in promoting physical activity of midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ; Ko, Y; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; Walker, L
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chang, SJ, Ko, Y, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, and Walker, L. "A national internet survey on midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity." Nursing Research 61.5 (September 2012): 342-352.
PMID
22699941
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
61
Issue
5
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
342
End Page
352
DOI
10.1097/nnr.0b013e31825da85a

Current trends in nursing theories.

To explore current trends in nursing theories through an integrated literature review.The literature related to nursing theories during the past 10 years was searched through multiple databases and reviewed to determine themes reflecting current trends in nursing theories.The trends can be categorized into six themes: (a) foci on specifics; (b) coexistence of various types of theories; (c) close links to research; (d) international collaborative works; (e) integration to practice; and (f) selective evolution.We need to make our continuous efforts to link research and practice to theories, to identify specifics of our theories, to develop diverse types of theories, and to conduct international collaborative works.Our paper gives implications for future theoretical development in diverse clinical areas of nursing research and practice.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chang, SJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chang, SJ. "Current trends in nursing theories." Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing 44.2 (June 2012): 156-164. (Review)
PMID
22458953
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Volume
44
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
156
End Page
164
DOI
10.1111/j.1547-5069.2012.01440.x

"Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity.

The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Hwang, H; Yoo, KH; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; Walker, L; Brown, A; McPeek, C; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Hwang, H, Yoo, KH, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, Walker, L, Brown, A, McPeek, C, and Chee, E. ""Physical activity as a luxury": African American women's attitudes toward physical activity." Western Journal of Nursing Research 34.3 (April 2012): 317-339.
PMID
21403059
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
34
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
317
End Page
339
DOI
10.1177/0193945911400637

Communication technologies and maternal interest in health-promotion information about postpartum weight and parenting practices.

To describe postpartum women's access, perceived skill, confidence, and use of Internet and mobile technologies; their views about receiving health information about postpartum weight and parenting; and whether these factors varied by race/ethnicity or income level.Health survey of a stratified random sample.County in central Texas.One hundred forty-five (145) White/Anglo, African American, or Hispanic women of higher and lower income.Overall, 122 (84.1%) of respondents had access to a computer with an Internet connection at home and made daily use of the following: the Internet 77.6%, e-mail 75.4%, cell phone 97.1%, and text messaging 66.7%. Significant racial/ethnic and income differences occurred in home Internet access, frequency of Internet and e-mail use, and perceived confidence or skill favoring White/Anglo women over ethnic minority women, and those of higher over lower income. Overall, 35.9% of women expressed "a lot" of interest in an Internet-based weight loss program, 38.9% in a weight loss program sent by mail, 44.8% in an Internet-based parenting advice, and 38.6% in parenting advice sent by mail. Women of higher and lower income differed significantly in their interest in three of the four types of health-promotion information and methods of delivery.Generally, women with lower income were more likely to express high interest in receiving health information related to parenting by mail than those of higher incomes, whereas women of higher incomes were more likely to express high interest in receiving weight loss and parenting information through the Internet.

Authors
Walker, LO; Im, E-O; Vaughan, MW
MLA Citation
Walker, LO, Im, E-O, and Vaughan, MW. "Communication technologies and maternal interest in health-promotion information about postpartum weight and parenting practices." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 41.2 (March 2012): 201-215.
PMID
22376007
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
41
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
201
End Page
215
DOI
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01333.x

Theory and research.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Theory and research." Nursing Research 61.2 (March 2012): 77-null.
PMID
22395058
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
61
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
77
DOI
10.1097/nnr.0b013e31824798ba

Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums.

With an increasing number of Internet research in general, the number of qualitative Internet studies has recently increased. Online forums are one of the most frequently used qualitative Internet research methods. Despite an increasing number of online forum studies, very few articles have been written to provide practical guidelines to conduct an online forum as a qualitative research method. In this article, practical guidelines in using an online forum as a qualitative research method are proposed based on three previous online forum studies. First, the three studies are concisely described. Practical guidelines are proposed based on nine idea categories related to issues in the three studies: (a) a fit with research purpose and questions, (b) logistics, (c) electronic versus conventional informed consent process, (d) structure and functionality of online forums, (e) interdisciplinary team, (f) screening methods, (g) languages, (h) data analysis methods, and (i) getting participants' feedback.

Authors
Im, EO; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Chee, W. "Practical guidelines for qualitative research using online forums." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 30.11 (January 1, 2012): 604-611.
Source
scopus
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
30
Issue
11
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
604
End Page
611

"Symptom-specific or holistic": menopausal symptom management.

Our purpose in this study was to identify differences in menopausal symptom management among four major ethnic groups in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the qualitative data from a larger Internet-based study. We analyzed data from 90 middle-aged women in the United States using thematic analysis. We extracted four themes during the data analysis process: (a) "seeking formal or informal advice," (b) "medication as the first or final choice," (c) "symptom-specific or holistic," and (d) "avoiding or pursuing specific foods." Health care providers need to develop menopausal symptom management programs while considering ethnic differences in menopausal symptom management.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ko, Y; Hwang, H; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ko, Y, Hwang, H, and Chee, W. ""Symptom-specific or holistic": menopausal symptom management." Health Care for Women International 33.6 (January 2012): 575-592.
PMID
22577743
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
33
Issue
6
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
575
End Page
592
DOI
10.1080/07399332.2011.646371

The use of internet cancer support groups by Asian Americans and White Americans living with cancer.

To explore the use of Internet cancer support groups (UICSG) by Asians and Whites living with cancer and determine the factors influencing their UICSG.A cross-sectional Internet study among 30 Asians and 30 Whites. The instruments included (a) questions on sociodemographic and cultural factors, and disease status, (b) the Support Care Needs Survey-34 Short Form, (c) the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey subscale on Internet usage, and (d) the UICSG Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and nonparametric multiple regression analyses.There was a significant ethnic difference in the UICSG, but there were no ethnic differences in general Internet use or needs for help. Across the ethnic groups, the significant factors influencing the UICSG included "self-reported ethnic identity," "born in the United States," and "general Internet use."Nurses should consider the cultural factors that influence the UICSG.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, and Chee, W. "The use of internet cancer support groups by Asian Americans and White Americans living with cancer." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 22.4 (October 2011): 386-396.
PMID
21807956
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
22
Issue
4
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
386
End Page
396
DOI
10.1177/1043659611414142

Transitions theory: a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing.

There have been very few investigations into how any single nursing theory has actually evolved historically. In this paper, a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing is explored through reviewing the theoretical development of a single nursing theory-transitions theory. The literature related to transitions theory was searched and retrieved using multiple databases. Ninety-nine papers were analyzed according to type of theory, populations of interest, sources of theorizing, and theoretical methods. Transitions theory originated in research but was initially borrowed. It also arose in research with immigrants and from national and international collaborative research efforts. A product of mentoring, transitions theory is used widely in nursing education, research, and practice. Diverse thoughts related to transitions theory coexist. For future theoretical development in nursing, we need to remain open to new ideas and continue to engage in multiple collaborative efforts.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Transitions theory: a trajectory of theoretical development in nursing." Nursing Outlook 59.5 (September 2011): 278-285.e2. (Review)
PMID
21703651
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Outlook
Volume
59
Issue
5
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
278
End Page
285.e2
DOI
10.1016/j.outlook.2011.03.008

Online support of patients and survivors of cancer.

OBJECTIVES: To provide information on current use of a type of online support, Internet cancer support groups, by patients and survivors of cancer, and the factors that influence their usages. DATA SOURCES: The literature systematically searched and retrieved through the PUBMED, PsycInfo, and CINAHL databases. CONCLUSION: This literature review indicated five factors that influence the use of Internet cancer support groups (disease, background, cultural, need, and Internet use). IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: Health care providers need to give careful attention to multiple factors that may influence the use of online support.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Online support of patients and survivors of cancer." Seminars in Oncology Nursing 27.3 (August 2011): 229-236. (Review)
PMID
21783014
Source
epmc
Published In
Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Volume
27
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
229
End Page
236
DOI
10.1016/j.soncn.2011.04.008

"Being conditioned, yet becoming strong": Asian American women in menopausal transition.

This study aimed to explore the menopausal symptom experiences of Asian American midlife women within the contexts of their daily lives using a feminist approach.This was a qualitative online forum study among 13 Asian American women recruited through the Internet. Seven discussion topics related to the menopausal symptom experience were used, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis.Five themes emerged: (a) “being conditioned,”(b) “becoming strong,” (c) “appreciating,” (d) “without making a fuss,” and (e) “quiet support.” DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: These themes represent the women’s marginalized but empowered experience duringmenopausal transition.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, SH; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, SH, and Chee, W. ""Being conditioned, yet becoming strong": Asian American women in menopausal transition." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 22.3 (July 2011): 290-299.
PMID
21519062
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
22
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
290
End Page
299
DOI
10.1177/1043659611404429

Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues.

Quota sampling has been suggested as a potentially good method for Internet-based research and has been used by several researchers working with Internet samples. However, very little is known about the issues or concerns in using a quota sampling method in Internet research. The purpose of this article was to present the practical issues using quota sampling in an Internet-based study. During the Internet study, the research team recorded all recruitment issues that arose and made written notes indicating the possible reasons for the problems. In addition, biweekly team discussions were conducted for which written records were kept. Overall, quota sampling was effective in ensuring that an adequate number of midlife women were recruited from the targeted ethnic groups. However, during the study process, we encountered the following practical issues using quota sampling: (1) difficulty reaching out to women in lower socioeconomic classes, (2) difficulty ensuring authenticity of participants' identities, (3) participants giving inconsistent answers for the screening questions versus the Internet survey questions, (4) potential problems with a question on socioeconomic status, (5) resentment toward the research project and/or researchers because of rejection, and (6) a longer time and more expense than anticipated.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Quota sampling in internet research: practical issues." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 29.7 (July 2011): 381-385.
PMID
20975541
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
29
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
381
End Page
385
DOI
10.1097/ncn.0b013e3181f9dc45

The questions on the use of internet cancer support groups: instrument development.

Recently, with advances in computer technologies, Internet cancer support groups became more popular than ever among people living with cancer. However, there is little information available on cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups, which may be partially due to a lack of instruments measuring cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups. Indeed, virtually no instrument measuring cancer patients' use of Internet cancer support groups can be identified through searches using multiple databases. In this study, a new instrument measuring the use of Internet cancer support groups was developed, and its psychometric properties were tested among 117 people living with cancer recruited through the Internet using a convenience sampling method. First, the development process of the new instrument, the Questions on the Use of Internet Cancer Support Groups, is described. Then, the pilot study on psychometric properties of the instrument is presented. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency reliability testing, split-half reliability testing, and item analysis. Validity was assessed by using criterion validity, convergent validity, and face validity. The findings of the pilot study supported the reliability and validity of this new instrument. Based on the findings, some implications for future research are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, and Chee, W. "The questions on the use of internet cancer support groups: instrument development." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 29.6 (June 2011): 344-351.
PMID
20975534
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
29
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
344
End Page
351
DOI
10.1097/ncn.0b013e3181fc3c97

Attitudes toward physical activity of white midlife women.

To explore attitudes toward physical activity of White midlife women in the United States using a feminist perspective.A cross-sectional qualitative study using a thematic analysis.Internet communities for midlife women.Twenty-nine White midlife women in the United States recruited using a convenience sampling method.We used 17 topics on attitudes toward physical activity and ethnic-specific contexts to administer an online forum. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis.We found three themes: thinking without action, gendered and sedentary culture, and motivating myself. The women knew and understood the necessity of physical activity for their physical and mental health but in most cases had not been able to take action to increase their physical activities. Although the culture that circumscribed the women's physical activity was sedentary in nature, the women tried to motivate themselves to increase their physical activities through several creative strategies.The findings strongly suggest that although women were doing their best, American culture itself needs to be changed to help women increase physical activity in their daily lives.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; eMAPA Research Team,
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, and eMAPA Research Team, . "Attitudes toward physical activity of white midlife women." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 40.3 (May 2011): 312-321.
PMID
21585528
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
40
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
312
End Page
321
DOI
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2011.01249.x

The DSCP-CA: a decision support computer program--cancer pain management.

The purpose of this study was to develop a decision support system using fuzzy logic that would support nurses' decisions about cancer pain management, especially for ethnic minority cancer patients. The study had two phases: (1) data collection and (2) development of the decision support computer program. In the data collection phase, an Internet survey of 428 cancer patients and four ethnic-specific online forums (about 30 participants per forum) were conducted to gather data on the cancer pain experience of the four major ethnic groups in the United States. The development phase included two components: (1) development of three modules, including a knowledge base module, a decision module, and a self-adaptation module; and (2) a 3-month evaluation of the decision support computer program by oncology nurses and subsequent incorporation of their feedback into the program. The Internet survey and online forum data were processed into fuzzy and crisp data sets, and ethnic-specific algorithms for the decision module were developed. Using the self-adaptation module, the decision support computer program was further refined as additional data were processed. Then, the decision support computer program was further developed by adding additional components suggested by the oncology nurses.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "The DSCP-CA: a decision support computer program--cancer pain management." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 29.5 (May 2011): 289-296.
PMID
20975538
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
29
Issue
5
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
289
End Page
296
DOI
10.1097/ncn.0b013e3181f9dd23

Psychometric evaluation of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index in multiethnic groups.

The Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI) was designed to measure menopausal symptoms specifically in a multiethnic sample of midlife women. This study involved a psychometric property test to evaluate MSI among 512 multiethnic groups of midlife women (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian American). Across the ethnic groups, the MSI had an adequate internal consistency in all subdomains except psychosomatic symptoms. The item-total correlation coefficients of lost weight and nosebleeds were lower than .20 among all ethnic groups. The discriminant validity was confirmed among all ethnic groups except Asian Americans. Overall, the MSI may work better for Whites compared with other ethnic groups. Additional studies with diverse groups of multiethnic midlife women are needed, however, to confirm the psychometric properties of the MSI because the samples tended to be a select group.

Authors
Lee, B; Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Lee, B, Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Psychometric evaluation of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index in multiethnic groups." Western Journal of Nursing Research 32.8 (December 2010): 1091-1111.
PMID
20606074
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
32
Issue
8
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1091
End Page
1111
DOI
10.1177/0193945910362066

"A waste of time": Hispanic women's attitudes toward physical activity.

Despite a lack of studies on Hispanic midlife women's physical activity, the existing studies have indicated that Hispanics' ethnic-specific attitudes toward physical activity contributed to their lack of physical activity. However, little is still clearly known about Hispanic midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. The purpose of this study was to explore Hispanic midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity using a feminist perspective. The study was a 6-month qualitative online forum among 23 Hispanic women who were recruited through Internet communities/groups. The data were collected using 17 online forum topics on attitudes toward physical activity and ethnic-specific contexts. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis process: (a) "family first, no time for myself," (b) "little exercise, but naturally healthy," and (c) "dad died of a heart attack." Although some of the women perceived the importance of physical activity due to their family history of chronic diseases, the study participants thought that physical activity would be a waste of time in their busy daily schedules. These findings provided directions for future health care practice and research to increase physical activity among Hispanic midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Hwang, H; Yoo, KH; Chee, W; Stuifbergen, A; Walker, L; Brown, A; McPeek, C; Miro, M; Chee, E
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, Hwang, H, Yoo, KH, Chee, W, Stuifbergen, A, Walker, L, Brown, A, McPeek, C, Miro, M, and Chee, E. ""A waste of time": Hispanic women's attitudes toward physical activity." Women & Health 50.6 (September 2010): 563-579.
PMID
20981637
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
50
Issue
6
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
563
End Page
579
DOI
10.1080/03630242.2010.510387

Black women in menopausal transition.

To describe the experience of menopausal symptoms of midlife Black women in the United States.Qualitative online forum using a feminist perspective.Internet communities for midlife women and Blacks.Twenty midlife Black women recruited using a quota sampling method.A 6-month online forum was conducted with seven discussion topics on menopausal symptoms. The discussion topics were posted sequentially on the forum site, and the women posted messages at their convenience over 6 months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis.The identified themes were raised to be strong, accepting a natural aging process, silent and without knowledge, and our own experience. The women tried to be strong during their menopausal transitions while dealing with other important family matters. The women did not report their menopausal symptoms and were silent about or downplayed their symptoms, but many emphasized the importance of education about menopausal symptoms and highlighted their own lack of knowledge. These women generally did not talk about their symptoms because they believed that nobody except other Black midlife women could understand their menopausal experience.Health care providers need to develop a mechanism to deliver the necessary knowledge about menopausal symptoms and management strategies to Black midlife women in their health care practices.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, SH; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, SH, and Chee, W. "Black women in menopausal transition." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 39.4 (July 2010): 435-443.
PMID
20629930
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
39
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
435
End Page
443
DOI
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2010.01148.x

Menopausal symptoms among four major ethnic groups in the United States.

The purpose of the study was to explore ethnic differences in symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition among four major ethnic groups in the United States. This study was done via a cross-sectional Internet survey among 512 midlife women recruited using a convenience sampling. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, ethnicity-related factors, health, and menopausal status and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Significant ethnic differences were found in the total number and severity of the symptoms. The most frequently reported symptoms and predictors of the total number and severity of the symptoms differed by ethnic identity. More in-depth cultural studies are needed to understand the reasons for the ethnic differences in menopausal symptom experience.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W; Brown, A; Dormire, S
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, Chee, W, Brown, A, and Dormire, S. "Menopausal symptoms among four major ethnic groups in the United States." Western Journal of Nursing Research 32.4 (June 2010): 540-565.
PMID
20685910
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
32
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
540
End Page
565
DOI
10.1177/0193945909354343

Shielded from the real world: perspectives on Internet cancer support groups by Asian Americans.

Despite positive reports about Internet cancer support groups (ICSGs), ethnic minorities, including Asian Americans, have been reported to be less likely to use ICSGs. Unique cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes have been considered reasons for the low usage rate of ICSGs among Asian Americans. However, studies have rarely looked at this issue.The purpose of this study was to explore (a) how Asian Americans living with cancer who participated in ICSGs viewed ICSGs, (b) what facilitated or inhibited their participation in ICSGs, and (c) what cultural values and beliefs influenced their participation in ICSGs.The study was a 1-month qualitative online forum among 18 Asian American cancer patients recruited through a convenience sampling method. Nine topics on the use of ICSGs organized the forum discussion, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis.Four themes emerged from the data analysis process: (a) "more than just my family," (b) "part of my family," (c) "anonymous me," and (d) "shielded from the real world."The overarching theme was Asian Americans' marginalized experience in the use of ICSGs.Offering the most current information on cancer and cancer treatment is essential for nursing practice in developing a culturally competent ICSG for Asian Americans. Also, emotional familiarity should be incorporated into the design of the ICSG, and the ICSG needs to be based on nonjudgmental and nondiscriminative interactions.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, and Chee, W. "Shielded from the real world: perspectives on Internet cancer support groups by Asian Americans." Cancer Nursing 33.3 (May 2010): E10-E20.
PMID
20357657
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
33
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
E10
End Page
E20
DOI
10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181c8e5d5

Evaluation criteria for internet cancer support groups.

Despite positive reports about Internet cancer support groups, studies have rarely addressed how to choose an appropriate Internet cancer support group to conduct research. The purpose of this article was to propose evaluation criteria for selecting Internet cancer support groups from which to recruit research participants. The authors developed proposed criteria while conducting an Internet-based study of cancer pain experience among cancer patients recruited through Internet cancer support groups. During recruitment and data collection, the researchers conducted biweekly discussions about recruitment progress and kept detailed records about issues that arose in the process of identifying, contacting, and announcing the study in Internet cancer support groups. Then, the written records were analyzed using content analysis to develop the evaluation criteria. The evaluation criteria developed were (1) private or public domains, (2) mission and purpose of the Internet cancer support group, (3)target users of the Internet cancer support group, (4) scope of the Internet cancer support group, (5) contents of the Internet cancer support group, (6) logistics for study announcements in the Internet cancer support group, (7) dynamics within the Internet cancer support group, and (8) credibility and authenticity of the owner/administrator of the Internet cancer support group. Because these criteria were developed from experiences gained during only one study, further development and refinement of the evaluation criteria are essential.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M; Lim, H-J; Guevara, E; Liu, Y
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Tsai, H-M, Lim, H-J, Guevara, E, and Liu, Y. "Evaluation criteria for internet cancer support groups." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 28.3 (May 2010): 183-188.
PMID
20431362
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
28
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
183
End Page
188
DOI
10.1097/ncn.0b013e3181d786c1

Subethnic differences in the menopausal symptom experience of Asian American midlife women.

To compare the menopausal symptom experiences of subethnic groups of Asian American midlife women.A cross-sectional study among 91 Asian American women online. Questions about background characteristics, ethnic identity, and health and menopausal status, and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index were used. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.The most frequently reported and the most severe symptoms differed by subethnicity. The total number of symptoms differed by subethnicity, as did total severity scores for the symptoms.Researchers and clinicians should be aware of subethnic differences.

Authors
Im, E-O; Seung Hee Lee, ; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Seung Hee Lee, , and Chee, W. "Subethnic differences in the menopausal symptom experience of Asian American midlife women." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 21.2 (April 2010): 123-133.
PMID
20220032
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
21
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
123
End Page
133
DOI
10.1177/1043659609357639

Ethnic differences in exercise and leisure time physical activity among midlife women.

AIM: This paper is a report of a study of factors associated with ethnic differences in exercise and leisure time physical activity levels among midlife women. BACKGROUND: Most studies on physical activity have focused mostly on identifying correlates of physical activity. However, 'ethnicity/race' as a factor affecting exercise and leisure time physical activity has rarely been considered. METHOD: This study was a secondary analysis of data from a larger Internet study on menopausal symptoms of midlife women from four ethnic groups in the United States of America. A total of 441 women aged 40-60 years were recruited through the Internet from 31 January 2005 to 31 December 2007. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, analysis of variance and multiple regressions. FINDINGS: Non-Hispanic White people had a statistically significantly higher level of leisure time physical activity than Asian Americans and Hispanics. African Americans reported the lowest level of exercise. Body mass index was inversely associated with exercise among African Americans. Menopausal symptoms were positively associated with exercise among non-Hispanic White people and African Americans. Employment and number of children had a statistically significantly inverse association with exercise among Asian Americans. CONCLUSION: Correlates of exercise are ethnic-specific. The dual role situation of working outside and inside their homes is an important factor in explaining the lower participation of exercise among Asian Americans. Health factors influence exercise participation in non-Hispanic White people, African Americans and Hispanics. Nurses should take into account ethnic diversities when designing physical activity interventions for women.

Authors
Lee, SH; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lee, SH, and Im, E-O. "Ethnic differences in exercise and leisure time physical activity among midlife women." Journal of Advanced Nursing 66.4 (April 2010): 814-827.
PMID
20423369
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume
66
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
814
End Page
827
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05242.x

A situation-specific theory of Asian immigrant women's menopausal symptom experience in the United States.

In this article, a situation-specific theory that explains the menopausal symptom experiences of Asian immigrant women in the United States is presented. Using an integrative approach, the theory was developed on the basis of the transitions theory, a review of the relevant literature, and a study on Asian immigrant women's menopausal symptom experience in the United States. The proposed theory includes transition conditions, patterns of response, and nursing therapeutics as major concepts and explains the relationships among these major concepts. This theory should be further validated and developed in intervention studies and nursing practice with this specific population.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "A situation-specific theory of Asian immigrant women's menopausal symptom experience in the United States." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 33.2 (April 2010): 143-157.
PMID
20460960
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
33
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
143
End Page
157
DOI
10.1097/ANS.0b013e3181dbc5fa

Current trends in feminist nursing research.

Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Current trends in feminist nursing research." Nursing Outlook 58.2 (March 2010): 87-96. (Review)
PMID
20362777
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Outlook
Volume
58
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
87
End Page
96
DOI
10.1016/j.outlook.2009.09.006

A national multiethnic online forum study on menopausal symptom experience.

Little is known about how culture influences menopausal symptom experience, and few comparative qualitative studies have been conducted among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.The purpose of this study was to explore commonalities and differences in menopausal symptom experience among four major ethnic groups in the United States (Whites, Hispanics, African Americans, and Asians).This was a secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger national Internet-based study. The qualitative data from 90 middle-aged women in the United States who attended four ethnic-specific online forums of the larger study were examined using thematic analysis.The themes reflecting commonalities across the ethnic groups were just a part of life, trying to be optimistic, getting support, and more information needed. The themes reflecting the differences among the ethnic groups were open and closed, universal and unique, and controlling and minimizing. Overall, the findings indicated positive changes in women's menopausal symptom experience and supported the existence of cultural influences on women's menopausal symptom experience across the ethnic groups.Systematic efforts need to be made to empower midlife women in their management of menopausal symptoms.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, B; Chee, W; Dormire, S; Brown, A
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, B, Chee, W, Dormire, S, and Brown, A. "A national multiethnic online forum study on menopausal symptom experience." Nursing Research 59.1 (January 2010): 26-33.
PMID
20010042
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
59
Issue
1
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
26
End Page
33
DOI
10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3bd69

A situation-specific theory of Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity (MAPA).

This paper presents a situation specific theory-the Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity (MAPA) theory-that explains how women's attitudes toward physical activity influence their participation in physical activity. Using the integrative approach of Im, the theory was developed based on the Attitude, Social Influence, and Self Efficacy Model; a review of the related literature; and a study of women's attitudes toward physical activity. As a situation-specific theory, the MAPA theory can be linked easily to nursing practice and research projects related to physical activity in midlife women, especially interventions aimed at increasing midlife women's participation in physical activity.

Authors
Im, E-O; Stuifbergen, AK; Walker, L
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Stuifbergen, AK, and Walker, L. "A situation-specific theory of Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity (MAPA)." Nursing Outlook 58.1 (January 2010): 52-58.
PMID
20113755
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Outlook
Volume
58
Issue
1
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
52
End Page
58
DOI
10.1016/j.outlook.2009.07.001

Psychometric properties of the KPAS in diverse ethnic groups of midlife women.

The Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS), designed specifically for diverse activity domains (housework, caregiving, occupational activity), is used to assess physical activity among multiethnic midlife women. This study evaluates KPAS reliability and validity (not widely documented) in measuring physical activity among 341 groups in this classification. Internal consistency coefficients are adequate for all ethnic groups except non-Hispanic (N-H) African Americans. To evaluate construct validity, the researchers use multiple analytic approaches, including correlation between behavioral intention and KPAS scores and factor analysis. KPAS scores correlate positively with behavioral intention scores among all ethnic groups. Eight factors are extracted among all groups except N-H Asian Americans. In the convergent validity test, N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans show unique patterns. Overall, the KPAS proves reliable as a reasonably accurate instrument to assess physical activities among multiethnic groups of midlife women. However, cultural sensitivity among N-H African Americans and N-H Asian Americans needs further examination.

Authors
Lee, B; Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Lee, B, Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Psychometric properties of the KPAS in diverse ethnic groups of midlife women." Western Journal of Nursing Research 31.8 (December 2009): 1014-1034.
PMID
19745161
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
31
Issue
8
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1014
End Page
1034
DOI
10.1177/0193945909341581

Acculturation and the cancer pain experience.

Using a feminist perspective, the relationship between acculturation and cancer pain experience was explored.This was a cross-sectional, correlational Internet study among 104 Hispanic and 114 Asian cancer patients. The instruments included both unidimensional and multidimensional cancer pain measures.There were significant differences in cancer pain scores by country of birth. Yet there was no significant association of acculturation to cancer pain scores.This study indicated inconsistent findings.To provide directions for adequate cancer pain management, further studies with a larger number of diverse groups of immigrant cancer patients are needed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Ho, T-H; Brown, A; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Ho, T-H, Brown, A, and Chee, W. "Acculturation and the cancer pain experience." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 20.4 (October 2009): 358-370.
PMID
19376965
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
20
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
358
End Page
370
DOI
10.1177/1043659609334932

Menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States.

Using a feminist approach, we examined the menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States This was a qualitative online forum study among 27 Hispanic midlife women in the United States. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to administer the 6-month online forum. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) "Cambio de vida (change of life)," (b) "being silent about menopause," (c) "trying to be optimistic," and (d) "getting support." More in-depth studies with diverse groups of Hispanic women are needed while considering family as a contextual factor.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lim, H-J; Lee, SH; Dormire, S; Chee, W; Kresta, K
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lim, H-J, Lee, SH, Dormire, S, Chee, W, and Kresta, K. "Menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States." Health Care for Women International 30.10 (October 2009): 919-934.
PMID
19742365
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
30
Issue
10
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
919
End Page
934
DOI
10.1080/07399330902887582

Computer Technologies in Nursing Research

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Computer Technologies in Nursing Research." Nursing Research 58.4 (July 2009): 227-227.
Source
crossref
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
58
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
227
End Page
227
DOI
10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181a7b4f1

Ethnic differences in symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition.

My purpose in this study was to explore ethnic differences in symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition among four major ethnic groups in the United States using a feminist perspective. This was a cross-sectional correlational study among 158 midlife women. The instruments included are questions on sociodemographic characteristics, health, and menopausal status, and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Significant ethnic differences in the total number of symptoms (p < .01) were found. The most frequently reported symptoms differed by ethnicity. The symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition were significantly associated with some contextual factors.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Ethnic differences in symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition." Health Care for Women International 30.4 (April 2009): 339-355.
PMID
19255887
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
30
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
339
End Page
355
DOI
10.1080/07399330802695002

A national online forum on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience.

Cultural values and beliefs related to cancer and pain have been used to explain ethnic differences in cancer pain experience. Yet, very little is known about similarities and differences in cancer pain experience among different ethnic groups.The objective of this study was to explore similarities and differences in cancer pain experience among four major ethnic groups in the United States.A feminist approach by Hall and Stevens was used. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study among 22 White, 15 Hispanic, 11 African American, and 27 Asian patients with cancer recruited through both Internet and community settings. Four ethnic-specific online forums were conducted for 6 months. Nine topics related to cancer pain experience were used to guide the online forums. The collected data were analyzed using thematic analysis involving line-by-line coding, categorization, and thematic extraction.All participants across ethnic groups reported "communication breakdowns" with their healthcare providers and experienced "changes in perspectives." All of them reported that their cancer pain experience was "gendered experience." White patients focused on how to control their pain and treatment selection process, whereas ethnic minority patients tried to control pain by minimizing and normalizing it. White patients sought out diverse strategies of pain management; ethnic minority patients tried to maintain normal lives and use natural modalities for pain management. Finally, the cancer pain experience of White patients was highly individualistic and independent, whereas that of ethnic minority patients was family oriented.These findings suggest that nurses need to use culturally competent approaches to cancer pain management for different ethnic groups. Also, the findings suggest further in-depth cultural studies on the pain experience of multiethnic groups of patients with cancer.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, SH; Liu, Y; Lim, H-J; Guevara, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, SH, Liu, Y, Lim, H-J, Guevara, E, and Chee, W. "A national online forum on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience." Nursing Research 58.2 (March 2009): 86-94.
PMID
19289929
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
58
Issue
2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
86
End Page
94
DOI
10.1097/NNR.0b013e31818fcea4

The Situation-Specific Theory of Pain Experience for Asian American Cancer Patients

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "The Situation-Specific Theory of Pain Experience for Asian American Cancer Patients." Advances in Nursing Science 31.4 (October 2008): 319-331.
Source
crossref
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
31
Issue
4
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
319
End Page
331
DOI
10.1097/01.ANS.0000341412.02177.77

Gender and ethnic differences in cancer patients' needs for help: an Internet survey.

BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have reported different domains of cancer patients' needs for help, very little is known about gender and ethnic differences in those needs. Gender differences have been implicitly assumed in most studies, and specific ethnic groups have been focused on rather than comparing several ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore cancer patients' needs for help among four major ethnic groups in the US, to determine gender and ethnic differences in needs, and to provide direction for future studies. DESIGN: This was a descriptive and comparative pilot study using a feminist perspective. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 self-identified cancer patients were recruited through both Internet and community settings using a convenience sampling method. METHODS: The instruments included sociodemographic questions, the Cancer Needs Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Supportive Care Needs Survey. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including the Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: The findings indicated that there was no significant gender difference in all domains of needs for help. There were significant ethnic differences in all domains of needs except communication and sexual needs. Asians reported the lowest scores in most domains of needs for help while Hispanics reported the highest scores in most domains of needs for help. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated certain ethnic differences in cancer patients' needs for help and suggest further in-depth qualitative investigations on cultural beliefs and attitudes that may influence needs, with a careful examination of gender sensitivity and cultural competence of the instruments measuring cancer patients' needs for help.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Guevara, E; Lim, H-J; Liu, Y; Shin, H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Guevara, E, Lim, H-J, Liu, Y, and Shin, H. "Gender and ethnic differences in cancer patients' needs for help: an Internet survey." International Journal of Nursing Studies 45.8 (August 2008): 1192-1204.
PMID
17963769
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
45
Issue
8
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1192
End Page
1204
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.09.006

An online forum exploring needs for help of patients with cancer: gender and ethnic differences.

To explore gender and ethnic differences in needs for help among patients with cancer.Qualitative.Internet and community settings.16 self-identified patients with cancer aged at least 18 years who could read and write English.Using six discussion topics on needs for help, an online forum was administered for one month. Data were analyzed with thematic analysis.Need for help.Four major themes emerged: (a) from side effects to racism, (b) same or double stress, (c) cultural hesitance and God, and (d) a family disease with mistrust. Depending on gender and ethnicity, the participants' concerns were various and ranged from a simple physical need to a social need for elimination of racism in United States society. Women tended to report double burden and stress as patients with cancer resulting from their gender. Ethnic minorities tended to be hesitant to talk about cancer or seek help because of the stigmatized nature of cancer. Ethnic minority patients perceived cancer as a family disease that they needed to go through as a family, and they tended to mistrust healthcare providers.The overriding theme was a marginalized experience for ethnic minority patients with cancer.Researchers should include cultural needs as a separate category of needs and consider contextual factors influencing the needs of patients with cancer in their daily lives.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Lim, H-J; Liu, W-M
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Lim, H-J, and Liu, W-M. "An online forum exploring needs for help of patients with cancer: gender and ethnic differences." Oncology Nursing Forum 35.4 (July 2008): 653-660.
PMID
18591169
Source
epmc
Published In
Oncology Nursing Forum
Volume
35
Issue
4
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
653
End Page
660
DOI
10.1188/08.ONF.653-660

Menopausal symptom experience: an online forum study.

The aim of the study was to explore the menopausal symptom experience of White midlife women.Recent cross-cultural investigations have indicated important ethnic differences in menopausal symptoms and have challenged the universality of these symptoms. Currently available cultural knowledge on menopausal experience, however, is inadequate to guide appropriate and adequate care even for White women in the menopausal transition.A cross-sectional qualitative online forum study was conducted in 2007 with 23 midlife women who self-identified as non-Hispanic Whites using convenience sampling. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to guide the online forum for 6 months. The data were analysed using thematic analysis.The experiences of menopause caused women to redefine themselves within their busy daily life schedules. They were optimistic about their symptoms, and tried to laugh at the experience to boost their inner strength and motivate themselves to persevere. Many thought that both generational and life-style differences were much more important than ethnic differences in menopausal symptom experiences. In seeking assistance with the symptoms of menopause, women were not satisfied with the guidance of their physicians.Nurses need to listen carefully to what women themselves say about their own experiences with menopausal symptoms and avoid imposing predetermined symptom management strategies. Further studies of women's perceptions of life-style influences are needed to guide symptom management. In addition, studies of generational changes in menopausal symptom experience are needed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Liu, Y; Dormire, S; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Liu, Y, Dormire, S, and Chee, W. "Menopausal symptom experience: an online forum study." Journal of Advanced Nursing 62.5 (June 2008): 541-550.
PMID
18373610
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Advanced Nursing
Volume
62
Issue
5
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
541
End Page
550
DOI
10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04624.x

Asian American cancer patients' pain experience.

Asians have been reported to rarely complain about pain and to delay seeking help until pain becomes severe. Even in Asian countries, cancer pain has been reported to be underestimated and inadequately managed. Despite these findings, very little is still known about Asian American cancer patients' pain experience. The purpose of this study was to explore Asian American cancer patients' pain experience using a 6-month online forum among 27 Asian American cancer patients. Nine online forum topics on cancer pain experience were used for the data collection. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three themes emerged through the data analysis process: (a) "pain is a natural thing," (b) "keep things as usual," and (c) "mind is over body." Asian American cancer patients considered pain as their bodies' spontaneous reactions to cancer that could not be avoided. They believed that it was very important to keep things as usual so that they could have a sense of being normal again. The participants thought that cancer and pain could be overcome through positive thinking. The findings suggest more in-depth cultural studies on pain experience among diverse subethnic groups of Asian American cancer patients.

Authors
Im, E-O; Liu, Y; Kim, YH; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Liu, Y, Kim, YH, and Chee, W. "Asian American cancer patients' pain experience." Cancer Nursing 31.3 (May 2008): E17-E23.
PMID
18453868
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
31
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
E17
End Page
E23
DOI
10.1097/01.ncc.0000305730.95839.83

Midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity.

To explore attitudes toward physical activity among a multiethnic group of midlife women.A qualitative cross-sectional study using an online forum. RECRUITMENT SETTINGS: Internet communities/groups for midlife women and for ethnic minorities.A multiethnic group of 15 midlife women.Ten online forum topics on attitudes toward physical activity and seven on ethnic-specific contexts.Thematic analysis, involving line-by-line coding, categorization, and theme extraction.Six themes across all ethnic groups emerged from the data analysis process, although there were some ethnic differences in details related to each theme. The themes were (a) gendered experience, (b) physical activity as all body movements, (c) no time for physical activity, (d) environment matters, (e) health concerns made me do it, and (f) need a companion.Nurses need to consider and further investigate the influence of women's multiple roles, cultural factors, and environmental factors on physical activity in order to promote physical activity of midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Lim, H-J; Liu, Y; Kim, HK
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Lim, H-J, Liu, Y, and Kim, HK. "Midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity." Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn 37.2 (March 2008): 203-213.
PMID
18336444
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing
Volume
37
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
203
End Page
213
DOI
10.1111/j.1552-6909.2008.00219.x

A comparison of two pain measures for Asian American cancer patients.

Although two of the most commonly used multidimensional pain scales are the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), little psychometric analysis of these tools has been done among ethnic minority populations. This study evaluates and compares psychometric properties of these scales among 119 Asian American cancer patients. Cronbach's alphas of the MPQ-SF and BPI-SF are high (alpha = .85 to .97). Correlation coefficients of the item analyses are .12 to .88 for the MPQ-SF and .44 to .90 for the BPI-SF. Two factors are extracted for both instruments. Correlations between pain scores and the usage of pain medications are low for the MPQ-SF ( r = .23 to .33) and moderate for the BPI-SF (r = .40 to .42). Results indicate that among Asian Americans, both pain scales are internally consistent, some items in each are redundant, and the BPI-SF is more valid than the MPQ-SF.

Authors
Shin, H; Kim, K; Young Hee Kim, ; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Shin, H, Kim, K, Young Hee Kim, , Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "A comparison of two pain measures for Asian American cancer patients." Western Journal of Nursing Research 30.2 (March 2008): 181-196.
PMID
17607053
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
30
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
181
End Page
196
DOI
10.1177/0193945907303062

The use of Internet cancer support groups by ethnic minorities.

Recent studies have indicated that Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) tend to serve highly educated, high-income Whites at an early stage of cancer. Why do very few ethnic minority cancer patients, especially ethnic minority women, participate in ICSGs? In this article, the possible answers to this question are explored through a literature review from a feminist perspective. The potential reasons identified through the review include (a) gender and ethnic differences in attitudes toward ICSGs, (b) gender and ethnic differences in need for help, and (c) gender- and ethnic-specific contexts. Based on the discussion, implications for future research are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "The use of Internet cancer support groups by ethnic minorities." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 19.1 (January 2008): 74-82. (Review)
PMID
18217235
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
19
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
74
End Page
82
DOI
10.1177/1043659607309140

African American cancer patients' pain experience.

Although very little is known about African American cancer patients' pain experience, a few studies have indicated that their cancer pain experience is unique and somewhat different from that of other ethnic groups. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore African American cancer patients' pain experience using an online forum. This study was a qualitative online forum designed from a feminist perspective and conducted among 11 African American cancer patients who were recruited through both Internet and real settings. Nine online forum topics were used to administer the 6-month online forum, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged through the data analysis process. First, participants viewed cancer as a challenge in life that they should fight against. Second, cancer pain was differentiated from ordinary pain because cancer was stigmatized in their culture. Third, participants viewed that African Americans, especially women, were culturally raised to be strong, and this African American cultural heritage inhibited cancer patients from expressing pain and seeking help for pain management. Finally, the findings indicated certain changes in perspectives among African American cancer patients during the disease process, which might make them tolerate pain through praying to God and reading the Bible. Based on the findings, we suggest further studies among diverse groups of African American cancer patients, with a focus on cultural attitudes toward cancer pain and influences of family on cancer pain experience.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lim, H-J; Clark, M; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lim, H-J, Clark, M, and Chee, W. "African American cancer patients' pain experience." Cancer Nursing 31.1 (January 2008): 38-46.
PMID
18176130
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
31
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
38
End Page
46
DOI
10.1097/01.NCC.0000305685.59507.9e

Characteristics of midlife women recruited through internet communities/groups.

The purpose of this study was to explore demographic characteristics of a specific online population, midlife women recruited through Internet communities or groups, and to provide future direction for Internet research among midlife women. Using a feminist perspective, the study focused on ethnic variations in the characteristics of the midlife women. A total of 192 midlife women were recruited through Internet communities. The Internet survey included questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health/illness status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated that midlife women recruited through Internet communities tended to be white, young, married, and affluent. The findings also indicated significant ethnic differences in sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that researchers need to consider that midlife women recruited from Internet communities tend to be a specific group of midlife women.

Authors
Im, E-O; Shin, HJ; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Shin, HJ, and Chee, W. "Characteristics of midlife women recruited through internet communities/groups." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 26.1 (January 2008): 39-48.
PMID
18091620
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
26
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
39
End Page
48
DOI
10.1097/01.NCN.0000304760.49048.d6

Characteristics of cancer patients in internet cancer support groups.

The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of cancer patients who were attending Internet cancer support groups and to provide direction for future research. A total of 204 cancer patients were recruited through Internet cancer support groups by posting the study announcement on the Web sites of such groups. The participants were asked to fill out Internet survey questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and health/disease status. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including t tests, analysis of variance, and Chi-square tests. Findings indicate that cancer patients recruited through Internet cancer support groups tended to be middle-aged, well-educated, female, and middle class. The findings also indicate that there were significant differences in some characteristics according to gender and ethnicity. Based on the findings, some implications are suggested for future research using and developing Internet cancer support groups.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Liu, Y; Lim, HJ; Guevara, E; Tsai, H-M; Clark, M; Bender, M; Shin, H; Kim, KS; Kim, YH
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Liu, Y, Lim, HJ, Guevara, E, Tsai, H-M, Clark, M, Bender, M, Shin, H, Kim, KS, and Kim, YH. "Characteristics of cancer patients in internet cancer support groups." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 25.6 (November 2007): 334-343.
PMID
18000430
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
25
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
334
End Page
343
DOI
10.1097/01.NCN.0000299655.21401.9d

Leisure-time physical activity among midlife Korean immigrant women in the US.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among midlife Korean American women and to determine the relationships of LTPA with individual characteristics and behavior-specific cognition and affects. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 152 middle-aged Korean American women in Central Texas was conducted using a health-promotion model of physical activity adapted from Pender's Health Promotion Model. The results showed that 32% of the participants were not engaged in any form of exercise. The level of acculturation was not significantly related to the amount of physical activity. After age, level of acculturation, education, income, and marital status were controlled, LTPA was significantly associated with perceived benefits and barriers and social support. Physical inactivity, which was common in this group of immigrant women, warrants further rigorous investigation to determine the dynamics of the women's involvement in more physical activity.

Authors
Yang, K; Laffrey, SC; Stuifbergen, A; Im, E-O; May, K; Kouzekanani, K
MLA Citation
Yang, K, Laffrey, SC, Stuifbergen, A, Im, E-O, May, K, and Kouzekanani, K. "Leisure-time physical activity among midlife Korean immigrant women in the US." Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 9.4 (October 2007): 291-298.
PMID
17340174
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
291
End Page
298
DOI
10.1007/s10903-007-9039-9

Gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain experience: a multiethnic survey in the United States.

Inconsistent findings on ethnic differences in cancer pain experience suggest the need for further studies on this topic for adequate cancer pain management.To determine ethnic differences in cancer pain experience of four ethnic groups in the United States.A feminist perspective was used as the theoretical basis. This was a survey of a multiethnic sample of 480 cancer patients asking questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health or illness status, 3 unidimensional cancer pain scales, 2 multidimensional cancer pain scales, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including ANOVA and hierarchical multiple regression analyses.The results indicated certain ethnic differences in types of pain and symptoms that patients experienced. Also, the results demonstrated significant ethnic differences in cancer pain and functional status.The findings suggest further in-depth qualitative exploration on cultural values and beliefs related to cancer pain in each ethnic group and national studies with a larger number of ethnic minorities on this topic.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Guevara, E; Liu, Y; Lim, H-J; Tsai, H-M; Clark, M; Bender, M; Suk Kim, K; Hee Kim, Y; Shin, H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Guevara, E, Liu, Y, Lim, H-J, Tsai, H-M, Clark, M, Bender, M, Suk Kim, K, Hee Kim, Y, and Shin, H. "Gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain experience: a multiethnic survey in the United States." Nursing Research 56.5 (September 2007): 296-306.
PMID
17846550
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
56
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
296
End Page
306
DOI
10.1097/01.NNR.0000289502.45284.b5

Internet communities for recruitment of cancer patients into an Internet survey: a discussion paper.

The purpose of this paper is to provide future directions for the usage of Internet communities (ICs) for recruitment of research participants based on issues raised in an Internet survey among 132 cancer patients. About 317 general and 233 ethnic-specific Internet Cancer Support Groups and 1588 ethnic-specific ICs were contacted to recruit cancer patients. Research staff recorded issues and wrote memos during the recruitment process. The written memos and records were later analyzed using content analysis. The issues included: (a) difficulty in identifying appropriate ICs and potential participants, (b) meta-tags, (c) dominant white and women groups, (d) dynamics inside ICs, (e) difficulty in trust building, and (f) potential selection bias. The findings suggest that researchers thoroughly review the ICs' information, be recognizant of potential gender and ethnic issues and current trends in Internet interaction, and consider potential selection bias.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M; Bender, M; Lim, HJ
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Tsai, H-M, Bender, M, and Lim, HJ. "Internet communities for recruitment of cancer patients into an Internet survey: a discussion paper." International Journal of Nursing Studies 44.7 (September 2007): 1261-1269.
PMID
16962122
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
44
Issue
7
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1261
End Page
1269
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2006.07.003

A comparison of two pain measures for Asian American cancer patients.

Although two of the most commonly used multidimensional pain scales are the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (MPQ-SF) and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), there has been little psychometric analysis of these tools used among ethnic minority populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare psychometric properties of these two pain scales among 119 Asian American cancer patients. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the MPQ-SF and the BPI-SF were high (alpha = .85-.97). The correlation coefficients of the item analyses were .12 to .88 for the MPQ-SF and .44 to .90 for the BPI-SF. Two factors were extracted for both instruments. Correlations between pain scores and the usage of pain medications were low for the MPQ-SF (r = .23-.33) and moderate for the BPI-SF (r = .40-.42). The results of this study indicated that, among Asian Americans, both the pain scales were internally consistent; some items in each instrument were redundant; and the BPI-SF is more valid than the MPQ-SF.

Authors
Shin, H; Kim, K; Young Hee Kim, ; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Shin, H, Kim, K, Young Hee Kim, , Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "A comparison of two pain measures for Asian American cancer patients." Western Journal of Nursing Research 29.5 (August 2007): 545-560.
PMID
17630388
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
29
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
545
End Page
560
DOI
10.1177/0193945906298696

The pain experience of Hispanic patients with cancer in the United States.

To explore Hispanic patients' cancer pain experience from a feminist perspective to find explanations for inadequate pain management.A qualitative online forum study.Internet and community settings.15 Hispanic patients with cancer recruited using a convenience sampling method.A six-month online forum was conducted using nine discussion topics, and the data were processed using a thematic analysis.Cancer pain experience.Four major themes emerged related to the following findings. The first was a lack of communication with healthcare providers regarding undermedication. The second was that women and men were enduring pain because of traditional gender roles guiding their behaviors. Third, participants placed the highest priority on family during the diagnosis and treatment process, thus setting aside their needs for pain management. The fourth theme was that participants were enduring inconvenience and unfair treatment in the U.S. healthcare system while simultaneously appreciating the treatment they had received.Because of cultural factors and marginalized status in the United States as Hispanics and as immigrants, most of the participants could not adequately describe and manage their pain.Findings suggest a need for further investigation of the influences of multiple factors, including financial issues, cultural norms, and gender stereotypes, on cancer pain experience among diverse subgroups of Hispanic patients with cancer.

Authors
Im, E-O; Guevara, E; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Guevara, E, and Chee, W. "The pain experience of Hispanic patients with cancer in the United States." Oncology Nursing Forum 34.4 (July 2007): 861-868.
PMID
17723987
Source
epmc
Published In
Oncology Nursing Forum
Volume
34
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
861
End Page
868
DOI
10.1188/07.ONF.861-868

Difference in Needs for Physical Activity Among Healthy Women, Women with Physical Limitations and Korean Immigrant Women

Authors
Choe, M-A; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Choe, M-A, and Im, E-O. "Difference in Needs for Physical Activity Among Healthy Women, Women with Physical Limitations and Korean Immigrant Women." Asian Nursing Research 1.1 (June 2007): 48-60.
Source
crossref
Published In
Asian Nursing Research
Volume
1
Issue
1
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
48
End Page
60
DOI
10.1016/S1976-1317(08)60008-0

Patients' attitudes toward internet cancer support groups.

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore patients' attitudes toward Internet cancer support groups (ICSGs) through an online forum. RESEARCH APPROACH: Qualitative study using a feminist perspective. SETTING: Internet and real settings. PARTICIPANTS: 16 patients with cancer. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: An online forum was held for one month with six discussion topics. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Attitudes toward ICSGs. FINDINGS: Through the data-analysis process, four themes were found related to patients' attitudes toward ICSGs. First, the participants universalized patients' needs for and attitudes toward ICSGs. Second, most of the participants wanted to use ICSGs for emotional support, information, and interactions. Third, many of the participants used ICSGs because they could reach out to other patients with cancer without traveling and without interrupting their busy schedules. Finally, many participants were concerned about the security of interactions on ICSGs, so they wanted ICSGs that could ensure privacy and safeguard the anonymity and confidentiality of what they shared online. CONCLUSIONS: Patients view ICSGs positively. Additional studies should examine gender-specific and multilanguage ICSGs by recruiting more ethnic minority patients. INTERPRETATION: Despite concerns about the security of Internet interactions, ICSGs would be an excellent source of social support that is acceptable to patients with cancer.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Lim, H-J; Liu, Y; Guevara, E; Kim, KS
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Lim, H-J, Liu, Y, Guevara, E, and Kim, KS. "Patients' attitudes toward internet cancer support groups." Oncology Nursing Forum 34.3 (May 2007): 705-712.
PMID
17573329
Source
epmc
Published In
Oncology Nursing Forum
Volume
34
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
705
End Page
712
DOI
10.1188/07.onf.705-712

Family and Community Health: Foreword

Authors
Im, EO; Walker, LO
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Walker, LO. "Family and Community Health: Foreword." January 1, 2007.
Source
scopus
Published In
Family & Community Health
Volume
30
Issue
SUPPL. 1
Publish Date
2007

A feminist approach to research on menopausal symptom experience.

Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in the area of women's health, feminist approaches have rarely been used in nursing research on the menopausal symptom experience of midlife women. The purpose of the article is to propose a feminist approach to such research on the basis of a literature review. First, diverse feminist perspectives and their commonalities are summarized. Then, the literature related to the menopausal symptom experience is critiqued from a feminist perspective. On the basis of the discussion, 5 principles are proposed for a feminist approach to research on menopausal symptom experience.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "A feminist approach to research on menopausal symptom experience." January 2007.
PMID
17159627
Source
epmc
Published In
Family & Community Health
Volume
30
Issue
1 Suppl
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
S15
End Page
S23
DOI
10.1097/00003727-200701001-00004

Recruitment of oncology nurses for Internet research: issues and future directions.

To provide future directions for Internet research based on issues raised during the recruitment process of an Internet survey of oncology nurses.Throughout the research process, the research staff recorded issues as they arose and wrote memos regarding recruitment issues and possible reasons for the issues. Weekly group discussions were conducted, and written records of the discussions were kept. The written memos and records were reviewed, and the content was analyzed.The recruitment issues included flexibility required, mutual trust, changing Internet dynamics, and potential selection bias.As the issues indicated, recruiting nurses for the study only through the Internet did not work well.For future Internet research, the authors suggest using multiple Internet and real settings for recruitment, a variety of strategies, the quota sampling method, and creative motivation strategies.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Lim, HJ; Bender, M; Tsai, H-M; Yang, S-O; Lee, H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Lim, HJ, Bender, M, Tsai, H-M, Yang, S-O, and Lee, H. "Recruitment of oncology nurses for Internet research: issues and future directions." Oncology Nursing Forum 33.2 (November 3, 2006): 249-254.
PMID
16518440
Source
epmc
Published In
Oncology Nursing Forum
Volume
33
Issue
2
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
249
End Page
254
DOI
10.1188/06.onf.249-254

White cancer patients' perception of gender and ethnic differences in pain experience.

Not considering cancer patients' own views and experience with pain, especially gender and ethnic differences in their cancer pain experience, was reported to be a major contributor to the miscommunication that frequently results in inadequate cancer pain management. The purpose of this study was to explore white cancer patients' perception of gender and ethnic differences in pain experience through an online forum. This was a descriptive qualitative study among 29 white cancer patients based on a feminist approach. Nine topics related to cancer pain experience were used. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis: 5 themes were identified. First, the participants perceived that pain accompanies cancer throughout the diagnosis and treatment process. Second, the specific characteristics of the participants' individual culture and their view of pain and cancer could result in different cancer pain experiences even among white cancer patients. Third, the participants complained that women's pain was not taken seriously by healthcare providers. Fourth, the participants reported highly individualized pain experience with emotional pain. Finally, the participants wanted to have a control of their own pain management process. Based on the findings, implications for nursing research and practice are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "White cancer patients' perception of gender and ethnic differences in pain experience." Cancer Nursing 29.6 (November 2006): 441-450.
PMID
17135816
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
29
Issue
6
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
441
End Page
450
DOI
10.1097/00002820-200611000-00002

Evaluation of the decision support computer program for cancer pain management.

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a decision support computer program (DSCP) for cancer pain management. DESIGN: An Internet intervention study to evaluate the usage profile, accuracy, and acceptance of the DSCP. SETTING: Internet and community settings. SAMPLE: 122 nurses working with patients with cancer were recruited through the Internet through a convenience sampling method. METHODS: The instruments included tools for registration and for evaluation of the DSCP. To evaluate the DSCP, the usage profile was measured by counting the total number of cases in which the participants used the DSCP; accuracy was measured by determining whether the decision support from the DSCP was appropriate and accurate; and acceptance was measured using the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Usage profile, accuracy, and acceptance of the DSCP. FINDINGS: Participants used the DSCP an average of 1.49 times per person (SD = 1.16). Eighty-eight percent of the participants evaluated the DSCP as appropriate and accurate. The mean scores of overall satisfaction in four major areas of the computer program ranged from 7.46-9.69. CONCLUSIONS: The DSCP could provide accurate and acceptable computerized evidence-based practice guidelines for cancer pain management. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: The findings suggest that researchers should develop decision support systems in multiple aspects and dimensions of cancer pain experience and that hand-held devices would increase the usability of the DSCP.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Evaluation of the decision support computer program for cancer pain management." Oncology Nursing Forum 33.5 (September 2006): 977-982.
PMID
16955125
Source
epmc
Published In
Oncology Nursing Forum
Volume
33
Issue
5
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
977
End Page
982
DOI
10.1188/06.onf.977-982

Theories on immigrant women's health.

Our purpose in this article is to review theories critically that have been used to explain immigrant women's health based on 4 case studies of Korean immigrant women's experiences in the United States and suggest directions for future development of theories on immigrant women's health. First, 3 existing theories on immigration and health (selective migration, negative effect of immigration, and acculturation) are concisely described. Then, the daily experiences of 4 low-income Korean immigrant women are described in a narrative mode, and the 3 existing theories are critiqued in terms of how they can explain the women's narratives. Finally, implications for future theory development on immigrant women's health experience are proposed based on the discussion.

Authors
Im, E-O; Yang, K
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Yang, K. "Theories on immigrant women's health." Health Care for Women International 27.8 (September 2006): 666-681.
PMID
16893804
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
27
Issue
8
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
666
End Page
681
DOI
10.1080/07399330600817535

An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues.

Despite the positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known on the practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project.The aim of this study was to describe the practical issues encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience.Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranging from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of the discussions were reviewed and analyzed using content analysis.Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: (a) a high response and retention rate and (b) automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants' forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well.The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues." Nursing Research 55.4 (July 2006): 267-273.
PMID
16849979
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
55
Issue
4
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
267
End Page
273
DOI
10.1097/00006199-200607000-00007

A situation-specific theory of Caucasian cancer patients' pain experience.

Situation-specific theories can explain a population's unique health/illness experience with a limited scope of generalizability, but with more specificity that can provide a more close and comprehensive view on and explanation of a nursing phenomenon. In this article, a situation-specific theory explaining the unique cancer pain experience of Caucasian cancer patients is presented, along with the theory development process that was taken to develop the theory. First, the method used to develop the theory is concisely described. Then, the theory development process is described step by step. Finally, the situation-specific theory that was developed through the process is presented.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "A situation-specific theory of Caucasian cancer patients' pain experience." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 29.3 (July 2006): 232-244.
PMID
17139205
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
29
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
232
End Page
244
DOI
10.1097/00012272-200607000-00006

Nurses' acceptance of the decision support computer program for cancer pain management.

This article describes nurses' acceptance of a decision support computer program for cancer pain management and explores the relationships between the nurses' acceptance and their sociodemographic characteristics. A feminist perspective was used as a theoretical guide for the research process. This was an Internet intervention study among 122 nurses working with cancer patients. Nurses' acceptance of the decision support computer program was measured using the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, including analysis of variance and correlation analyses. There were significant differences in the total scores of user satisfaction by sex, religion, ethnicity, job title, and specialty. The results suggest that nurses do welcome decision support systems and that nurses' sociodemographic and professional characteristics should be considered in the development of decision support systems.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Nurses' acceptance of the decision support computer program for cancer pain management." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 24.2 (March 2006): 95-104.
PMID
16554693
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
24
Issue
2
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
95
End Page
104
DOI
10.1097/00024665-200603000-00008

The Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI).

In this article, the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI), a recently developed measurement scale for symptoms experienced during the menopausal transition, is presented with its psychometric properties. This was a cross-sectional study including (a) an expert review among 20 women's health experts and (b) a psychometric test among 77 middle-aged women. The instruments for the psychometric test were 19 questions on sociodemographic characteristics, the MSI, and the Menopausal Symptom Checklist (MSC). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, K-R 20, and item analysis. The reliability and validity of the MSI were supported among middle-aged women.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "The Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI)." Health Care for Women International 27.3 (March 2006): 268-287.
PMID
16524856
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
27
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
268
End Page
287
DOI
10.1080/07399330500506600

Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients.

Health care inequities continue to plague African Americans. For African American cancer patients these inequities include access to health care, availability of treatment modalities, support groups, and participation in nursing cancer research. A support group setting is better for recruitment than a clinical setting. Referrals to the researcher from individuals who personally know the African American cancer patients generated the best response rates. If the researcher has no previous connection with the potential participant, interest in the study may be generated but recruitment is minimal or absent. Ethnically sensitive recruitment of African American cancer patients is therefore essential to improving participatory responses in cancer nursing research.

Authors
Bender, M; Clark, M; Guevara, E; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Bender, M, Clark, M, Guevara, E, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Challenges in internet study recruitment of African American cancer patients." January 2006.
PMID
17102438
Source
epmc
Published In
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volume
122
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
878
End Page
879

Internet methods in the study of women's physical activity.

Internet self-reporting methods have opened new opportunities in research that focuses on women's physical activity. Understanding the strengths and limitations of this self-report Internet method is critical to conducting a feasible and effective Internet study. The purpose of this paper is to address consideration of the strengths and limitations for researchers undertaking physical activity studies of women utilizing the Internet self-reporting method (Tables 1 and 2). The analysis utilizes a cross-sectional Internet survey regarding physical activity among women. Five major strengths were found including (1) reciprocal communication, (2) reduction of data incompleteness, (3) accuracy of data entry, (4) convenience, and (5) confidentiality and anonymity. Five potential limitations were found including (1) low response rate, (2) recall bias, (3) validity and reliability of Internet-based instruments, (4) sample bias, and (5) indirect measurement. Information in this paper may serve as a future reference for researchers engaged in using a self-report Internet method to estimate women's engagement in physical activity.

Authors
Tsai, H-M; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Tsai, H-M, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Internet methods in the study of women's physical activity." January 2006.
PMID
17102287
Source
epmc
Published In
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volume
122
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
396
End Page
400

Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

Authors
Lim, HJ; Lin, C-J; Liu, Y; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lim, HJ, Lin, C-J, Liu, Y, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research." January 2006.
PMID
17102441
Source
epmc
Published In
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volume
122
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
882

Internet communities for recruitment of cancer patients.

The purpose of this paper is to provide future directions for the usage of Internet communities (ICs) for recruitment of research participants based on issues raised in an Internet survey among cancer patients. 317 general and 233 ethnic-specific Internet Cancer Support Groups and 1,588 ethnic-specific ICs were contacted to recruit cancer patients. Research staff recorded issues and wrote memos during the recruitment process. The written memos and records were later analyzed using content analysis. The issues included: (a) difficulty in identifying appropriate ICs and potential participants, (b) meta-tags, (c) dominant white and women groups, (d) dynamics inside ICs, (e) difficulty in trust building, and (f) potential selection bias. The findings suggest that researchers thoroughly review the ICs' information, be recognized of potential gender and ethnic issues and current trends in Internet interaction, and consider potential selection bias.

Authors
Lim, H-J; Tsai, H-M; Bender, M; Chee, W; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Lim, H-J, Tsai, H-M, Bender, M, Chee, W, and Im, E-O. "Internet communities for recruitment of cancer patients." January 2006.
PMID
17102286
Source
epmc
Published In
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Volume
122
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
391
End Page
395

Methodological issues in the recruitment of ethnic minority subjects to research via the Internet: a discussion paper.

In this paper, issues in Internet recruitment of ethnic minorities in the US are explored through an analysis of an Internet survey study. The issues include those related to: (a) the difficulties in ensuring authenticity; (b) a lack of cooperation by gate keepers; (c) the flexibility required in the recruitment process; (d) a very low response rate; and (e) selected groups of ethnic minorities. Based on the discussions on the issues, we propose regular updates of knowledge and skills related to Internet interactions and technologies, usage of multiple recruitment sources, pluralistic recruitment approaches, and a quota sampling method.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Methodological issues in the recruitment of ethnic minority subjects to research via the Internet: a discussion paper." International Journal of Nursing Studies 42.8 (November 2005): 923-929.
PMID
16210030
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
42
Issue
8
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
923
End Page
929
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.01.002

Korean university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding: a questionnaire survey.

Infant feeding decisions depend on knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to explore Korean university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding by gender and major. This was a cross-sectional comparative study among 341 university students. The instrument was a modified self-administered breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes questionnaire. Female students were slightly more knowledgeable and had somewhat more positive attitudes compared to male students. Students in health-related fields showed more knowledge than students in other disciplines, but their attitudes did not differ in majority. A significant correlation was found between the students' knowledge and their attitudes.

Authors
Kang, N-M; Song, Y; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Kang, N-M, Song, Y, and Im, E-O. "Korean university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding: a questionnaire survey." International Journal of Nursing Studies 42.8 (November 2005): 863-870.
PMID
16210024
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
42
Issue
8
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
863
End Page
870
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2005.01.003

A descriptive Internet survey on menopausal symptoms: five ethnic groups of Asian American university faculty and staff.

The purpose of this Internet study was to describe menopausal symptoms, perceived causes of the symptoms, and management strategies for the symptoms among five ethnic groups of Asian American women. Sixty-two university faculty and/or staff members aged 40 to 60 years who self-reported as Asian Americans and could read and write English were recruited through the Internet. An Internet survey was conducted, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The most prevalent symptoms were "worrying about body," "aches in back of neck and skull," and "weight gain." Most of the women perceived "aging" as the main cause of their symptoms and chose not to manage their symptoms. The findings strongly suggest that women's own explanation of their symptoms is frequently different from that of health care providers.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "A descriptive Internet survey on menopausal symptoms: five ethnic groups of Asian American university faculty and staff." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 16.2 (April 2005): 126-135.
PMID
15764635
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
16
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
126
End Page
135
DOI
10.1177/1043659604273550

Development of situation-specific theories: an integrative approach.

One type of "ready-to-wear" theories that can bring about better nursing care outcomes regardless of their philosophical bases is situation-specific theories proposed by Im and Meleis in 1999. In this paper, some propositions for an integrative approach to the development of situation-specific theories are made. First, situation-specific theories are described as practice theories while they are compared with middle-range theories. Then the integrative approach is detailed, which includes (a) checking assumptions for theory development; (b) exploring through multiple sources; (c) theorizing; and (d) reporting, sharing, and validating. Finally, the paper concludes with suggestions for further development of the integrative approach.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Development of situation-specific theories: an integrative approach." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 28.2 (April 2005): 137-151. (Review)
PMID
15920360
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
28
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
137
End Page
151
DOI
10.1097/00012272-200504000-00006

The psychometric properties of Pen-and-Pencil and Internet versions of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI).

The purpose of the study was to determine comparability of an Internet format to a Pen-and-Pencil (PP) format of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI). This study utilized a cross-sectional comparative design with three sections: (a) a PP survey among 77 middle-aged women; (b) an Internet survey among 81 middle-aged women; and (c) an expert review among 20 women's health experts. Both of the PP and the Internet surveys included sociodemographic questions, the MSI, and the Menopausal Symptom Checklist. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, K-R20, and correlation coefficients. The findings supported the reliability and validity of both Internet and PP formats of the MSI.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Bender, M; Cheng, C-Y; Tsai, H-M; Mi Kang, N; Lee, H
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Bender, M, Cheng, C-Y, Tsai, H-M, Mi Kang, N, and Lee, H. "The psychometric properties of Pen-and-Pencil and Internet versions of the Midlife Women's Symptom Index (MSI)." International Journal of Nursing Studies 42.2 (February 2005): 167-177.
PMID
15680615
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
42
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
167
End Page
177
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.06.005

Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis.

Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W; Tsai, H-M; Lin, L-C; Cheng, C-Y
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Chee, W, Tsai, H-M, Lin, L-C, and Cheng, C-Y. "Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis." Cancer Nursing 28.1 (January 2005): 1-7.
PMID
15681976
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
28
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1
End Page
7
DOI
10.1097/00002820-200501000-00001

Rigor in cross-cultural nursing research.

With the increasing number of cross-cultural nursing studies, many scholars have suggested methods for conducting cross-cultural research. However, rigor in cross-cultural research has rarely been addressed. In this paper, five evaluation criteria for rigor in cross-cultural nursing research are proposed based on a review of the literature related to cross-cultural research published from 1965 to 2003. The proposed evaluation criteria include: (a) cultural relevance; (b) contextuality; (c) appropriateness; (d) mutual respect; and (e) flexibility. We advocate that these evaluation criteria be used to ensure rigor of cross-cultural nursing research, whether quantitative or qualitative work.

Authors
Im, E-O; Page, R; Lin, L-C; Tsai, H-M; Cheng, C-Y
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Page, R, Lin, L-C, Tsai, H-M, and Cheng, C-Y. "Rigor in cross-cultural nursing research." International Journal of Nursing Studies 41.8 (November 2004): 891-899. (Review)
PMID
15476762
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
41
Issue
8
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
891
End Page
899
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.04.003

Recruitment of research participants through the Internet.

Despite an increasing amount of Internet research, issues in recruitment for studies in this environment rarely have been discussed. The purpose of this article is to provide some future directions for participant recruitment via the Internet, based on the experiences of recruiting participants for three Internet survey studies. The issues in the recruitment process include those related to low response rates, selected groups of participants, the importance of timing, and potential ethical issues. Based on the discussion of the issues, the following suggestions are proposed for future recruitment through the Internet: use of creative motivation strategies; sensitivity to the gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status of potential participants; consideration of the timing of data collection; and sensitivity to potential ethical issues.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Recruitment of research participants through the Internet." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 22.5 (September 2004): 289-297. (Review)
PMID
15520599
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
289
End Page
297
DOI
10.1097/00024665-200409000-00009

Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests.

The purpose of the study was to explore Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests from a feminist perspective. Twenty Korean women working in Dong-Dae-Moon Market in Seoul, South Korea were recruited using a convenience sampling method. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guideline that was developed for the study. The data were analyzed using a thematic analysis. The themes emerged from the analysis process included: "importance of breasts to women", "fearful, but not related to me", "bad previous experience", and "no need for a breast exam." Based on the findings, implications for nursing practice are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Park, YS; Lee, EO; Yun, SN
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Park, YS, Lee, EO, and Yun, SN. "Korean women's attitudes toward breast cancer screening tests." International Journal of Nursing Studies 41.6 (August 2004): 583-589.
PMID
15240081
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
41
Issue
6
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
583
End Page
589
DOI
10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2004.01.004

Issues in an Internet survey among midlife Asian women.

Because a limited amount of women's health research using Internet-based data collection methods has been done, very little is known about the methodological and ethical issues that are unique to this emerging research practice. The purpose of this article is to inform the future directions of Internet usage in women's health research based on the practical issues raised in an Internet survey of 62 midlife Asian women in the United States. The issues include (a) potential selection biases, (b) ethical concerns, (c) a low response rate, (d) frequent consultations, and (e) potential data entry errors. Based on the discussion of the issues, future directions for Internet research are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Issues in an Internet survey among midlife Asian women." Health Care for Women International 25.2 (February 2004): 150-164.
PMID
14766430
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
25
Issue
2
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
150
End Page
164
DOI
10.1080/07399330490267495

Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

Authors
Im, E-O; Choe, M-A
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Choe, M-A. "Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity." Research in Nursing & Health 27.1 (February 2004): 4-18.
PMID
14745852
Source
epmc
Published In
Research in Nursing & Health
Volume
27
Issue
1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
4
End Page
18
DOI
10.1002/nur.20000

Issues in Internet survey research among cancer patients.

Considering the increasing number of cancer patients who are online, it is clear that the Internet will provide an important research medium and/or setting for oncology nurses in the near future. Despite increasing Internet usage in nursing research and practice, issues in using the Internet among cancer patients as a research tool have rarely been explored and discussed. The purpose of the article is to propose future directions for Internet research among cancer patients based on discussions of practical issues raised in an Internet survey study among 40 online cancer patients. The issues raised through the research process include (a) ethical issues, (b) recruitment issues, (c) issues in Web site development and maintenance, and (d) data entry and analysis issues. On the basis of the discussions of these issues, some future directions for Internet survey studies are proposed, including dealing with ethical issues, getting computer expertise, using motivational strategies, and using national and international approaches.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Issues in Internet survey research among cancer patients." Cancer Nursing 27.1 (January 2004): 34-42.
PMID
15108950
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Nursing
Volume
27
Issue
1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
34
End Page
42
DOI
10.1097/00002820-200401000-00005

Cancer in U.S. ethnic and racial minority populations.

Discoveries, breakthroughs, and advances made in the area of cancer prevention and cancer control over the last 2 decades have led to declines in the rates of cancer incidence and mortality and increases in life expectancy and survival for many cancer patients. However, although the trends relative to cancer incidence, mortality, and 5-year survival for the nation as a whole have significantly improved, data reveal that there are significant disparities in the degree to which the burden of cancer that remains is borne by racial and ethnic minority population groups. As a practice-oriented discipline grounded in research, nursing could have a dominant role in efforts aimed toward eliminating the cancer disparities experienced by racial and ethnic population groups. Several reports of nursing studies have been published in the peer-reviewed literature that address factors associated with the cancer disparities experienced between and among U.S. racial and ethnic minority groups. However, given that few efforts have been undertaken to comprehensively review and critique this body of research, little is known about the scope, quality, and potential impact of this body of nursing science. This report presents the results of one of the first comprehensive reviews of nursing research undertaken to explore and address factors associated with the evolution of the cancer-related health disparities in ethnic and racial minority population groups within the United States. The findings reveal that, while the body of nursing research has contributed much to the identification and understanding of factors associated with the excess cancer morbidity and mortality of minority populations, in order for the profession to more fully contribute to the elimination of cancer-related disparities, there is a need for nurses to further expand and strengthen this base of knowledge.

Authors
Underwood, SM; Powe, B; Canales, M; Meade, CD; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Underwood, SM, Powe, B, Canales, M, Meade, CD, and Im, E-O. "Cancer in U.S. ethnic and racial minority populations." Annual Review of Nursing Research 22 (January 2004): 217-263. (Review)
PMID
15368773
Source
epmc
Published In
Annual Review of Nursing Research
Volume
22
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
217
End Page
263
DOI
10.1891/0739-6686.22.1.217

Feminist issues in e-mail group discussion among cancer patients.

From a feminist perspective, issues in using e-mail group discussion among cancer patients are explored and discussed by analyzing a study on gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain experiences among cancer patients. First, the study is concisely described. Then, while considering the essential components of research from a feminist perspective, issues identified throughout the research process (intersubjectivity, lack of women's voices, reflexivity and contextuality, dependability, and adequacy and credibility) are discussed. Based on the discussion, implications for future feminist research using e-mail group discussion are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Feminist issues in e-mail group discussion among cancer patients." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 26.4 (October 2003): 287-298.
PMID
14674577
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
26
Issue
4
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
287
End Page
298
DOI
10.1097/00012272-200310000-00006

Symptoms experienced during menopausal transition: Korean women in South Korea and the United States.

This article reports on cultural influences on symptoms experienced during menopausal transition of Korean women in South Korea and Korean immigrant women in the United States. Data from independent studies of two groups of Korean women were triangulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis indicated that Korean women in South Korea tended to report more symptoms than Korean immigrant women in the United States. Types and severity of prevalent symptoms were also found to be different between the two groups. The findings suggest that recent introduction of menopausal industries in South Korea and contextual influences on Korean women's work and immigration in the United States would be the reason for differences. Based on the findings, implications for future research are proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Im, E-O. "Symptoms experienced during menopausal transition: Korean women in South Korea and the United States." Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society 14.4 (October 2003): 321-328.
PMID
14535153
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Transcultural Nursing : Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
Volume
14
Issue
4
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
321
End Page
328
DOI
10.1177/1043659603257160

Fuzzy logic and nursing.

In empiricism, there are only two answers for a question: black or white. Yet, subjective meanings of human behaviours and responses toward health and illness cannot be simply explained with black and white. Gray zones are needed because they are characterized by complexity and require a contextual understanding. In this paper, we present and suggest fuzzy logic as an example of theoretical bases that help transcend the conflicts between objectivity and subjectivity, respect gray zones between black and white answers for questions, and provide a contextual understanding of complex nursing phenomenon. A historical review of fuzzy logic is followed by a definition of fuzzy logic. Then, fuzzy logic is discussed in terms of its compatibility with nursing epistemological views and philosophical thoughts. Fuzzy logic agrees with three categories of epistemological views of nursing, including correspondence, coherence and pragmatism. Fuzzy logic also agrees with four major philosophical thoughts in nursing, including postempiricism, pragmatism, feminism, and postmodernism. Based on the discussion, we propose that fuzzy logic be further explored, used and developed in research and practice in the nursing areas/situations/phenomena that are characterized by complexity, ambiguousness, and vagueness.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Fuzzy logic and nursing." Nursing Philosophy : an International Journal for Healthcare Professionals 4.1 (April 2003): 53-60.
PMID
14498968
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Philosophy : an International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
Volume
4
Issue
1
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
53
End Page
60
DOI
10.1046/j.1466-769x.2003.00116.x

Issues in Internet research.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Issues in Internet research." Nursing Outlook 51.1 (January 2003): 6-12.
PMID
12595821
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Outlook
Volume
51
Issue
1
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
6
End Page
12
DOI
10.1067/mno.2002.125319a

Decision support computer program for cancer pain management.

The purpose of the study was to develop an initial version of computer software that could assist nurses' decision making about cancer pain reported by women from diverse cultural groups. This cross-sectional study included two phases: (1) data collection and (2) development of computer software. Data were collected using an Internet survey and e-mail group discussions of 19 faculty members from 10 countries who were self-identified experts in oncology nursing. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. The findings indicated ethnic, gender, geographic, and age differences in cancer pain descriptions. Based on the collected data, a decision support computer program for cancer pain management, including (1) a knowledge base generation module, (2) a decision-making module, and (3) a self-adaptation module, was developed. Based on the study findings, suggestions for future research and practice related to cancer pain and expert systems were proposed.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Decision support computer program for cancer pain management." Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin 21.1 (January 2003): 12-21.
PMID
12544150
Source
epmc
Published In
Computers, Informatics, Nursing : Cin
Volume
21
Issue
1
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
12
End Page
21
DOI
10.1097/00024665-200301000-00008

Korean women's breast cancer experience.

The purpose of this study was to explore cultural meanings of breast cancer among Korean women in South Korea. A descriptive longitudinal study using methodological triangulation was conducted, and only qualitative findings are presented in this article. Ten Korean women who were newly diagnosed with a plan of surgery and subsequent chemotherapy, who did have severe fatigue at the time of recruitment, were recruited through Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected using in-depth, 2-hour interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged through the analysis process included: (a) "I did wrong," (b) "I cannot ask male physicians." (c) "I don't want to show the operation site to my husband." and (d) "I do household tasks by myself." The overriding theme was marginalization of the women within the context of their patriarchal culture. The findings suggest that culture is an important context circumscribing women's health/illness experience.

Authors
Im, E-O; Lee, EO; Park, YS
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, Lee, EO, and Park, YS. "Korean women's breast cancer experience." Western Journal of Nursing Research 24.7 (November 2002): 751-765.
PMID
12428893
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
24
Issue
7
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
751
End Page
765
DOI
10.1177/019394502762476960

Issues in protection of human subjects in internet research.

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing use of the Internet among nurses, the use of the Internet in nursing research has been rarely discussed and critiqued in terms of issues in protection of human subjects. APPROACH: In this article, issues in protection of human subjects in Internet research are explored by analyzing an Internet study to propose directions for human protection in Internet research. RESULTS: Issues raised through the study include those related to (a) anonymity and confidentiality, (b) security, (c) self-determination and authenticity, (d) full disclosure, and (e) fair treatment. DISCUSSION: Based on discussion of the five issues, development of standardized guidelines, investigator triangulation, and information sharing are proposed as directions for protection of human subjects in Internet research.

Authors
Im, E-O; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, E-O, and Chee, W. "Issues in protection of human subjects in internet research." Nursing Research 51.4 (July 2002): 266-269.
PMID
12131239
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Research
Volume
51
Issue
4
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
266
End Page
269
DOI
10.1097/00006199-200207000-00007

Grandmothers and women's health: from fragmentation to coherence.

There is a paucity of models that drive integrated research agendas, and coherent approaches to development and progress of knowledge about women's health. In this article, we review four major models of women's health, present conditions supporting more integrative and coherent models of women's health based on the recommendations by two international conferences, and address major paradoxes inherent in women's health areas. For integrative and coherent models of women's health, we propose to incorporate visions and insights of previous models in developing a more coherent model that includes three major components-integration, transition, and marginalization.

Authors
Meleis, AI; Im, E-O
MLA Citation
Meleis, AI, and Im, E-O. "Grandmothers and women's health: from fragmentation to coherence." Health Care for Women International 23.2 (February 2002): 207-224.
PMID
11868967
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
23
Issue
2
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
207
End Page
224
DOI
10.1080/073993302753429077

A feminist critique of research on cancer pain.

A number of studies on cancer pain have been conducted but the researchers rarely considered gender and ethnic differences in cancer pain. In this article, nursing research on cancer pain is critiqued from a feminist perspective, and directions for future nursing research are proposed. A total of 82 nursing articles published in the United States were retrieved through MEDLINE and MELVYL data retrieval systems, and analyzed and critiqued in terms of four basic elements of research from a feminist perspective (bias as resources, dependability, credibility and adequacy, and intersubjectivity). In this article, the critique is presented with four themes that may provide reasons why nursing research on cancer pain rarely incorporated gender and ethnic differences: absence of participants' own views and experiences, androcentrism and ethnocentrism, lack of consideration on contextual factors, and distant relationships between researchers and research participants. To overcome the limitations, six critical elements including gender and ethnic sensitivity, avoidance of distorted views, respectfor participants' own views and interests, trust and openness, empowerment, and multiple methods are suggested to be incorporated in future nursing research on cancer pain.

Authors
Im, EO; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Chee, W. "A feminist critique of research on cancer pain." Western Journal of Nursing Research 23.7 (November 2001): 726-752.
PMID
11675798
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
23
Issue
7
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
726
End Page
752
DOI
10.1177/01939450122045519

Physical activity of Korean immigrant women in the U.S.: needs and attitudes.

The purpose of the study was to explore women's own needs for and attitudes toward physical activity among Korean immigrant women in the US using feminist approach and transition theory. This was a cross-sectional study consisting of quantitative and qualitative phases. Using convenience sampling methods, 54 Korean immigrant women were recruited for the quantitative phase, and 15 women among them were recruited for the qualitative phase. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and thematic analysis. The findings indicated that the women's needs for and attitudes toward physical activity were influenced by the contexts of their culture and immigration, and deeply associated with the women's daily experiences. Some implications for future research and nursing practice are proposed based on the findings.

Authors
Im, EO; Choe, MA
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Choe, MA. "Physical activity of Korean immigrant women in the U.S.: needs and attitudes." International Journal of Nursing Studies 38.5 (October 2001): 567-577.
PMID
11524103
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
38
Issue
5
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
567
End Page
577
DOI
10.1016/s0020-7489(00)00097-3

A feminist critique on the use of the Internet in nursing research.

With the increasing use of the Internet, the importance of incorporating this new technology in nursing research increases. Yet nursing has been slow in adopting this new technology as a research method, and the use of the Internet in nursing research rarely has been discussed and critiqued. In this article, use of the Internet in nursing research is analyzed and critiqued from a feminist perspective. The analysis indicates that use of the Internet in research frequently brings about selection biases because of a limited pool of potential participants, it usually does not provide contextual data on research encounters, it might not uncover women's subjective experiences under marginalized situations, and it tends to raise power issues related to the relationships between researchers and participants. Despite the limitations, use of the Internet in research provides better communication channels for research participants, more flexibility in time and place of data collection, and less expense for data collection. Based on the critique, feminist challenges for future use of the Internet in nursing research are proposed.

Authors
Im, EO; Chee, W
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Chee, W. "A feminist critique on the use of the Internet in nursing research." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 23.4 (June 2001): 67-82.
PMID
11393250
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
23
Issue
4
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
67
End Page
82
DOI
10.1097/00012272-200106000-00006

Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed.

Authors
Im, E
MLA Citation
Im, E. "Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique." International Journal of Nursing Studies 38.2 (April 2001): 185-194. (Review)
PMID
11223059
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
38
Issue
2
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
185
End Page
194
DOI
10.1016/s0020-7489(00)00040-7

Women's work and symptoms during midlife: Korean immigrant women.

PURPOSE: To describe how Korean immigrant women tend to describe their work experiences within their daily lives and how they relate their work to the symptoms experienced during midlife. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using methodological triangulation. Using a convenience sampling method, 119 Korean immigrant women were recruited for the quantitative phase, and 21 among the 119 women were recruited for the qualitative phase. Data were collected using both questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and thematic analysis. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS: The symptoms that the women experienced during midlife were influenced by their work experience, which was complicated by their cultural heritage, gender issues embedded in their daily lives, and immigration transition. IMPLICATIONS: Complexities and diversities in women's work need to be incorporated in menopausal studies.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Meleis, AI. "Women's work and symptoms during midlife: Korean immigrant women." Women & Health 33.1-2 (January 2001): 83-103.
PMID
11523642
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
33
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
83
End Page
103
DOI
10.1300/j013v33n01_06

An international imperative for gender-sensitive theories in women's health.

To propose gender-sensitive theories as a future direction for theoretical development of women's health. Few theories pertain to women's health and illness experiences, with gender issues embedded in social, cultural, and historical contexts.Significance, definition, and philosophical bases of gender-sensitive theories.Six major components should be incorporated in the development of gender-sensitive theories: (a) gender as a major feature, (b) women's own words and experiences, (c) nature of women's experiences, (d) theorists' perspectives, (e) contexts, and (f) guidelines for actions.We believe that the development of gender-sensitive theories in nursing could enable researchers to transcend androcentric and ethnocentric views on women's health, decrease gender inequity in health care, enhance women's well being, and ultimately contribute to knowledge development in nursing.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Meleis, AI. "An international imperative for gender-sensitive theories in women's health." Journal of Nursing Scholarship : an Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing 33.4 (January 2001): 309-314. (Review)
PMID
11775299
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Volume
33
Issue
4
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
309
End Page
314
DOI
10.1111/j.1547-5069.2001.00309.x

Experiencing transitions: an emerging middle-range theory.

Changes in health and illness of individuals create a process of transition, and clients in transition tend to be more vulnerable to risks that may in turn affect their health. Uncovering these risks may be enhanced by understanding the transition process. As a central concept of nursing, transition has been analyzed, its components identified, and a framework to articulate and to reflect the relationship between these components has been defined. In this article, the previous conceptual analysis of transitions is extended and refined by drawing on the results of five different research studies that have examined transitions using an integrative approach to theory development. The emerging middle-range theory of transitions consists of types and patterns of transitions, properties of transition experiences, facilitating and inhibiting conditions, process indicators, outcome indicators, and nursing therapeutics. The diversity, complexity, and multiple dimensionality of transition experiences need to be further explored and incorporated in future research and nursing practice related to transitions.

Authors
Meleis, AI; Sawyer, LM; Im, EO; Hilfinger Messias, DK; Schumacher, K
MLA Citation
Meleis, AI, Sawyer, LM, Im, EO, Hilfinger Messias, DK, and Schumacher, K. "Experiencing transitions: an emerging middle-range theory." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 23.1 (September 2000): 12-28. (Review)
PMID
10970036
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
23
Issue
1
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
12
End Page
28
DOI
10.1097/00012272-200009000-00006

A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women.

Studies indicate ethnic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival rate of breast cancer. Despite the low incidence rate of breast cancer among the Korean population, Koreans are reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer. In this article, using a feminist perspective, the reasons why Korean women have been reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer are analyzed through a critical review of research among Korean women. A total of 469 studies (145 unpublished master's theses and doctoral dissertations and 324 articles published in South Korea and in the United States) were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued in terms of biases present in the research process. Through a feminist critique of the literature, four possible reasons are proposed: androcentric views and assumptions underlying the research, modesty issues imbedded in Korean culture, the victim-blaming tendency of Korean culture, and intense emotions without adequate support.

Authors
Im, EO
MLA Citation
Im, EO. "A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women." Western Journal of Nursing Research 22.5 (August 2000): 551-565. (Review)
PMID
10943171
Source
epmc
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
551
End Page
565
DOI
10.1177/01939450022044593

A feminist critique of research on women's work and health.

Research on women's work and health largely has failed to incorporate gender into the models of the processes through which work influences well-being. In this article, the research on women's work and health is critiqued from a feminist perspective; male-oriented and ethnocentric views on women's work are negated, and gender and socioeconomic issues are highlighted and included in the picture of women's work. Male-centered and ethnocentric views and assumptions on women's work are prevalent in the whole research process, and methodological limitations due to the distorted views are indicated. Based on the critique, some implications for future research on women's work and health are proposed.

Authors
Im, EO
MLA Citation
Im, EO. "A feminist critique of research on women's work and health." Health Care for Women International 21.2 (March 2000): 105-119. (Review)
PMID
10818832
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
21
Issue
2
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
105
End Page
119
DOI
10.1080/073993300245339

Meanings of Menopause to Korean Immigrant Women

The meanings of menopause among a vulnerable group of women - low-income Korean immigrant women - were explored using a cross-sectional descriptive research design focusing on how these meanings were constructed with their daily life experiences. Twenty-one peri- or postmenopausal women were recruited using convenience sampling methods; 2-hour in-depth interviews were conducted with audiotaping and field notes, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis, including line-by-line coding and categorization. Several themes related to the meanings of menopause emerged. The shock of menarche, various definitions of menopause, the negative view on middle age as falling down the hill, and other transitions the women were experiencing shaped the nature of their responses to menopause. The women were ambivalent about their menopausal transition, welcoming and fearing it. The authors propose that nurses initiate a dialogue about menopause with diverse populations to support the normalization of their menopausal transition and empower them to use culturally appropriate resources.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Meleis, AI. "Meanings of Menopause to Korean Immigrant Women." Western Journal of Nursing Research 22.1 (February 1, 2000): 84-102.
Source
scopus
Published In
Western Journal of Nursing Research
Volume
22
Issue
1
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
84
End Page
102

Cultural competence of measurement scales of menopausal symptoms: use in research among Korean women.

Even though there are advancements in research related to culturally competent care, there is an increasing realization that coherent theories and a research base to guide health care that is culturally competent is yet to be fully developed. In this paper, cultural competence of the scales measuring menopausal symptoms are critically analyzed in light of their limitations for Korean women--a population other than for whom it was developed. The analyses indicate that there are issues of contextuality, relevance, communication style, authenticity, power relationships and time constraints.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI; Lee, KA
MLA Citation
Im, EO, Meleis, AI, and Lee, KA. "Cultural competence of measurement scales of menopausal symptoms: use in research among Korean women." International Journal of Nursing Studies 36.6 (December 1999): 455-463. (Review)
PMID
10576116
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Nursing Studies
Volume
36
Issue
6
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
455
End Page
463
DOI
10.1016/s0020-7489(99)00048-6

Situation-specific theories: philosophical roots, properties, and approach.

It is imperative to further develop theoretical bases in nursing, which incorporate diversities and complexities in nursing phenomena, and which consider sociopolitical, cultural, and historic contexts of nursing encounters. Situation-specific theories are proposed in this work as a future direction of such theoretical bases in nursing. Philosophical roots and properties of situation-specific theories are discussed, and an integrative approach to developing this type of theories is suggested. Situation-specific theories could be based on the assumptions of post-empiricism, critical social theory and feminism, and or hermeneutics. Six properties of situation-specific theories are presented: (1) low level of abstraction, (2) reflection of specific nursing phenomena, (3) context, (4) connection to research and/or practice, (5) incorporation of diversities, and (6) limits in generalization. The proposed integrative approach to developing situation-specific theories includes (1) a nursing perspective, (2) a linkage among theory, research, and practice, and (3) a conceptual scheme based on internal and external dialogues.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Meleis, AI. "Situation-specific theories: philosophical roots, properties, and approach." Ans. Advances in Nursing Science 22.2 (December 1999): 11-24.
PMID
10634184
Source
epmc
Published In
Ans. Advances in Nursing Science
Volume
22
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
11
End Page
24
DOI
10.1097/00012272-199912000-00003

A feminist critique of research on menopausal experience of Korean women.

Despite the increasing number of studies on the menopausal experience of Asian women, the focus of the studies has been on simple comparisons of their symptoms with Western women's and other disease-oriented research topics. To propose directions for future research on menopause, we analyzed and critiqued 158 studies on the menopausal experience of a group of Asian women-Korean women. The studies were retrieved through a search of computerized databases in the United States and South Korea, and they were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued with a feminist perspective. Many of the studies have problems with (a) conceptualization, including ethnocentric and androcentric views of menopause, biomedical perspectives, and language difficulties; (b) research methods, such as inadequate instruments, passive relationships between researchers and research participants, culturally inappropriate communication styles, inadequate study designs, and homogeneous research participants; and (c) interpretation and communication of study findings. These issues undermine the conclusions drawn about the nature of the menopausal experience of Korean women.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI; Park, YS
MLA Citation
Im, EO, Meleis, AI, and Park, YS. "A feminist critique of research on menopausal experience of Korean women." Research in Nursing & Health 22.5 (October 1999): 410-420. (Review)
PMID
10520193
Source
epmc
Published In
Research in Nursing & Health
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
410
End Page
420
DOI
10.1002/(sici)1098-240x(199910)22:5<410::aid-nur7>3.0.co;2-x

Transcending marginalization in knowledge development.

Quality care requires a body of knowledge that reflects the experiences and the responses of the marginalized populations to health and illness, and requires demarginalization of nursing knowledge. We argue the significance of developing an understanding of people who are marginalized, and organize our arguments and discussions into four sections: (i) developing knowledge that is not marginalizing; (ii) developing knowledge about marginalized populations; (iii) integrating nursing knowledge and making it visible; and (iv) the future of research enterprise. We propose that nurses critically consider strategies and processes to deal with and transcend marginalization of populations and of nursing knowledge.

Authors
Meleis, AI; Im, EO
MLA Citation
Meleis, AI, and Im, EO. "Transcending marginalization in knowledge development." Nursing Inquiry 6.2 (June 1999): 94-102. (Review)
PMID
10696201
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Inquiry
Volume
6
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
94
End Page
102
DOI
10.1046/j.1440-1800.1999.00015.x

A situation-specific theory of Korean immigrant women's menopausal transition.

PURPOSE: To extend the previous model of transitions by including the experiences of low-income Korean immigrant women in the United States during their menopausal transition. The extension results in a situation-specific theory of Korean immigrant women's menopausal transition. DESIGN: Findings from a study of menopausal transition among Korean immigrant women were used as a main source for modification of the conceptual properties of transitions, conditions shaping the transitions, and indicators of healthy transitions. The study was cross-sectional with methodologic triangulation. Quantitative analysis was based on data from 119 first-generation Korean immigrant women who engaged in low-status or low-income work outside their homes; qualitative study using theoretical sampling method included 21 women. METHODS: Analyses included descriptive and inferential statistics and thematic analysis. Integrative conceptual analysis using deductive and inductive reasoning was conducted to determine modifications in theory based on the descriptions of menopausal transition of Korean immigrant women. FINDINGS: Three main themes were identified: (a) the women gave their menopausal transition far less attention than they did to their immigrant and work transition; (b) menopause was a hidden experience in cultural background; and (c) the women "normalized," ignored, and endured symptoms. The findings indicated additions of the following concepts: (a) number, seriousness, and priority of transitions; (b) socioeconomic status; (c) gender; (d) context; (e) attitudes toward health and illness; (f) interrelationships among all conditions shaping transitions; and (g) symptom management. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed situation-specific model is limited in scope. However, it provides understanding of the menopausal transition of Korean immigrant women in context, and is a guide for nursing interventions for immigrant women experiencing transition.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Meleis, AI. "A situation-specific theory of Korean immigrant women's menopausal transition." Image the Journal of Nursing Scholarship 31.4 (January 1999): 333-338.
PMID
10628099
Source
epmc
Published In
Image the Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Volume
31
Issue
4
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
333
End Page
338
DOI
10.1111/j.1547-5069.1999.tb00513.x

Symptom experience during menopausal transition: low income Korean immigrant women.

The symptoms experienced during menopausal transition of a vulnerable group of women, low income Korean immigrants, are described in this paper. The findings demonstrated that (a) the types of the symptoms that the women reported were different from those reported by Western women; (b) the women tended to normalize their symptoms; and (c) their symptom experience was influenced by immigration transition and its contextual variables. We suggest that symptom experience of immigrant women during menopausal transition be understood within the contexts of their immigration transition, and that their own views of normality of the menopausal transition be respected.

Authors
Im, EO; Meleis, AI; Lee, KA
MLA Citation
Im, EO, Meleis, AI, and Lee, KA. "Symptom experience during menopausal transition: low income Korean immigrant women." Women & Health 29.2 (January 1999): 53-67.
PMID
10427648
Source
epmc
Published In
Women & Health
Volume
29
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
53
End Page
67
DOI
10.1300/j013v29n02_04

[A critical analysis of research on women's health, women's work]

Authors
Im, EO
MLA Citation
Im, EO. "[A critical analysis of research on women's health, women's work]." Taehan Kanho. the Korean Nurse 37.1 (January 1998): 31-50. (Review)
PMID
10437590
Source
epmc
Published In
Taehan Kanho. the Korean Nurse
Volume
37
Issue
1
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
31
End Page
50

Menopausal transition of Korean immigrant women: a literature review.

The menopausal transition needs to be understood in terms of the multiple mediating factors within the context in which women experience it. For immigrant women especially, the menopausal experience is complicated by multiple transitions and social marginality, so it cannot be adequately explained without considering this complexity. In this paper we review the literature on the menopausal transition of a group of vulnerable immigrant women in two ways: describing the transitions themselves (menopause, immigration, and housewife to employee), and describing factors that mediate the menopausal transition experience (family norms, meaning of menopause and women's work, and health practices). We emphasize the context and suggest areas of needed research.

Authors
Im, EO; Lipson, JG
MLA Citation
Im, EO, and Lipson, JG. "Menopausal transition of Korean immigrant women: a literature review." Health Care for Women International 18.6 (November 1997): 507-520. (Review)
PMID
9416035
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Care for Women International
Volume
18
Issue
6
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
507
End Page
520
DOI
10.1080/07399339709516307

Expanding the visibility of women's work: policy implications.

Authors
Messias, DK; Regev, H; Im, EO; Spiers, JA; Van, P; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Messias, DK, Regev, H, Im, EO, Spiers, JA, Van, P, and Meleis, AI. "Expanding the visibility of women's work: policy implications." Nursing Outlook 45.6 (November 1997): 258-264. (Review)
PMID
9430155
Source
epmc
Published In
Nursing Outlook
Volume
45
Issue
6
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
258
End Page
264
DOI
10.1016/s0029-6554(97)90004-x

Defining and redefining work: Implications for women's health

In this article the authors examine the ways in which the definition of work as paid employment has affected women's health research, the knowledge and understanding of the relationships between women's work and health, and health and social policies. The authors argue for research and public policy based on an expanded definition of women's work, a redefinition that goes beyond employment to reflect the multiple contexts and dimensions of women's work as well as the diversity and differences among women.

Authors
Hilfinger Messias, DK; Im, EO; Page, A; Regev, H; Spiers, J; Yoder, L; Meleis, AI
MLA Citation
Hilfinger Messias, DK, Im, EO, Page, A, Regev, H, Spiers, J, Yoder, L, and Meleis, AI. "Defining and redefining work: Implications for women's health." Gender and Society 11.3 (June 1, 1997): 296-323.
Source
scopus
Published In
Gender & Society
Volume
11
Issue
3
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
296
End Page
323
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