You are here

Kollins, Scott Haden

Overview:

Scott H. Kollins, PhD received his undergraduate degree in psychology from Duke and his Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Clinical Psychology from Auburn University. After completing his clinical internship at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, where he served as Chief Intern, he joined the faculty of the Department of Psychology at Western Michigan University for three years, before joining the Duke faculty in 2000. Dr. Kollins has published more than 125 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals.  Over the past 10 years, his research has been supported by 6 different federal agencies, including NICHD, NIDA, NIMH, NIEHS, NINDS, and EPA, and he currently holds a mid-career K24 award from NIDA.  He has also served as PI on more than 40 industry-funded clinical trials and is a consultant to a number of pharmaceutical companies in the area of ADHD clinical psychopharmacology.  He has served as a standing member of the Child Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities study section and also served as an ad-hoc reviewer for 10 additional NIH study sections and 7 international granting agencies. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Attention Disorders and has reviewed for more than 50 different peer-reviewed journals. He is an elected member of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence and the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Dr. Kollins is a licensed clinical psychologist and maintains a practice through the ADHD Program’s outpatient clinic. His research interests are in the areas of psychopharmacology and the intersection of ADHD and substance abuse, particularly cigarette smoking.

Positions:

Professor in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
School of Medicine

Vice-Chair, Research Strategy and Development in Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
School of Medicine

Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience

Psychology and Neuroscience
Trinity College of Arts & Sciences

Faculty Network Member of the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences

Duke Institute for Brain Sciences
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Affiliate of the Center for Child and Family Policy

Center for Child and Family Policy
Sanford School of Public Policy

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Membership in the Duke Clinical Research Institute

Duke Clinical Research Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 1997

Ph.D. — Auburn University

News:

Grants:

Co-occurring ADHD in young children with ASD: Precursors, detection, neural signatures, and early treatment

Administered By
Psychiatry, Child & Family Mental Health and Developmental Neuroscience
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 07, 2017
End Date
July 31, 2022

Mobile health interventions for varenicline adherence among HIV-positive smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Mentor
Start Date
August 15, 2017
End Date
July 31, 2022

Sleep Dysfunction and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Adolescent ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry, Child & Family Mental Health and Developmental Neuroscience
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
August 01, 2016
End Date
July 31, 2021

Targeting reward dysfunction as a mechanism to improve smoking cessation

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Mentor
Start Date
May 01, 2016
End Date
April 30, 2021

Modeling the Neurobehavioral Basis of Extrinsic and Volitional Motivation in ADHD

Administered By
Center for Cognitive Neuroscience
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Sponsor
Start Date
August 04, 2017
End Date
August 03, 2020

Effects of Nicotine Reduction on Smoking Behavior in ADHD Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 13, 2015
End Date
June 30, 2020

Maternal obesity, child executive functions and child weight gain

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2015
End Date
May 31, 2020

Smoking/Nicotine Dependence in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2014
End Date
August 31, 2019

A randomized, sham-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the effects of noise cancelling headphones on neurocognitive and academic outcomes in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Bose Corporation
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 04, 2017
End Date
June 30, 2019

Reactions to Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Adult Low-Frequency Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 15, 2016
End Date
June 30, 2019

Protecting Neurodevelopment in Latino Migrant Children by Reduced Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides

Administered By
Biomedical Engineering
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
March 01, 2017
End Date
February 28, 2019

Behavioral and genetic mechanisms of smoking risk in individuals with ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 15, 2012
End Date
July 31, 2018

Rhodes Preschool pK

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Rhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 15, 2015
End Date
July 14, 2018

Emotion Dysregulation, ADHD, and Smoking

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
July 01, 2012
End Date
June 30, 2018

mSMART: Mobile App based Personalized Solutions and Tools for Medication Adherence of Rx Pills

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Intelligent Automation Inc.
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 10, 2014
End Date
June 09, 2018

Increasing Motivation in ADHD Via Self-activation of VTA

Administered By
Center for Cognitive Neuroscience
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 13, 2016
End Date
April 30, 2018

Rhodes EF003

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Rhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 01, 2016
End Date
April 30, 2018

A Multicenter, Dose-Optimized, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Laboratory Classroom Study with KP415 in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Administered By
Duke Clinical Research Institute
AwardedBy
KemPharm, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 19, 2017
End Date
March 26, 2018

Characterizing ADHD using a behavioral model of dopamine function

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Brain and Behavior Research Foundation
Role
Mentor
Start Date
January 15, 2016
End Date
January 14, 2018

Rhodes EF004

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Rhodes Pharmaceuticals L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
January 01, 2016
End Date
December 31, 2017

SPD 489-348 Preschool Open Label Follow-Up

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Shire Pharmaceutical Development US Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 15, 2015
End Date
August 14, 2017

Pilot Project: Effects of Cannabis on the Epigenome of Humans and Rats

Administered By
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gynecologic Oncology
AwardedBy
John Templeton Foundation
Role
Co-Project Leader
Start Date
February 01, 2016
End Date
July 31, 2017

SPD489-211 Preschool pK Study

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Shire Pharmaceutical Development US Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2015
End Date
April 18, 2017

mGluR Mutations in ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Medgenics, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
April 01, 2016
End Date
March 31, 2017

SEP360-202

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 01, 2015
End Date
March 31, 2017

Dasotraline in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 01, 2015
End Date
February 28, 2017

Ironshore_HLD200-108

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Ironshore Pharmaceuticals & Development, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
December 15, 2015
End Date
December 14, 2016

An Open-label, Flexibly-dosed, 26-Week Extension Safety Study of Dasotraline in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 15, 2015
End Date
September 14, 2016

SEP-225289 in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2014
End Date
July 31, 2016

Neurovance_Adult Workplace Environment

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Neurovance
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
October 01, 2015
End Date
January 31, 2016

Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of AR11 in Pediatric Patients w/ADHD in a Laboratory Classroom

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
December 01, 2013
End Date
November 30, 2015

SEP-225289 in Subjects 6 to 17 Years of Age with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 01, 2015
End Date
July 29, 2015

Purdue Adolescent

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Purdue Pharma L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2014
End Date
May 31, 2015

Purdue Adult

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Purdue Pharma L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2014
End Date
May 31, 2015

Purdue Open Label

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Purdue Pharma L.P.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2014
End Date
May 31, 2015

Ironshore Classroom Study

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Ironshore Pharmaceuticals & Development, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 15, 2014
End Date
April 20, 2015

Alcobra AL012

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Alcobra Ltd.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
April 01, 2014
End Date
March 31, 2015

Tris classroom

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Tris Pharma, Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 01, 2014
End Date
February 28, 2015

Project 1: Evaluating New Nicotine Standards in Cigarettes - Supplement

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Translational Neuroscience
AwardedBy
University of Pittsburgh
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2013
End Date
August 31, 2014

Elucidating links between ADHD symptoms and tobacco/alcohol use trajectories

Administered By
Community and Family Medicine
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Advisor
Start Date
September 15, 2010
End Date
August 31, 2014

Neuropharmacology of Response Inhibition in Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2009
End Date
August 31, 2014

NT0102 Methylphenidate Polistirex ER Oral Disintegrating Tablets in children w/ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical Psychology
AwardedBy
Neos Therapeutics, Inc
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2013
End Date
May 31, 2014

Sensitivity to smoking reinforcement in women: menstrual cycle effects

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
July 15, 2011
End Date
July 31, 2013

Ecological Momentary Assessment of Ad Lib Smoking in ADHD Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
July 01, 2011
End Date
June 30, 2012

Genetic basis of smoking abstinence, smoking reinforcement, and inhibitory control

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2009
End Date
April 30, 2012

Smoking reinforcement in adults with and without ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2009
End Date
February 29, 2012

Follow up of the PATS sample

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 14, 2004
End Date
May 31, 2010

Candidate Gene Analysis of Persistent AD/HD

Administered By
Medicine, Medical Genetics
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2004
End Date
April 30, 2010

Mechanisms of Nicotine Dependence in ADHD Adults

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 15, 2007
End Date
October 30, 2009

Development of Behavorial Screening Tools for ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Environmental Protection Agency
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2005
End Date
December 31, 2008

Methylphenidate Abuse Potential in ADHD Adults

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 01, 2005
End Date
December 31, 2008

Functional Neuroanatomical Deficits in ADHD Families

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 10, 2002
End Date
April 30, 2006

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Environmental Protection Agency
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 10, 2003
End Date
March 09, 2004
Show More

Publications:

A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for ADHD in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation.

OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness meditation training is garnering increasing empirical interest as an intervention for ADHD in adulthood, although no studies of mindfulness as a standalone treatment have included a sample composed entirely of adults with ADHD or a comparison group. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of mindfulness meditation for ADHD, executive functioning (EF), and emotion dysregulation symptoms in an adult ADHD sample. METHOD: Adults with ADHD were stratified by ADHD medication status and otherwise randomized into an 8-week group-based mindfulness treatment ( n = 11) or waitlist group ( n = 9). RESULTS: Treatment feasibility and acceptability were positive. In addition, self-reported ADHD and EF symptoms (assessed in the laboratory and ecological momentary assessment), clinician ratings of ADHD and EF symptoms, and self-reported emotion dysregulation improved for the treatment group relative to the waitlist group over time with large effect sizes. Improvement was not observed for EF tasks. CONCLUSION: Findings support preliminary treatment efficacy, though require larger trials.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; McIntyre, EM; English, JS; Dennis, MF; Beckham, JC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, McIntyre, EM, English, JS, Dennis, MF, Beckham, JC, and Kollins, SH. "A Pilot Trial of Mindfulness Meditation Training for ADHD in Adulthood: Impact on Core Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Emotion Dysregulation." J Atten Disord 21.13 (November 2017): 1105-1120.
PMID
24305060
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
21
Issue
13
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
1105
End Page
1120
DOI
10.1177/1087054713513328

ADHD, Smoking Withdrawal and Inhibitory Control: Results of a Neuroimaging Study with Methylphenidate Challenge.

Smoking withdrawal negatively impacts inhibitory control, and these effects are greater for smokers with pre-existing attention problems, such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study preliminarily evaluated changes in inhibitory control-related behavior and brain activation during smoking withdrawal among smokers with ADHD. Moreover, we investigated the role of catecholamine transmission in these changes by examining effects of 40 mg methylphenidate (MPH) administration. Adult daily smokers with (n=17) and without (n=20) ADHD completed fMRI scanning under each of three conditions: (a) smoking as usual+placebo; (b) 24 hr smoking abstinence+placebo and (c) 24 hr smoking abstinence+MPH. Scan order was randomized and counterbalanced. Participants completed a modified Go/No-Go task to assess both sustained and transient inhibitory control. Voxelwise analysis of task-related BOLD signal revealed a significant group by abstinence interaction in occipital/parietal cortex during sustained inhibition, with greater abstinence-induced decreases in activation observed among ADHD smokers compared with non-ADHD smokers. Changes in behavioral performance during abstinence were associated with changes in activation in regions of occipital and parietal cortex and bilateral insula during sustained inhibition in both groups. MPH administration improved behavioral performance and increased sustained inhibitory control-related activation for both groups. During transient inhibition, MPH increased prefrontal activation for both groups, and increased striatal activation only among ADHD smokers. These preliminary findings suggest that abstinence-induced changes in catecholamine transmission in visual attention areas (e.g., occipital and superior parietal cortex) may be associated with inhibitory control deficits and contribute to smoking vulnerability among individuals with ADHD.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 20 October 2017. doi:10.1038/npp.2017.248.

Authors
Sweitzer, MM; Kollins, SH; Kozink, RV; Hallyburton, M; English, J; Addicott, MA; Oliver, JA; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Sweitzer, MM, Kollins, SH, Kozink, RV, Hallyburton, M, English, J, Addicott, MA, Oliver, JA, and McClernon, FJ. "ADHD, Smoking Withdrawal and Inhibitory Control: Results of a Neuroimaging Study with Methylphenidate Challenge." Neuropsychopharmacology (October 20, 2017).
PMID
29052617
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1038/npp.2017.248

Environment and Gametic Epigenetic Reprogramming.

Authors
Murphy, SK; Schrott, R; Visco, Z; Huang, Z; Grenier, C; Mitchell, J; Schechter, J; Lucas, J; Levin, ED; Price, T; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Murphy, SK, Schrott, R, Visco, Z, Huang, Z, Grenier, C, Mitchell, J, Schechter, J, Lucas, J, Levin, ED, Price, T, and Kollins, SH. "Environment and Gametic Epigenetic Reprogramming." September 2017.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume
58
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
S28
End Page
S28

Maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Circulating cytokines and genomic imprinting as potential regulators?

Excessive inflammation during pregnancy alters homeostatic mechanisms of the developing fetus and has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. An anti-inflammatory diet could be a promising avenue to combat the pro-inflammatory state of pregnancy, particularly in obese women, but we lack mechanistic data linking this dietary pattern during pregnancy to inflammation and birth outcomes. In an ethnically diverse cohort of 1057 mother-child pairs, we estimated the relationships between dietary inflammatory potential [measured via the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII™)] and birth outcomes overall, as well as by offspring sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). In a subset of women, we also explored associations between E-DII, circulating cytokines (n = 105), and offspring methylation (n = 338) as potential modulators of these relationships using linear regression. Adjusted regression models revealed that women with pro-inflammatory diets had elevated rates of preterm birth among female offspring [β = -0.22, standard error (SE) = 0.07, P<0.01], but not male offspring (β=0.09, SE = 0.06, P<0.12) (Pinteraction = 0.003). Similarly, we observed pro-inflammatory diets were associated with higher rates of caesarean delivery among obese women (β = 0.17, SE = 0.08, P = 0.03), but not among women with BMI <25 kg/m2 (Pinteraction = 0.02). We observed consistent inverse associations between maternal inflammatory cytokine concentrations (IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and TNFα) and lower methylation at the MEG3 regulatory sequence (P<0.05); however, results did not support the link between maternal E-DII and circulating cytokines. We replicate work by others on the association between maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes and provide the first empirical evidence supporting the inverse association between circulating cytokine concentrations and offspring methylation.

Authors
McCullough, LE; Miller, EE; Calderwood, LE; Shivappa, N; Steck, SE; Forman, MR; A Mendez, M; Maguire, R; Fuemmeler, BF; Kollins, SH; D Bilbo, S; Huang, Z; Murtha, AP; Murphy, SK; Hébert, JR; Hoyo, C
MLA Citation
McCullough, LE, Miller, EE, Calderwood, LE, Shivappa, N, Steck, SE, Forman, MR, A Mendez, M, Maguire, R, Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, D Bilbo, S, Huang, Z, Murtha, AP, Murphy, SK, Hébert, JR, and Hoyo, C. "Maternal inflammatory diet and adverse pregnancy outcomes: Circulating cytokines and genomic imprinting as potential regulators?." Epigenetics 12.8 (August 2017): 688-697.
PMID
28678596
Source
epmc
Published In
Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Volume
12
Issue
8
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
688
End Page
697
DOI
10.1080/15592294.2017.1347241

Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Future Illicit Drug Use: The Role of Adolescent Cigarette Use.

The aim of this study is to understand how early cigarette use might predict subsequent illicit drug use, especially among individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during childhood. Data were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I-IV). The analysis sample involves participants who had not used illicit drugs at Wave I, with no missing responses for studied predictors ( N  = 7,332). Smoking status at Wave I (ever regular vs. never regular) and childhood ADHD symptoms predicted subsequent illicit drug use at Waves II to IV. No interaction effect of smoking status at Wave I and childhood ADHD symptoms was found. However, an indirect effect from childhood ADHD symptoms on illicit drug use was identified, through smoking status at Wave I. Similar results were observed for predicting illicit drug dependence. The findings support the notion that smoking status during early adolescence may mediate the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and risk of later adult drug use. Interventions to prevent smoking among adolescents may be particularly effective at decreasing subsequent drug use, especially among children with ADHD symptoms.

Authors
Lee, C-T; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Childhood ADHD Symptoms and Future Illicit Drug Use: The Role of Adolescent Cigarette Use." Journal of pediatric psychology (July 17, 2017).
PMID
29049706
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jsx098

Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Methylphenidate Tablet in Children 6-12 Years of Age with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory Classroom Setting.

Methylphenidate extended-release orally disintegrating tablets (MPH XR-ODTs) represent a new technology for MPH delivery. ODTs disintegrate in the mouth without water and provide a pharmacokinetic profile that is consistent with once-daily dosing. This study sought to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of this novel MPH XR-ODT formulation in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting.Children aged 6-12 years with ADHD (n = 87) were enrolled in this randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, laboratory classroom study. The MPH XR-ODT dose was titrated to an optimized dose during a 4-week open-label period and maintained on that dose for 1 week. Participants (n = 85) were then randomized to receive their optimized dose of MPH XR-ODT or placebo once daily for 1 week (double blind), culminating in a laboratory classroom testing day. Efficacy was evaluated using the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Attention, Deportment, and Combined scores along with Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP; Attempted and Correct) assessments. Onset and duration of drug action were also evaluated as key secondary endpoints. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), physical examinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).The average SKAMP-Combined score on the classroom study day was significantly better for the MPH XR-ODT group (n = 43) than for the placebo group (n = 39; p < 0.0001). The effect was evident at 1 hour and lasted through 12 hours postdose. The average SKAMP-Attention, SKAMP-Deportment, PERMP-A, and PERMP-C scores were indicative of significantly greater ADHD symptom control for the MPH XR-ODT group. The most common AEs reported were decreased appetite, upper abdominal pain, headache, insomnia, upper respiratory tract infection, affect lability, irritability, cough, and vomiting.MPH XR-ODT was effective and well tolerated for the treatment of children with ADHD in a laboratory classroom setting. Clinical Trial Registry: NCT01835548 ( ClinicalTrials.gov ).

Authors
Childress, AC; Kollins, SH; Cutler, AJ; Marraffino, A; Sikes, CR
MLA Citation
Childress, AC, Kollins, SH, Cutler, AJ, Marraffino, A, and Sikes, CR. "Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of an Extended-Release Orally Disintegrating Methylphenidate Tablet in Children 6-12 Years of Age with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Laboratory Classroom Setting." Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 27.1 (February 2017): 66-74.
PMID
27183299
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
27
Issue
1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
66
End Page
74
DOI
10.1089/cap.2016.0002

How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning.

Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship.Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21.7-26.7 years-old).SU persisters perceived SU positively affects emotional states and positive emotional effects outweigh negative effects. No ADHD group effects emerged. Qualitative analysis identified perceptions that cannabis enhanced positive mood for ADHD and LNCG SU persisters, and improved negative mood and ADHD for ADHD SU persisters.Perceptions about SU broadly and mood do not differentiate ADHD and non-ADHD SU persisters. However, perceptions that cannabis is therapeutic may inform ADHD-related risk for cannabis use.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Weisner, TS; Jensen, PS; Murray, DW; Molina, BSG; Arnold, EL; Hechtman, L; Swanson, JM; Hinshaw, SP; Victor, EC; Kollins, SH; Wells, KC; Belendiuk, KA; Blonde, A; Nguyen, C; Ambriz, L; Nguyen, JL
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Weisner, TS, Jensen, PS, Murray, DW, Molina, BSG, Arnold, EL, Hechtman, L, Swanson, JM, Hinshaw, SP, Victor, EC, Kollins, SH, Wells, KC, Belendiuk, KA, Blonde, A, Nguyen, C, Ambriz, L, and Nguyen, JL. "How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning." Journal of attention disorders (February 2017): 1087054716685842-.
PMID
28166690
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
1087054716685842
DOI
10.1177/1087054716685842

Prenatal Smoke Exposure and ADHD: Advancing the Field.

Authors
Schechter, JC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Schechter, JC, and Kollins, SH. "Prenatal Smoke Exposure and ADHD: Advancing the Field." Pediatrics 139.2 (February 2017).
PMID
28138004
Source
epmc
Published In
Pediatrics
Volume
139
Issue
2
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1542/peds.2016-3481

Sleep disturbances in adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and framework for future research.

Biological mechanisms underlying symptom and prognostic heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are unclear. Sleep impacts neurocognition and daytime functioning and is disrupted in ADHD, yet little is known about sleep in ADHD during adolescence, a period characterized by alterations in sleep, brain structure, and environmental demands as well as diverging ADHD trajectories.A systematic review identified studies published prior to August 2016 assessing sleep in adolescents (aged 10-19years) with ADHD or participating in population-based studies measuring ADHD symptoms.Twenty-five studies were identified (19 subjective report, 6 using actigraphy/polysomnography). Findings are mixed but overall suggest associations between sleep disturbances and 1) ADHD symptoms in the population and 2) poorer clinical, neurocognitive, and functional outcomes among adolescents with ADHD. Common limitations of studies included small or non-representative samples, non-standardized sleep measures, and cross-sectional methodology.Current data on sleep in adolescent ADHD are sparse and limited by methodological concerns. Future studies are critical for clarifying a potential role of sleep in contributing to heterogeneity of ADHD presentation and prognosis. Potential mechanisms by which sleep disturbances during adolescence may contribute to worsened symptom severity and persistence of ADHD into adulthood and an agenda to guide future research are discussed.

Authors
Lunsford-Avery, JR; Krystal, AD; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Lunsford-Avery, JR, Krystal, AD, and Kollins, SH. "Sleep disturbances in adolescents with ADHD: A systematic review and framework for future research." Clinical psychology review 50 (October 23, 2016): 159-174. (Review)
PMID
27969004
Source
epmc
Published In
Clinical Psychology Review
Volume
50
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
159
End Page
174
DOI
10.1016/j.cpr.2016.10.004

Topical Review: ADHD and Health-Risk Behaviors: Toward Prevention and Health Promotion.

Across the lifespan, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with increased health risk behaviors including substance abuse, binge eating and obesity, and unsafe sexual behavior. These risks are directly linked to the neurocognitive deficits associated with ADHD, and are also mediated by the cascade of psychosocial impairments and stressors caused by ADHD across development. However, little is known about optimal approaches to improve health outcomes in this high-risk population. This topical review provides an overview of health risks associated with ADHD and the limited existing research relevant to health promotion for children and adolescents with ADHD. Future research questions and implications for clinicians are also addressed-especially how psychologists and medical practitioners may improve child health through early screenings, increasing medication adherence, and treating psychosocial impairments.

Authors
Schoenfelder, EN; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Schoenfelder, EN, and Kollins, SH. "Topical Review: ADHD and Health-Risk Behaviors: Toward Prevention and Health Promotion." Journal of pediatric psychology 41.7 (August 2016): 735-740. (Review)
PMID
26717959
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Volume
41
Issue
7
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
735
End Page
740
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jsv162

"I Use Weed for My ADHD": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for problematic cannabis use. However, clinical and anecdotal evidence suggest an increasingly popular perception that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, including via online resources. Given that the Internet is increasingly utilized as a source of healthcare information and may influence perceptions, we conducted a qualitative analysis of online forum discussions, also referred to as threads, on the effects of cannabis on ADHD to systematically characterize the content patients and caregivers may encounter about ADHD and cannabis.A total of 268 separate forum threads were identified. Twenty percent (20%) were randomly selected, which yielded 55 separate forum threads (mean number of individual posts per forum thread = 17.53) scored by three raters (Cohen's kappa = 0.74). A final sample of 401 posts in these forum threads received at least one endorsement on predetermined topics following qualitative coding procedures.Twenty-five (25%) percent of individual posts indicated that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, as opposed to 8% that it is harmful, 5% that it is both therapeutic and harmful, and 2% that it has no effect on ADHD. This pattern was generally consistent when the year of each post was considered. The greater endorsement of therapeutic versus harmful effects of cannabis did not generalize to mood, other (non-ADHD) psychiatric conditions, or overall domains of daily life. Additional themes emerged (e.g., cannabis being considered sanctioned by healthcare providers).Despite that there are no clinical recommendations or systematic research supporting the beneficial effects of cannabis use for ADHD, online discussions indicate that cannabis is considered therapeutic for ADHD-this is the first study to identify such a trend. This type of online information could shape ADHD patient and caregiver perceptions, and influence cannabis use and clinical care.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Sweitzer, MM; Tunno, AM; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Sweitzer, MM, Tunno, AM, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. ""I Use Weed for My ADHD": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD." PloS one 11.5 (January 2016): e0156614-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/12559
PMID
27227537
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
11
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
e0156614
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0156614

Reliability and Validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised.

Children with ADHD frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. We sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised (DPREMB-R) morning score as a measure of morning behaviors impaired by ADHD.We used data from a clinical trial of HLD200 treatment in pediatric participants with ADHD to address our objectives.The DPREMB-R morning score showed significant internal homogeneity, test-retest reliability (r = .52-.45), and good concurrent validity (r = .50-.71).The DPREMB-R morning score could be a useful instrument for assessing treatment efficacy in the morning before school.

Authors
Faraone, SV; Childress, A; Wigal, SB; Kollins, SH; McDonnell, MA; DeSousa, NJ; Sallee, FR
MLA Citation
Faraone, SV, Childress, A, Wigal, SB, Kollins, SH, McDonnell, MA, DeSousa, NJ, and Sallee, FR. "Reliability and Validity of the Daily Parent Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior Scale, Revised." Journal of attention disorders (December 23, 2015).
PMID
26700792
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Publish Date
2015

Dasotraline for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Trial in Adults.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity associated with clinically significant impairment in functioning. ADHD has an early onset, but frequently persists, with a prevalence estimate of 4% in adults. Dasotraline is a novel compound that is a potent inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters that achieves stable plasma concentrations with once-daily dosing. In this study, adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD were randomized to 4 weeks of double-blind, once-daily treatment with dasotraline 4 and 8 mg/day or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline at week 4 in the ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV (ADHD RS-IV) total score. Secondary efficacy end points included the Clinical Global Impression, Severity (CGI-S) scale, modified for ADHD symptoms. Least squares (LS) mean improvements at week 4 in ADHD RS-IV total score were significantly greater for dasotraline 8 mg/day vs placebo (-13.9 vs -9.7; P=0.019), and nonsignificantly greater for 4 mg/day (-12.4; P=0.076). The LS mean improvements in modified CGI-S were significantly greater at week 4 for dasotraline 8 mg/day vs placebo (-1.1 vs -0.7; P=0.013), and for 4 mg/day vs placebo (-1.1 vs -0.7; P=0.021). The most frequent adverse events reported were insomnia, decreased appetite, nausea, and dry mouth. Discontinuations due to treatment-emergent adverse events were 10.3% and 27.8% of patients in 4 and 8 mg/day treatment groups, respectively. This study provides preliminary evidence that once-daily dosing with dasotraline, a long-acting, dual monoamine reuptake inhibitor, may be a safe and efficacious treatment for adult ADHD.

Authors
Koblan, KS; Hopkins, SC; Sarma, K; Jin, F; Goldman, R; Kollins, SH; Loebel, A
MLA Citation
Koblan, KS, Hopkins, SC, Sarma, K, Jin, F, Goldman, R, Kollins, SH, and Loebel, A. "Dasotraline for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Trial in Adults." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 40.12 (November 2015): 2745-2752.
PMID
25948101
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
40
Issue
12
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
2745
End Page
2752
DOI
10.1038/npp.2015.124

Pharmacotherapy of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) Children Growing Up.

To describe the long-term psychopharmacological treatment of children first diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as preschoolers.In a systematic, prospective, naturalistic follow-up, 206 (68.0%) of the 303 children who participated in the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) were reassessed 3 years (mean age 7.4 years) and 179 (59.1%) were reassessed 6 years (mean age 10.4 years) after completion of the controlled study. Pharmacotherapy and clinical data were obtained from the parents. Pharmacotherapy was defined as use of a specific class of medication for at least 50% of the days in the previous 6 months.At year 3, a total of 34.0% of the participants were on no pharmacotherapy, 41.3% were on stimulant monotherapy, 9.2% were on atomoxetine alone or with a stimulant, 8.3% were on an antipsychotic usually together with a stimulant, and the remaining 7.2% were on other pharmacotherapy; overall, 65.0% were on an indicated ADHD medication. At year 6, a total of 26.8% of the participants were on no pharmacotherapy, 40.2% were on stimulant monotherapy, 4.5% were on atomoxetine alone or with a stimulant, 13.4% were on an antipsychotic, and 15.1% were on other pharmacotherapy; overall, 70.9% were on an indicated ADHD medication. Antipsychotic treatment was associated with more comorbidity, in particular disruptive behavior disorders and pervasive development disorders, and a lower level of functioning.In this study, the long-term pharmacotherapy of preschoolers with ADHD was heterogeneous. Although stimulant medication continued to be used by most children, about 1 child in 4 was off medication, and about 1 in 10 was on an antipsychotic.

Authors
Vitiello, B; Lazzaretto, D; Yershova, K; Abikoff, H; Paykina, N; McCracken, JT; McGough, JJ; Kollins, SH; Greenhill, LL; Wigal, S; Wigal, T; Riddle, MA
MLA Citation
Vitiello, B, Lazzaretto, D, Yershova, K, Abikoff, H, Paykina, N, McCracken, JT, McGough, JJ, Kollins, SH, Greenhill, LL, Wigal, S, Wigal, T, and Riddle, MA. "Pharmacotherapy of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) Children Growing Up." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 54.7 (July 2015): 550-556.
PMID
26088659
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
54
Issue
7
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
550
End Page
556
DOI
10.1016/j.jaac.2015.04.004

The Efficacy and Safety of Evekeo, Racemic Amphetamine Sulfate, for Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: A Multicenter, Dose-Optimized, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Laboratory Classroom Study.

The study goal was to determine the efficacy and safety of an optimal dose of Evekeo, racemic amphetamine sulfate, 1:1 d-amphetamine and l-amphetamine (R-AMPH), compared to placebo in treating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory classroom setting.A total of 107 children ages 6-12 years were enrolled in this multicenter, dose-optimized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. After 8 weeks of open-label dose optimization, 97 subjects were randomized to 2 weeks of double-blind treatment in the sequence of R-AMPH followed by placebo (n=47) or placebo followed by R-AMPH (n=50). Efficacy measures included the Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) Rating Scale and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) administered predose and at 0.75, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours postdose on 2 laboratory classroom days. Safety assessments included physical examination, chemistry, hematology, vital signs, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).Compared to placebo, a single daily dose of R-AMPH significantly improved SKAMP-Combined scores (p<0.0001) at each time point tested throughout the laboratory classroom days, with effect onset 45 minutes postdose and extending through 10 hours. R-AMPH significantly improved PERMP number of problems attempted and correct (p<0.0001) throughout the laboratory classroom days. During the twice-daily dose-optimization open-label phase, improvements were observed with R-AMPH in scores of the ADHD-Rating Scale IV and Clinical Global Impressions Severity and Improvement Scales. TEAEs and changes in vital signs associated with R-AMPH were generally mild and not unexpected. The most common TEAEs in the open-label phase were decreased appetite (27.6%), upper abdominal pain (14.3%), irritability (14.3%), and headache (13.3%).Compared to placebo, R-AMPH was effective in treating children aged 6-12 years with ADHD, beginning at 45 minutes and continuing through 10 hours postdose, and was well tolerated.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01986062. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01986062.

Authors
Childress, AC; Brams, M; Cutler, AJ; Kollins, SH; Northcutt, J; Padilla, A; Turnbow, JM
MLA Citation
Childress, AC, Brams, M, Cutler, AJ, Kollins, SH, Northcutt, J, Padilla, A, and Turnbow, JM. "The Efficacy and Safety of Evekeo, Racemic Amphetamine Sulfate, for Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: A Multicenter, Dose-Optimized, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Laboratory Classroom Study." Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 25.5 (June 2015): 402-414.
PMID
25692608
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
25
Issue
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
402
End Page
414
DOI
10.1089/cap.2014.0176

Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions.

Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Zylowska, L; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Zylowska, L, and Kollins, SH. "Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions." Cognitive and behavioral practice 22.2 (May 2015): 172-191.
PMID
25908900
Source
epmc
Published In
Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
Volume
22
Issue
2
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
172
End Page
191
DOI
10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.10.002

PRE-PREGNANCY OBESITY AND OFFSPRING NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Hoyo, C; Murphy, S; Vidal, AC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Hoyo, C, Murphy, S, Vidal, AC, and Kollins, SH. "PRE-PREGNANCY OBESITY AND OFFSPRING NEUROBEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 49 (April 2015): S252-S252.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
49
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
S252
End Page
S252

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences.

This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed.A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development.ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites.ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender.

Authors
Lee, C-T; Clark, TT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, Clark, TT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences." Drug and alcohol dependence 148 (March 2015): 180-187.
PMID
25616515
Source
epmc
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
148
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
180
End Page
187
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.002

An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

© 2014 Elsevier Inc. Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10. mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0 mg, 10 mg and 40. mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48. hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10 mg THC + 0 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg MPH = 89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Schoenfelder, EN; English, JS; Holdaway, A; Van Voorhees, E; O'Brien, BR; Dew, R; Chrisman, AK
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Schoenfelder, EN, English, JS, Holdaway, A, Van Voorhees, E, O'Brien, BR, Dew, R, and Chrisman, AK. "An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 48.1 (January 1, 2015): 96-103.
Source
scopus
Published In
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Volume
48
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
96
End Page
103
DOI
10.1016/j.jsat.2014.07.014

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: Race and gender differences

© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Purpose: This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. Methods: A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. Results: ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. Conclusion: ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender.

Authors
Lee, CT; Clark, TT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, JF; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, CT, Clark, TT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, JF, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: Race and gender differences." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 148 (January 1, 2015): 180-187.
Source
scopus
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
148
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
180
End Page
187
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.002

ADHD and smoking

© Cambridge University Press 2015. Introduction Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disability in the United States. Annually, smoking leads to more than 400 000 premature deaths in the USA and nearly 5 million deaths worldwide [1]. In the USA alone, $150 billion in annual costs are attributable to smoking-related illnesses and lost worker productivity [2] . Several large-scale, epidemiological studies have reported that individuals who have psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to smoke than individuals from the general population [3, 4]. The prevalence of smoking among individuals with a current psychiatric condition is nearly double that of individuals without current mental illness [4, 5] . While individuals who reported a psychiatric diagnosis in the past month make up approximately 30% of the US population, they consume an estimated 44.3% of all cigarettes [4]. The number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in an individual is also associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence and greater withdrawal severity [4, 6] . Most population- and clinic-based studies of smoking/psychiatric illness comorbidity have excluded attention-deicit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This may be because ADHD is oten considered a disorder of childhood and is thus not included as a psychiatric condition category when studying samples of adults. However, in the few studies in which the disorder has been examined, ADHD shows comparable rates of comorbidity with cigarette smoking as other psychiatric disorders (approximately 40%) [7]. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that ADHD symptoms, even at levels below the threshold required to make a clinical diagnosis, are signiicantly associated with risk for smoking [8] .

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "ADHD and smoking." Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults and Children. January 1, 2015. 327-342.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
327
End Page
342
DOI
10.1017/CBO9781139035491.027

An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Schoenfelder, EN; English, JS; Holdaway, A; Van Voorhees, E; O'Brien, BR; Dew, R; Chrisman, AK
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Schoenfelder, EN, English, JS, Holdaway, A, Van Voorhees, E, O'Brien, BR, Dew, R, and Chrisman, AK. "An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults." Journal of substance abuse treatment 48.1 (January 2015): 96-103.
PMID
25175495
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Volume
48
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
96
End Page
103
DOI
10.1016/j.jsat.2014.07.014

Dasotraline for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial in adults

© 2015 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity associated with clinically significant impairment in functioning. ADHD has an early onset, but frequently persists, with a prevalence estimate of 4% in adults. Dasotraline is a novel compound that is a potent inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters that achieves stable plasma concentrations with once-daily dosing. In this study, adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD were randomized to 4 weeks of double-blind, once-daily treatment with dasotraline 4 and 8 mg/day or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline at week 4 in the ADHD Rating Scale, Version IV (ADHD RS-IV) total score. Secondary efficacy end points included the Clinical Global Impression, Severity (CGI-S) scale, modified for ADHD symptoms. Least squares (LS) mean improvements at week 4 in ADHD RS-IV total score were significantly greater for dasotraline 8 mg/day vs placebo (-13.9 vs -9.7; P=0.019), and nonsignificantly greater for 4 mg/day (-12.4; P=0.076). The LS mean improvements in modified CGI-S were significantly greater at week 4 for dasotraline 8 mg/day vs placebo (-1.1 vs -0.7; P=0.013), and for 4 mg/day vs placebo (-1.1 vs -0.7; P=0.021). The most frequent adverse events reported were insomnia, decreased appetite, nausea, and dry mouth. Discontinuations due to treatment-emergent adverse events were 10.3% and 27.8% of patients in 4 and 8 mg/day treatment groups, respectively. This study provides preliminary evidence that once-daily dosing with dasotraline, a long-acting, dual monoamine reuptake inhibitor, may be a safe and efficacious treatment for adult ADHD.

Authors
Koblan, KS; Hopkins, SC; Sarma, K; Jin, F; Goldman, R; Kollins, SH; Loebel, A
MLA Citation
Koblan, KS, Hopkins, SC, Sarma, K, Jin, F, Goldman, R, Kollins, SH, and Loebel, A. "Dasotraline for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial in adults." Neuropsychopharmacology 40.12 (2015): 2745-2752.
Source
scival
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
40
Issue
12
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
2745
End Page
2752
DOI
10.1038/npp.2015.124

Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

Authors
Smith, TF; Anastopoulos, AD; Garrett, ME; Arias-Vasquez, A; Franke, B; Oades, RD; Sonuga-Barke, E; Asherson, P; Gill, M; Buitelaar, JK; Sergeant, JA; Kollins, SH; Faraone, SV; Ashley-Koch, A; IMAGE Consortium,
MLA Citation
Smith, TF, Anastopoulos, AD, Garrett, ME, Arias-Vasquez, A, Franke, B, Oades, RD, Sonuga-Barke, E, Asherson, P, Gill, M, Buitelaar, JK, Sergeant, JA, Kollins, SH, Faraone, SV, Ashley-Koch, A, and IMAGE Consortium, . "Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity." American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 165B.8 (December 2014): 691-704.
PMID
25346392
Source
epmc
Published In
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume
165B
Issue
8
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
691
End Page
704
DOI
10.1002/ajmg.b.32275

A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluating the time course of response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

The purpose of this study was to assess the time of onset and time course of efficacy over 12.0 hours of extended-release multilayer bead formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) compared with placebo in children 6-12 years of age with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a laboratory school setting.This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study included children 6-12 years of age with ADHD. Enrolled children went through four study phases: 1) Screening period (≤4 weeks) and a 2 day medication washout period; 2) open-label period with dose initiation of MPH-MLR 15 mg daily and individual dose optimization treatment period (2-4 weeks); 3) double-blind crossover period in which participants were randomized to sequences (1 week each) of placebo and the optimized MPH-MLR dose given daily; and 4) follow-up safety call. Analog classroom time course evaluations were performed at the end of each double-blind week. The primary efficacy end-point was the mean of the on-treatment/postdose Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP)-Total scores over time points collected 1.0-12.0 hours after dosing. End-points were evaluated using a mixed-effects analysis of covariance.The evaluable population included 20 participants. The least-squares mean postdose SKAMP-Total score was higher for placebo than for MPH-MLR (2.18 vs. 1.32, respectively; p=0.0001), indicating fewer symptoms with MPH-MLR therapy than with placebo. No difference in SKAMP-Total score between participants who received sequence 1 or sequence 2 was noted. From each of hours 1.0-12.0, least-squares mean SKAMP-Total score was significantly lower for those receiving MPH-MLR than for those receiving placebo (p≤0.0261). Neither serious adverse events nor new or unexpected safety findings were noted during the study.MPH-MLR showed a significant decrease in SKAMP scores compared with placebo in children with ADHD 6-12 years of age, indicating a decrease in ADHD symptoms. The estimated onset was observed within 1.0 hour, and duration was measured to 12.0 hours postdose.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01269463.

Authors
Wigal, SB; Greenhill, LL; Nordbrock, E; Connor, DF; Kollins, SH; Adjei, A; Childress, A; Stehli, A; Kupper, RJ
MLA Citation
Wigal, SB, Greenhill, LL, Nordbrock, E, Connor, DF, Kollins, SH, Adjei, A, Childress, A, Stehli, A, and Kupper, RJ. "A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study evaluating the time course of response to methylphenidate hydrochloride extended-release capsules in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 24.10 (December 2014): 562-569.
PMID
25470572
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
24
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
562
End Page
569
DOI
10.1089/cap.2014.0100

Steady-state bioavailability of extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) capsule vs. immediate-release methylphenidate tablets in healthy adult volunteers.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine the relative bioavailability of an extended-release multilayer bead formulation of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH-MLR) 80 mg vs. methylphenidate immediate-release (IR; Ritalin(®)) tablets as single and multiple doses in the fed state. METHODS: A single-center, multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study conducted in 26 healthy adults assigned to 4 days of once-daily MPH-MLR 80 mg or IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily. RESULTS: MPH-MLR 80 mg produced reproducible biphasic profiles of plasma methylphenidate concentrations characterized by a rapid initial peak, followed by a moderate decline reaching a plateau ~5 h post dose, then a gradual increase culminating in an attenuated second peak ~7 h post dose. Maximum concentration was lower for MPH-MLR 80 mg than IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily on day 1 (23.70 vs. 31.47 ng/mL); exposure was similar. The geometric mean ratios (MPH-MLR/IR methylphenidate [90 % CI]) of log-transformed area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable observation (day 1: 0.88 [84.75-91.80]; day 4: 0.84 [81.16-86.94]), and area under the plasma drug concentration extrapolated to infinity (day 1: 0.93 [88.57-97.28]; day 4: 0.88 [84.48-91.17]) were within the 80-125 % bioequivalence range. The mean ± SD MPH-MLR 80-mg capsule day 4 area under the plasma drug concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 4 h (74.5 ± 15.2 ng·h/mL) was greater than IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily (66.0 ± 17.4 ng·h/mL), confirming steady-state levels during the study period. All treatment regimens were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION: MPH-MLR 80-mg capsule once daily or IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily provides comparable maximum methylphenidate concentrations and systemic exposure in the fed state.

Authors
Adjei, A; Kupper, RJ; Teuscher, NS; Wigal, S; Sallee, F; Childress, A; Kollins, SH; Greenhill, L
MLA Citation
Adjei, A, Kupper, RJ, Teuscher, NS, Wigal, S, Sallee, F, Childress, A, Kollins, SH, and Greenhill, L. "Steady-state bioavailability of extended-release methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) capsule vs. immediate-release methylphenidate tablets in healthy adult volunteers." Clinical drug investigation 34.11 (November 2014): 795-805.
PMID
25274428
Source
epmc
Published In
Clinical drug investigation
Volume
34
Issue
11
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
795
End Page
805
DOI
10.1007/s40261-014-0234-x

Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

The current study assessed antecedents and consequences of ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Adult smokers with ADHD (n = 17) completed 870 smoking and 622 nonsmoking electronic diary entries over a 7-day observation period of their naturalistic smoking behavior. Data collection occurred from 2011 to 2012. Generalized estimating equations indicated that ADHD smokers were more likely to smoke when urge to smoke, negative affect, boredom, stress, worry, and restlessness were elevated. In addition, participants were more likely to smoke in situations that elicited higher levels of nervousness and frustration. ADHD symptoms, in general, did not differ between smoking and nonsmoking contexts, though hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were elevated prior to smoking in frustrating situations. Additional situational antecedent variables were associated with smoking, including being in the presence of others smoking, being in a bar or restaurant, while outside, and while consuming caffeinated or alcoholic beverages. Participants also reported a significant improvement in urge to smoke, negative affect, stress, hunger, and ADHD symptoms after smoking a cigarette. Findings suggest certain contextual factors that may maintain ad lib cigarette smoking in smokers with ADHD and identify potential treatment targets in smoking cessation interventions for this at-risk group. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Dennis, MF; English, JS; Dennis, PA; Brightwood, A; Beckham, JC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Dennis, MF, English, JS, Dennis, PA, Brightwood, A, Beckham, JC, and Kollins, SH. "Ecological momentary assessment of antecedents and consequences of smoking in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Substance use & misuse 49.11 (September 2014): 1446-1456.
PMID
24827866
Source
epmc
Published In
Substance Use & Misuse (Informa)
Volume
49
Issue
11
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1446
End Page
1456
DOI
10.3109/10826084.2014.912229

ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: Implications for smoking and nicotine dependence

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing disorder affecting millions of children, adolescents, and adults. Individuals with ADHD smoke cigarettes at rates significantly higher than their non-diagnosed peers and the disorder also confers risk for a number of related adverse smoking outcomes including earlier age of initiation, faster progression to regular use, heavier smoking/greater dependence, and more difficulty quitting. Progress in our understanding of dopamine neurotransmission and basic behavioral reinforcement processes in ADHD may help increase our understanding of the ADHD-smoking comorbidity. This review will examine how these areas have been studied and how further work may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment for smoking in those with ADHD. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Adcock, RA
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and Adcock, RA. "ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: Implications for smoking and nicotine dependence." Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 52 (July 3, 2014): 70-78. (Review)
Source
scopus
Published In
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Volume
52
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
70
End Page
78
DOI
10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.02.002

ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: implications for smoking and nicotine dependence.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing disorder affecting millions of children, adolescents, and adults. Individuals with ADHD smoke cigarettes at rates significantly higher than their non-diagnosed peers and the disorder also confers risk for a number of related adverse smoking outcomes including earlier age of initiation, faster progression to regular use, heavier smoking/greater dependence, and more difficulty quitting. Progress in our understanding of dopamine neurotransmission and basic behavioral reinforcement processes in ADHD may help increase our understanding of the ADHD-smoking comorbidity. This review will examine how these areas have been studied and how further work may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment for smoking in those with ADHD.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Adcock, RA
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and Adcock, RA. "ADHD, altered dopamine neurotransmission, and disrupted reinforcement processes: implications for smoking and nicotine dependence." Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 52 (July 2014): 70-78. (Review)
PMID
24560930
Source
epmc
Published In
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Volume
52
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
70
End Page
78
DOI
10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.02.002

Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking: a meta-analysis.

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a significantly higher risk of cigarette smoking. The nature of the relationship between smoking and psychostimulant medications commonly used to treat ADHD is controversial. Our objective was to examine the relationship between stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking by using meta-analysis, and to identify study and sample characteristics that moderate this relationship.Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo databases identified published studies for inclusion. Included studies compared cigarette smoking outcomes for stimulant-treated and untreated ADHD individuals. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, and 14 (total n = 2360) contained sufficient statistical information for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Two authors extracted odds ratios or frequencies of smokers in the treatment or nontreatment groups, and coded study characteristics including sample source, percentage of male participants, follow-up length, treatment consistency, type of smoking measure, prospective study, and controlling for comorbidities.Meta-analysis revealed a significant association between stimulant treatment and lower smoking rates. Meta-regression indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that used clinical samples, included more women, measured smoking in adolescence rather than adulthood, conceptualized stimulant treatment as consistent over time, and accounted for comorbid conduct disorder.Nearly all studies were naturalistic, precluding causal inferences. Available data were insufficient to examine additional influences of patient demographics, treatment effectiveness, or other comorbidities. Consistent stimulant treatment of ADHD may reduce smoking risk; the effect was larger in samples with more severe psychopathology. Implications for further research, treatment of ADHD, and smoking prevention are discussed.

Authors
Schoenfelder, EN; Faraone, SV; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Schoenfelder, EN, Faraone, SV, and Kollins, SH. "Stimulant treatment of ADHD and cigarette smoking: a meta-analysis." Pediatrics 133.6 (June 2014): 1070-1080.
PMID
24819571
Source
epmc
Published In
Pediatrics
Volume
133
Issue
6
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1070
End Page
1080
DOI
10.1542/peds.2014-0179

A pilot study of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX/SPD489) to facilitate smoking cessation in nicotine-dependent adults with ADHD.

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) as an adjunct to nicotine replacement therapy in adult smokers with ADHD who were undergoing a quit attempt. METHODS: Thirty-two regular adult smokers with ADHD were randomized to receive LDX (n = 17) or placebo (n = 15) in addition to nicotine patch concurrent with a quit attempt. RESULTS: There were no differences between smokers assigned to LDX versus placebo in any smoking outcomes. Participants treated with LDX demonstrated significant reductions in self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptoms. LDX was well tolerated in smokers attempting to quit. DISCUSSION: In general, LDX does not facilitate smoking cessation in adults with ADHD more than does placebo, though both groups significantly reduced smoking. LDX demonstrated efficacy for reducing ADHD symptoms in adult smokers engaging in a quit attempt.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Itchon-Ramos, N; Chrisman, AK; Dew, R; O'Brien, B; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Itchon-Ramos, N, Chrisman, AK, Dew, R, O'Brien, B, and McClernon, FJ. "A pilot study of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX/SPD489) to facilitate smoking cessation in nicotine-dependent adults with ADHD." J Atten Disord 18.2 (February 2014): 158-168.
PMID
22508760
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
18
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
158
End Page
168
DOI
10.1177/1087054712440320

Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study.

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior.The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data.We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Schick, RS; Hallyburton, M; Dennis, MF; Kollins, SH; Beckham, JC; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Schick, RS, Hallyburton, M, Dennis, MF, Kollins, SH, Beckham, JC, and McClernon, FJ. "Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study." Journal of dual diagnosis 10.1 (January 2014): 19-29.
PMID
24883050
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Volume
10
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
19
End Page
29
DOI
10.1080/15504263.2013.866841

Smoking motivation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives.

INTRODUCTION: Smokers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ from smokers without ADHD across a range of smoking outcomes (e.g., higher prevalence rates of smoking, faster progression to regular smoking, and greater difficulty quitting). Moreover, ADHD as a disorder has been characterized by deficits in fundamental motivational processes. To date, few studies have examined how motivation for smoking might differ between nicotine-dependent individuals with and without ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess whether specific smoking motivation factors differentiate smokers with and without ADHD as measured by an empirically derived self-report measure of smoking motivations. METHODS: Smokers with (n = 61) and without (n = 89) ADHD participated in a range of laboratory and clinical studies that included the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). RESULTS: A series of one-way analysis of covariances statistically controlling for age and race indicated that smokers with ADHD scored higher on the following WISDM subscales than their non-ADHD peers: automaticity, loss of control, cognitive enhancement, cue exposure, and negative reinforcement. Smokers in the non-ADHD group yielded higher scores on the social- environmental goads WISDM subscale. No group by gender interactions emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smokers with ADHD report different motives for smoking than smokers without ADHD. Clarifying the role of these motivational factors has implications for smoking prevention and treatment.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; McIntyre, EM; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, McIntyre, EM, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Smoking motivation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives." Nicotine Tob Res 16.1 (January 2014): 120-125.
PMID
24078759
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
16
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
120
End Page
125
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntt144

Analysis of individual items on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom rating scale in children and adults: the effects of age and sex in pivotal trials of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate.

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom presentation across age and sex has not been fully elucidated. The present post hoc analyses qualitatively explored the baseline levels of ADHD symptomatology across subgroups in two clinical trials of children and adults with ADHD to elucidate differences in participant presentation. The response to treatment was examined to determine patterns of response among items of the ADHD Rating Scale IV. METHODS: Exploratory post hoc analyses of ADHD Rating Scale IV item scores were conducted on data from two 4-week placebo-controlled trials in children (6-12 years) and in adults (18-55 years) with ADHD. Baseline and endpoint mean item scores were determined for subgroups defined by age (6-9, 10-12, 18-39, and 40-55 years) and sex. RESULTS: The baseline mean item scores were generally numerically similar for all age-by-sex subgroups. The inattention (IA) items were numerically higher than hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) items among older children and adults. The endpoint mean item scores were numerically lower after lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment for IA and H/I items in all subgroups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that regardless of age or sex, baseline IA and H/I symptom profiles were comparable; however, IA vs H/I symptoms were more severe in older participants. In all age-by-sex subgroups, IA and H/I symptoms appeared to decrease after active treatment.

Authors
Weisler, RH; Adler, LA; Kollins, SH; Goodman, DW; Hamdani, M; Dirks, B; Childress, AC
MLA Citation
Weisler, RH, Adler, LA, Kollins, SH, Goodman, DW, Hamdani, M, Dirks, B, and Childress, AC. "Analysis of individual items on the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom rating scale in children and adults: the effects of age and sex in pivotal trials of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate." Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 10 (2014): 1-12.
PMID
24363557
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment
Volume
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1
End Page
12
DOI
10.2147/NDT.S47087

Steady-State Bioavailability of Extended-Release Methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) Capsule vs. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate Tablets in Healthy Adult Volunteers

© 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the relative bioavailability of an extended-release multilayer bead formulation of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH-MLR) 80 mg vs. methylphenidate immediate-release (IR; Ritalin<sup>®</sup>) tablets as single and multiple doses in the fed state.Methods: A single-center, multiple-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study conducted in 26 healthy adults assigned to 4 days of once-daily MPH-MLR 80 mg or IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily.Results: MPH-MLR 80 mg produced reproducible biphasic profiles of plasma methylphenidate concentrations characterized by a rapid initial peak, followed by a moderate decline reaching a plateau ~5 h post dose, then a gradual increase culminating in an attenuated second peak ~7 h post dose. Maximum concentration was lower for MPH-MLR 80 mg than IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily on day 1 (23.70 vs. 31.47 ng/mL); exposure was similar. The geometric mean ratios (MPH-MLR/IR methylphenidate [90 % CI]) of log-transformed area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve to the last measurable observation (day 1: 0.88 [84.75–91.80]; day 4: 0.84 [81.16–86.94]), and area under the plasma drug concentration extrapolated to infinity (day 1: 0.93 [88.57–97.28]; day 4: 0.88 [84.48–91.17]) were within the 80–125 % bioequivalence range. The mean ± SD MPH-MLR 80-mg capsule day 4 area under the plasma drug concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 4 h (74.5 ± 15.2 ng·h/mL) was greater than IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily (66.0 ± 17.4 ng·h/mL), confirming steady-state levels during the study period. All treatment regimens were safe and well tolerated.Conclusion: MPH-MLR 80-mg capsule once daily or IR methylphenidate 25 mg three times daily provides comparable maximum methylphenidate concentrations and systemic exposure in the fed state.

Authors
Adjei, A; Kupper, RJ; Teuscher, NS; Wigal, S; Sallee, F; Childress, A; Kollins, SH; Greenhill, L
MLA Citation
Adjei, A, Kupper, RJ, Teuscher, NS, Wigal, S, Sallee, F, Childress, A, Kollins, SH, and Greenhill, L. "Steady-State Bioavailability of Extended-Release Methylphenidate (MPH-MLR) Capsule vs. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate Tablets in Healthy Adult Volunteers." Clinical Drug Investigation 34.11 (2014): 795-805.
Source
scival
Published In
Clinical drug investigation
Volume
34
Issue
11
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
795
End Page
805
DOI
10.1007/s40261-014-0234-x

Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emerging adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of childhood economic strains on substance use in young adulthood and to assess the mediating roles of self-control as well as positive parenting during adolescence in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The study included data from participants (n = 1,285) in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, and Transition to Adult. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among risk factors during childhood and adolescence that predicted substance use in early adulthood. RESULTS: Conditions of economic strains, especially poverty, during childhood were associated with an increased likelihood of regular smoking in adulthood, which was partially mediated by poorer self-control during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Self-control is negatively affected by economic strains and serves as a mediator between poverty and risk of regular smoking. Additional research is needed to better understand how economic strains effect the development of self-control.

Authors
Lee, C-T; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Prybol, K; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Prybol, K, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emerging adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices." J Pediatr Psychol 38.10 (November 2013): 1130-1143.
PMID
23899658
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Volume
38
Issue
10
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1130
End Page
1143
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jst056

Nicotinic receptor gene variants interact with attention deficient hyperactive disorder symptoms to predict smoking trajectories from early adolescence to adulthood.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CHRNB3 (rs13280604) and CHRNA6 (rs892413) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in predicting smoking patterns from early adolescence to adulthood. METHOD: A longitudinal cohort of 1137 unrelated youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided responses to four surveys from Waves I to IV, and a genetic sample in Wave III. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify smoking patterns and to assess the effects of the two SNPs and ADHD symptoms on cigarette use over time. RESULTS: There were significant main effects of ADHD symptoms and CHRNA6 variants in predicting the number of cigarettes smoked and the pattern of use over time, respectively. There were no main effects of the CHRNB3 variants. However, a significant CHRNB3 variant×ADHD symptom interaction was observed, such that individuals with elevated ADHD symptoms and a particular CHRNB3 variant were at increased risk of cigarette use over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a SNP in a nicotinic receptor gene may interact with ADHD symptoms to link with increased cigarette use across adolescence and young adulthood. Unique associations between specific variants and patterns of ADHD symptoms were identified which may be useful for targeting prevention efforts to individuals at greatest risk for cigarette smoking.

Authors
Lee, C-T; Fuemmeler, BF; McClernon, FJ; Ashley-Koch, A; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, Fuemmeler, BF, McClernon, FJ, Ashley-Koch, A, and Kollins, SH. "Nicotinic receptor gene variants interact with attention deficient hyperactive disorder symptoms to predict smoking trajectories from early adolescence to adulthood." Addict Behav 38.11 (November 2013): 2683-2689.
PMID
23899432
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
38
Issue
11
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
2683
End Page
2689
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.06.013

Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Schoenfelder, E; English, JS; McClernon, FJ; Dew, RE; Lane, SD
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Schoenfelder, E, English, JS, McClernon, FJ, Dew, RE, and Lane, SD. "Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 21.5 (October 2013): 375-384.
PMID
24099358
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
21
Issue
5
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
375
End Page
384
DOI
10.1037/a0033851

Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample.

BACKGROUND: Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. METHODS: Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. RESULTS: Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories.

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, C-T; Ranby, KW; Clark, T; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, C-T, Ranby, KW, Clark, T, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Kollins, SH. "Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample." Drug Alcohol Depend 132.1-2 (September 1, 2013): 301-308.
PMID
23499056
Source
pubmed
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
132
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
301
End Page
308
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.021

Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-three (n = 16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. RESULTS: Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking-reinforced responding are associated with changes in inhibitory control and negative affect regardless of ADHD status, a finding that may lead to novel prevention and treatment programs.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Roley, ME; O'Brien, B; Blair, J; Lane, SD; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Roley, ME, O'Brien, B, Blair, J, Lane, SD, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 227.1 (May 2013): 19-30.
PMID
23247366
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
227
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
19
End Page
30
DOI
10.1007/s00213-012-2937-0

COMBINED EMA AND GPS FOR ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING BEHAVIOR: A PROOF OF CONCEPT STUDY

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Mitchell, JT; Schick, RS; Bayham, RL; Dennis, ME; Kollins, SH; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Mitchell, JT, Schick, RS, Bayham, RL, Dennis, ME, Kollins, SH, and Beckham, JC. "COMBINED EMA AND GPS FOR ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SMOKING BEHAVIOR: A PROOF OF CONCEPT STUDY." March 2013.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
45
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
S93
End Page
S93

The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-year follow-up.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3 to 5 up to 9 to 12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). METHOD: A total of 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at baseline (mean age, 4.4 years, when all met criteria for ADHD) and 3 months later (before medication treatment), were re-evaluated in three follow-up assessment visits (year 3, mean age 7.4 years; year 4, 8.3 years; and year 6, 10.4 years). Parents and teachers rated symptom severity, and clinicians established psychiatric diagnoses. Analyses examined longitudinal changes in symptom severity and ADHD diagnosis. RESULTS: Parent- and teacher-rated symptom severity decreased from baseline to year 3 but remained relatively stable and in the moderate-to-severe clinical range through year 6. Girls showed generally steeper decreases in symptom T-scores. At year 6, 89% (160/180) of remaining participants met ADHD symptom and impairment diagnostic criteria. Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder was associated with a 30% higher risk of having an ADHD diagnosis at year 6 in the multiple logistic model. Medication status during follow-up, on versus off, did not predict symptom severity change from year 3 to year 6 after adjustment for other variables. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD in preschoolers is a relatively stable diagnosis over a 6-year period. The course is generally chronic, with high symptom severity and impairment, in very young children with moderate-to-severe ADHD, despite treatment with medication. Development of more effective ADHD intervention strategies is needed for this age group.

Authors
Riddle, MA; Yershova, K; Lazzaretto, D; Paykina, N; Yenokyan, G; Greenhill, L; Abikoff, H; Vitiello, B; Wigal, T; McCracken, JT; Kollins, SH; Murray, DW; Wigal, S; Kastelic, E; McGough, JJ; dosReis, S; Bauzó-Rosario, A; Stehli, A; Posner, K
MLA Citation
Riddle, MA, Yershova, K, Lazzaretto, D, Paykina, N, Yenokyan, G, Greenhill, L, Abikoff, H, Vitiello, B, Wigal, T, McCracken, JT, Kollins, SH, Murray, DW, Wigal, S, Kastelic, E, McGough, JJ, dosReis, S, Bauzó-Rosario, A, Stehli, A, and Posner, K. "The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-year follow-up." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 52.3 (March 2013): 264-278.e2.
PMID
23452683
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
52
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
264
End Page
278.e2
DOI
10.1016/j.jaac.2012.12.007

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, and Kollins, SH. "Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adolescence." Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. January 1, 2013. 423-445.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
423
End Page
445
DOI
10.1007/978-1-4614-6633-8_27

ADHD in adolescence

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, and Kollins, SH. "ADHD in adolescence." Adolescent health psychology. Ed. W O'Donohue, L Benuto, and L Tolle. Springer, 2013. 423-445. (Chapter)
Source
manual
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
423
End Page
445

Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Rationale: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods: Thirty-three (n = 16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results: Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions: Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking-reinforced responding are associated with changes in inhibitory control and negative affect regardless of ADHD status, a finding that may lead to novel prevention and treatment programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Roley, ME; O'Brien, B; Blair, J; Lane, SD; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Roley, ME, O'Brien, B, Blair, J, Lane, SD, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Psychopharmacology 227.1 (2013): 19-30.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
227
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
19
End Page
30
DOI
10.1007/s00213-012-2937-0

Long-term stimulant treatment affects brain dopamine transporter level in patients with attention deficit hyperactive disorder.

OBJECTIVE: Brain dopamine dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could explain why stimulant medications, which increase dopamine signaling, are therapeutically beneficial. However while the acute increases in dopamine induced by stimulant medications have been associated with symptom improvement in ADHD the chronic effects have not been investigated. METHOD: We used positron emission tomography and [(11)C]cocaine (dopamine transporter radioligand) to measure dopamine transporter availability in the brains of 18 never-medicated adult ADHD subjects prior to and after 12 months of treatment with methylphenidate and in 11 controls who were also scanned twice at 12 months interval but without stimulant medication. Dopamine transporter availability was quantified as non-displaceable binding potential using a kinetic model for reversible ligands. RESULTS: Twelve months of methylphenidate treatment increased striatal dopamine transporter availability in ADHD (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum: +24%, p<0.01); whereas there were no changes in control subjects retested at 12-month interval. Comparisons between controls and ADHD participants revealed no significant difference in dopamine transporter availability prior to treatment but showed higher dopamine transporter availability in ADHD participants than control after long-term treatment (caudate: p<0.007; putamen: p<0.005). CONCLUSION: Upregulation of dopamine transporter availability during long-term treatment with methylphenidate may decrease treatment efficacy and exacerbate symptoms while not under the effects of the medication. Our findings also suggest that the discrepancies in the literature regarding dopamine transporter availability in ADHD participants (some studies reporting increases, other no changes and other decreases) may reflect, in part, differences in treatment histories.

Authors
Wang, G-J; Volkow, ND; Wigal, T; Kollins, SH; Newcorn, JH; Telang, F; Logan, J; Jayne, M; Wong, CT; Han, H; Fowler, JS; Zhu, W; Swanson, JM
MLA Citation
Wang, G-J, Volkow, ND, Wigal, T, Kollins, SH, Newcorn, JH, Telang, F, Logan, J, Jayne, M, Wong, CT, Han, H, Fowler, JS, Zhu, W, and Swanson, JM. "Long-term stimulant treatment affects brain dopamine transporter level in patients with attention deficit hyperactive disorder. (Published online)" PLoS One 8.5 (2013): e63023-.
PMID
23696790
Source
pubmed
Published In
PloS one
Volume
8
Issue
5
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
e63023
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0063023

Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample

Background: Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Methods: Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Results: Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Conclusions: Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, C-T; Ranby, KW; Clark, T; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, C-T, Ranby, KW, Clark, T, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Kollins, SH. "Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132.1-2 (2013): 301-308.
Source
scival
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
132
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
301
End Page
308
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.021

Assessing the role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

INTRODUCTION: Smoking prevalence among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is elevated relative to non-PTSD smokers, and there is evidence to suggest that affect regulation may be a motivation for smoking among those with this disorder. Previous studies have also indicated that (a) PTSD is frequently comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (b) individuals with ADHD smoke at significantly higher rates than the general population, (c) subclinical ADHD symptoms are a risk factor for smoking, and (d) affect regulation is a motivation for smoking in ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess the degree to which ADHD symptoms were uniquely associated with smoking-related affective functioning (SRAF) variables above and beyond the variance already explained by PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Smokers with (n = 55) and without PTSD (n = 68) completed measures assessing PTSD symptoms, ADHD symptoms, and SRAF. RESULTS: The PTSD group endorsed significantly more severe levels of DSM-IV inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. A series of hierarchical regressions among the entire sample indicated that, after accounting for PTSD symptoms, ADHD symptoms were associated with lower positive affect, higher negative affect, higher emotion dysregulation, higher anxiety sensitivity, and higher urges to smoke to increase positive affect. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings suggest that ADHD symptoms may increase affective dysregulation difficulties already faced by smokers, particularly those with PTSD, which may, in turn, confer increased risk for smoking relapse in those with higher levels of symptomatology of both disorders.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Van Voorhees, EE; Dennis, MF; McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Kollins, SH; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Van Voorhees, EE, Dennis, MF, McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Kollins, SH, and Beckham, JC. "Assessing the role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Nicotine Tob Res 14.8 (August 2012): 986-992.
PMID
22180583
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
8
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
986
End Page
992
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr245

Treatment for co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

Interest in the co-occurrence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in the last decade. Research on clinical populations supports the frequent co-occurrence of ADHD traits (e.g., hyperactivity) in individuals with ASD and ASD traits (e.g., social communication deficits) in individuals with ADHD. Similar trends in co-occurring traits have been observed in population-based samples, as well as family and genetic studies of affected individuals. Despite increased interest in co-occurring ADHD and ASD, relatively little research has been devoted to treatment considerations. The vast majority of intervention research has examined pharmacological treatment using traditional ADHD medications. Relatively few psychosocial interventions have directly addressed co-occurring symptoms. Treatment development will benefit from enhanced understanding of the phenomenon of co-occurring ADHD and ASD. Key topics for future research include examining developmental trajectories of co-occurring disorders, comorbid psychiatric conditions, deficits in social skills, and the nature of executive functioning impairment in individuals with co-occurring ADHD and ASD. In the current review, research in these areas is reviewed along with recommendation for future study. Given that clinicians are routinely observing and treating individuals with co-occurring symptoms, further research will yield needed information to inform intervention development and maximize benefits for affected individuals.

Authors
Davis, NO; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Davis, NO, and Kollins, SH. "Treatment for co-occurring attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder." Neurotherapeutics 9.3 (July 2012): 518-530. (Review)
PMID
22678458
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neurotherapeutics
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
518
End Page
530
DOI
10.1007/s13311-012-0126-9

Efficacy of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of combined and inattentive only subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

BACKGROUND: Extended-release guanfacine (GXR) is approved for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. This post-hoc analysis further examines the effects of GXR on hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness. METHOD: Data from two large double-blind placebo-controlled pivotal trials of GXR in the treatment of ADHD were analyzed. Using the pooled population to provide sufficient sample size and associated statistical power, the impact of GXR treatment on core ADHD symptoms was examined by comparing ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores in the overall GXR and placebo groups in subjects with each of the three ADHD subtypes. ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness subscale scores in the overall study population by randomized dose group (vs. placebo) were also examined. RESULTS: The full analysis set included 631 subjects aged 6-17 years (GXR: n=490; placebo: n=141). Among subjects with the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD, differences in least squares (LS) mean reductions from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were significantly greater in GXR-treated subjects (n=127) than in placebo-treated subjects (n=38) at treatment weeks 3 through 5 and end point (p≤0.020). Among subjects with combined type ADHD, differences in LS mean ADHD-RS-IV total score reductions from baseline were significantly greater in the GXR group (n=354) than in the placebo group (n=100) at treatment weeks 1 through 5 and end point (p≤0.011). The dearth of predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type subjects (n=12) precluded analysis of this subgroup. Each randomized GXR dose group in each trial demonstrated significantly greater reductions from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattentiveness subscale scores than did the respective placebo group at end point (p≤0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: The results support the use of GXR in the treatment of core ADHD symptoms as defined in the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., Text Revision, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention.

Authors
Sallee, FR; Kollins, SH; Wigal, TL
MLA Citation
Sallee, FR, Kollins, SH, and Wigal, TL. "Efficacy of guanfacine extended release in the treatment of combined and inattentive only subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 22.3 (June 2012): 206-214.
PMID
22612526
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
22
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
206
End Page
214
DOI
10.1089/cap.2010.0135

Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: an integrative model.

Both females and individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to be at increased risk for a range of smoking outcomes, and recent empirical findings have suggested that women with ADHD may be particularly vulnerable to nicotine dependence. On a neurobiological level, the dopamine reward processing system may be implicated in the potentially unique interaction of nicotine with sex and with ADHD status. Specifically, nicotine appears to mitigate core ADHD symptoms through interaction with the dopamine reward processing system, and ovarian hormones have been found to interact with nicotine within the dopamine reward processing system to affect neurotransmitter release and functioning. This article synthesizes data from research examining smoking in women and in individuals with ADHD to build an integrative model through which unique risk for cigarette smoking in women with ADHD can be systematically explored. Based upon this model, the following hypotheses are proposed at the intersection of each of the three variables of sex, ADHD, and smoking: (1) individuals with ADHD have altered functioning of the dopamine reward system, which diminishes their ability to efficiently form conditioned associations based on environmental contingencies; these deficits are partially ameliorated by nicotine; (2) nicotine interacts with estrogen and the dopamine reward system to increase the positive and negative reinforcement value of smoking in female smokers; (3) in adult females with ADHD, ovarian hormones interact with the dopamine reward system to exacerbate ADHD-related deficits in the capacity to form conditioned associations; and (4) during different phases of the menstrual cycle, nicotine and ovarian hormones may interact differentially with the dopamine reward processing system to affect the type and value of reinforcement smoking provides for women with ADHD. Understanding the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying cigarette addiction in specific populations will be critical to developing effectively tailored smoking prevention and cessation programs for these groups. Overall, the goal of this paper is to examine the interaction of sex, smoking, and ADHD status within the context of the dopamine reward processing system not only to elucidate potential mechanisms specific to female smokers with ADHD, but also to stimulate consideration of how the examination of such individual differences can inform our understanding of smoking more broadly.

Authors
Van Voorhees, EE; Mitchell, JT; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Van Voorhees, EE, Mitchell, JT, McClernon, FJ, Beckham, JC, and Kollins, SH. "Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: an integrative model." Med Hypotheses 78.5 (May 2012): 585-593. (Review)
PMID
22341778
Source
pubmed
Published In
Medical Hypotheses
Volume
78
Issue
5
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
585
End Page
593
DOI
10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.034

Dose response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment in adults with ADHD: an exploratory study.

OBJECTIVE: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. METHOD: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria for ADHD. RESULTS: Nearly all participants assigned to an LDX dose achieved their assigned dose with the exception of about 4% of participants assigned to the 50 mg or 14% assigned to the 70 mg doses. Higher doses of LDX led to greater improvements in ADHD-rating scale scores, independent of prior pharmacotherapy. This was evident for both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. The authors found some evidence for an interaction between LDX dose and baseline severity of ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSION: For LDX doses between 30 and 70 mg/d, the dose-response efficacy effect for LDX is not affected by prior pharmacotherapy, but patients with a greater severity of illness may benefit more from higher doses, especially for hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. The results do not provide information about doses above 70 mg/d, which is the maximum approved dose of LDX and the highest dose studied in ADHD clinical trials.

Authors
Faraone, SV; Spencer, TJ; Kollins, SH; Glatt, SJ; Goodman, D
MLA Citation
Faraone, SV, Spencer, TJ, Kollins, SH, Glatt, SJ, and Goodman, D. "Dose response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment in adults with ADHD: an exploratory study." J Atten Disord 16.2 (February 2012): 118-127.
PMID
21527575
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
16
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
118
End Page
127
DOI
10.1177/1087054711403716

A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults.

INTRODUCTION: Initial reactions to cigarettes predict later regular smoking. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been shown to increase smoking risk and may moderate the relationship between genotype and smoking. We conducted an exploratory study to assess whether ADHD symptoms interact with genetic variation to predict self-reported initial reactions to smoking. METHODS: Participants were a subsample of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. Linear regression was used to examine relationships among self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and self-reported initial reactions to cigarettes (index scores reflecting pleasant and unpleasant reactions). RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene, SLC6A4 gene, and among males, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting pleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. Polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting unpleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. No main effect for any of these polymorphisms was observed nor were any interactions with DRD4 and DAT genes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that genotypes associated with monoamine neurotransmission interact with ADHD symptoms to influence initial reactions to cigarette smoking. Given that an initial pleasant reaction to cigarettes increases risk for lifetime smoking, these results add to a growing body of literature that suggests that ADHD symptoms increase risk for smoking and should be accounted for in genetic studies of smoking.

Authors
Bidwell, LC; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Williams, RB; Ashley-Koch, AE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Williams, RB, Ashley-Koch, AE, and Kollins, SH. "A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults." Nicotine Tob Res 14.2 (February 2012): 229-233.
PMID
21778150
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
229
End Page
233
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr125

Methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in ventral striatum are associated with long-term symptom improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [(11)C]raclopride (D(2)/D(3) receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

Authors
Volkow, ND; Wang, G-J; Tomasi, D; Kollins, SH; Wigal, TL; Newcorn, JH; Telang, FW; Fowler, JS; Logan, J; Wong, CT; Swanson, JM
MLA Citation
Volkow, ND, Wang, G-J, Tomasi, D, Kollins, SH, Wigal, TL, Newcorn, JH, Telang, FW, Fowler, JS, Logan, J, Wong, CT, and Swanson, JM. "Methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in ventral striatum are associated with long-term symptom improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." J Neurosci 32.3 (January 18, 2012): 841-849.
PMID
22262882
Source
pubmed
Published In
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Volume
32
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
841
End Page
849
DOI
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4461-11.2012

Understanding the phenotypic structure of adult retrospective ADHD symptoms during childhood in the United States.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and the phenotypic structure comprising inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms has been the focus of a growing body of recent research. Methodological studies are needed to better characterize phenotypes to advance research as well as clinical practice. A large U.S. population-based sample of young adults (N = 14,307, aged 17-28 years, 52.8% female) retrospectively reported their experiences of childhood ADHD symptoms. Factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling of ADHD symptoms were compared to determine which underlying structure best fit the data. Fit statistics as well as substantive criteria compared models within and across model subtypes. Analyses supported a two-factor two-class structure for both male and female subjects. The two latent factors represented inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom dimensions. The two latent classes divided people into a smaller affected class and a larger unaffected class. Individuals who reported having been diagnosed with ADHD were more likely to be in the affected class (OR male subjects = 4.03, 95% CI [2.65, 6.13]; OR female subjects = 5.65, 95% CI [3.15, 10.10]). This work aids in the understanding of ADHD symptomatology within the population; a majority of people experience very low symptom severity, whereas a minority of people experience high symptom severity. Within this high symptom group, however, variability in symptom experiences exists. Empirical models can be helpful in clarifying ADHD phenotypic structure that has the potential to advance research on the etiology and consequences of ADHD symptoms.

Authors
Ranby, KW; Boynton, MH; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Ranby, KW, Boynton, MH, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Understanding the phenotypic structure of adult retrospective ADHD symptoms during childhood in the United States." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41.3 (2012): 261-274.
PMID
22394329
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Volume
41
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
261
End Page
274
DOI
10.1080/15374416.2012.654465

An examination of differences in variables maintaining smoking behavior in adult smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at higher rates and have greater difficulty quitting than their non-diagnosed peers. This study examined differences between smokers with and without ADHD on a range of smoking-related variables. Twenty-two subjects with ADHD and 22 controls completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms, smoking motivation, sensory experience of smoking, and positive and negative affect. Compared to control smokers, smokers with ADHD reported greater craving and negative affect; perceived smoking as providing greater enhancement of concentration and alertness, as more calming, and as providing a greater decrease in irritability; found cigarette puffs to be more enjoyable and satisfying; and rated smoking as providing greater positive and negative reinforcement and greater cognitive enhancement. Women with ADHD reported the greatest effects of smoking on improving concentration and reducing irritability. Findings support the hypothesis that smokers with ADHD may experience smoking differently than smokers without the disorder, and that they may identify different motivations for smoking.

Authors
Voorhees, EV; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, B; English, J; Holdaway, A; Hallyburton, M; Dew, R; Kollins, S
MLA Citation
Voorhees, EV, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, B, English, J, Holdaway, A, Hallyburton, M, Dew, R, and Kollins, S. "An examination of differences in variables maintaining smoking behavior in adult smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Addiction Research and Theory 20.1 (2012): 72-81.
Source
scival
Published In
Addiction Research & Theory (Informa)
Volume
20
Issue
1
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
72
End Page
81
DOI
10.3109/16066359.2011.564692

Emotion Dysregulation and Emotional Impulsivity among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results of a Preliminary Study

Recent reviews argue that emotion dysregulation is an important feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and involves a failure to inhibit negative emotions that leads to negative affectively-driven impulsive behavior (i.e., emotional impulsivity). The goal of the current study was to assess (a) whether emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity was higher in a group of adults diagnosed with ADHD and (b) if the relationship between core ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity) and emotional impulsivity is mediated by emotion dysregulation symptoms. A group of adults with (n = 18) and without (n = 23) ADHD completed measures of core ADHD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and emotional impulsivity. A series of one-way analyses of covariance indicated significant between-group differences in emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity when current depression and oppositional defiant disorder ratings were covaried. In addition, the relationship between ADHD symptoms and emotional impulsivity was mediated by emotion dysregulation symptoms. These findings suggest that emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity are higher in adults diagnosed with ADHD and that emotion dysregulation symptoms have predictive value beyond core ADHD symptoms. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Robertson, CD; Anastopolous, AD; Nelson-Gray, RO; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Robertson, CD, Anastopolous, AD, Nelson-Gray, RO, and Kollins, SH. "Emotion Dysregulation and Emotional Impulsivity among Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results of a Preliminary Study." Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment (2012): 1-10.
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1
End Page
10
DOI
10.1007/s10862-012-9297-2

Emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results of a preliminary study

Recent reviews argue that emotion dysregulation is an important feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and involves a failure to inhibit negative emotions that leads to negative affectively-driven impulsive behavior (i.e., emotional impulsivity). The goal of the current study was to assess (a) whether emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity was higher in a group of adults diagnosed with ADHD and (b) if the relationship between core ADHD symptoms (i.e., inattention and hyperactivityimpulsivity) and emotional impulsivity is mediated by emotion dysregulation symptoms. A group of adults with (n0 18) and without (n023) ADHD completed measures of core ADHD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and emotional impulsivity. A series of one-way analyses of covariance indicated significant between-group differences in emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity when current depression and oppositional defiant disorder ratings were covaried. In addition, the relationship between ADHD symptoms and emotional impulsivity was mediated by emotion dysregulation symptoms. These findings suggest that emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity are higher in adults diagnosed with ADHD and that emotion dysregulation symptoms have predictive value beyond core ADHD symptoms. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Robertson, CD; Anastopolous, AD; Nelson-Gray, RO; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Robertson, CD, Anastopolous, AD, Nelson-Gray, RO, and Kollins, SH. "Emotion dysregulation and emotional impulsivity among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results of a preliminary study." Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 34.4 (2012): 510-519.
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Volume
34
Issue
4
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
510
End Page
519
DOI
10.1007/s10862-012-9297-2

Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically characterized as a disorder of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity but there is increasing evidence of deficits in motivation. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we showed decreased function in the brain dopamine reward pathway in adults with ADHD, which, we hypothesized, could underlie the motivation deficits in this disorder. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed secondary analyses to assess the correlation between the PET measures of dopamine D2/D3 receptor and dopamine transporter availability (obtained with [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]cocaine, respectively) in the dopamine reward pathway (midbrain and nucleus accumbens) and a surrogate measure of trait motivation (assessed using the Achievement scale on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire or MPQ) in 45 ADHD participants and 41 controls. The Achievement scale was lower in ADHD participants than in controls (11±5 vs 14±3, P<0.001) and was significantly correlated with D2/D3 receptors (accumbens: r=0.39, P<0.008; midbrain: r=0.41, P<0.005) and transporters (accumbens: r=0.35, P<0.02) in ADHD participants, but not in controls. ADHD participants also had lower values in the Constraint factor and higher values in the Negative Emotionality factor of the MPQ but did not differ in the Positive Emotionality factor-and none of these were correlated with the dopamine measures. In ADHD participants, scores in the Achievement scale were also negatively correlated with symptoms of inattention (CAARS A, E and SWAN I). These findings provide evidence that disruption of the dopamine reward pathway is associated with motivation deficits in ADHD adults, which may contribute to attention deficits and supports the use of therapeutic interventions to enhance motivation in ADHD.

Authors
Volkow, ND; Wang, G-J; Newcorn, JH; Kollins, SH; Wigal, TL; Telang, F; Fowler, JS; Goldstein, RZ; Klein, N; Logan, J; Wong, C; Swanson, JM
MLA Citation
Volkow, ND, Wang, G-J, Newcorn, JH, Kollins, SH, Wigal, TL, Telang, F, Fowler, JS, Goldstein, RZ, Klein, N, Logan, J, Wong, C, and Swanson, JM. "Motivation deficit in ADHD is associated with dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway." Mol Psychiatry 16.11 (November 2011): 1147-1154.
PMID
20856250
Source
pubmed
Published In
Molecular Psychiatry
Volume
16
Issue
11
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1147
End Page
1154
DOI
10.1038/mp.2010.97

Genotype and ADHD symptoms interact to predict adolescents' early smoking experiences in an epidemiological sample

Authors
Bidwell, LC; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Williams, RB; Ashley-Koch, AE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Williams, RB, Ashley-Koch, AE, and Kollins, SH. "Genotype and ADHD symptoms interact to predict adolescents' early smoking experiences in an epidemiological sample." November 2011.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Behavior Genetics
Volume
41
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
893
End Page
893

Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity Among ChildrenWith AD/HD.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. METHOD: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served as a marker for self-regulation of emotion. RESULTS: Nearly half of the children affected by AD/HD displayed significantly elevated levels of emotional lability versus 15% of those without this disorder. Children with AD/HD also displayed significantly higher rates of functional impairment, comorbidity, and treatment service utilization. Emotional lability partially mediated the association between AD/HD status and these outcomes. CONCLUSION: Findings lent support to the notion that deficits in the self-regulation of emotion are evident in a substantial number of children with AD/HD and that these deficits play an important role in determining functional impairment and comorbidity outcomes.

Authors
Anastopoulos, AD; Smith, TF; Garrett, ME; Morrissey-Kane, E; Schatz, NK; Sommer, JL; Kollins, SH; Ashley-Koch, A
MLA Citation
Anastopoulos, AD, Smith, TF, Garrett, ME, Morrissey-Kane, E, Schatz, NK, Sommer, JL, Kollins, SH, and Ashley-Koch, A. "Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity Among ChildrenWith AD/HD." J Atten Disord 15.7 (October 2011): 583-592.
PMID
20686097
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
15
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
583
End Page
592
DOI
10.1177/1087054710370567

Smoking withdrawal symptoms are more severe among smokers with ADHD and independent of ADHD symptom change: results from a 12-day contingency-managed abstinence trial.

INTRODUCTION: Smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have greater difficulty quitting than those without ADHD, but preliminary data (McClernon, Kollins, Lutz, Fitzgerald, Murray, Redman, et al., 2008) suggest equivalent severity of withdrawal symptoms following brief abstinence. The objective of this study was to characterize the differential effects of intermediate term smoking abstinence on self-reported withdrawal and ADHD symptoms in adult smokers with and without ADHD. METHODS: Forty adult (50% female), nontreatment seeking moderate-to-heavy smokers with and without ADHD were enrolled in a 12-day quit study in which monetary incentives were provided for maintaining biologically verified abstinence. Self-reported withdrawal, mood, and ADHD symptoms were measured pre- and post-quitting. RESULTS: ADHD and controls did not vary on smoking or demographic variables. Significant Group × Session interactions were observed across a broad range of withdrawal symptoms and were generally characterized by greater withdrawal severity among ADHD smokers, particularly during the first 5 days of abstinence. In addition, Group × Sex × Session interactions were observed for craving, somatic symptoms, negative affect, and habit withdrawal; these interactions were driven by greater withdrawal severity among females with ADHD. Group × Session interactions were not observed for ADHD symptom scales. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that smokers with ADHD, and ADHD females in particular, experience greater withdrawal severity during early abstinence-independent of effects on ADHD symptoms. Whereas additional research is needed to pinpoint mechanisms, our findings suggest that smoking cessation interventions targeted at smokers with ADHD should address their more severe withdrawal symptoms following quitting.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Van Voorhees, EE; English, J; Hallyburton, M; Holdaway, A; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Van Voorhees, EE, English, J, Hallyburton, M, Holdaway, A, and Kollins, SH. "Smoking withdrawal symptoms are more severe among smokers with ADHD and independent of ADHD symptom change: results from a 12-day contingency-managed abstinence trial." Nicotine Tob Res 13.9 (September 2011): 784-792.
PMID
21571687
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
13
Issue
9
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
784
End Page
792
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr073

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related endophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens.

Authors
Bidwell, LC; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99.2 (August 2011): 262-274. (Review)
PMID
21596055
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume
99
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
262
End Page
274
DOI
10.1016/j.pbb.2011.05.002

Clonidine extended-release tablets as add-on therapy to psychostimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) combined with stimulants (ie, methylphenidate or amphetamine) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, children and adolescents with hyperactive- or combined-subtype ADHD who had an inadequate response to their stable stimulant regimen were randomized to receive CLON-XR or placebo in combination with their baseline stimulant medication. Predefined efficacy measures evaluated change from baseline to week 5. Safety was assessed by spontaneously reported adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiogram recordings, and clinical laboratory values. Improvement from baseline for all efficacy measures was evaluated using analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Of 198 patients randomized, 102 received CLON-XR plus stimulant and 96 received placebo plus stimulant. At week 5, greater improvement from baseline in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score (95% confidence interval: -7.83 to -1.13; P = .009), ADHD-RS-IV hyperactivity and inattention subscale scores (P = .014 and P = .017, respectively), Conners' Parent Rating Scale scores (P < .062), Clinical Global Impression of Severity (P = .021), Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (P = .006), and Parent Global Assessment (P = .001) was observed in the CLON-XR plus stimulant group versus the placebo plus stimulant group. Adverse events and changes in vital signs in the CLON-XR group were generally mild. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that CLON-XR in combination with stimulants is useful in reducing ADHD in children and adolescents with partial response to stimulants.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Jain, R; Brams, M; Segal, S; Findling, RL; Wigal, SB; Khayrallah, M
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Jain, R, Brams, M, Segal, S, Findling, RL, Wigal, SB, and Khayrallah, M. "Clonidine extended-release tablets as add-on therapy to psychostimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD." Pediatrics 127.6 (June 2011): e1406-e1413.
PMID
21555501
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pediatrics
Volume
127
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
e1406
End Page
e1413
DOI
10.1542/peds.2010-1260

Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and obesity and hypertension in early adulthood: a population-based study.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, obesity and hypertension in young adults in a large population-based cohort. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 15,197 respondents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2009 in the United States. Multinomial logistic and logistic models examined the odds of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adulthood in relation to retrospectively reported ADHD symptoms. Latent curve modeling was used to assess the association between symptoms and naturally occurring changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood. RESULTS: Linear association was identified between the number of inattentive (IN) and hyperactive/impulsive (HI) symptoms and waist circumference, BMI, diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure (all P-values for trend <0.05). Controlling for demographic variables, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and depressive symptoms, those with three or more HI or IN symptoms had the highest odds of obesity (HI 3+, odds ratio (OR)=1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-2.83; IN 3+, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.44) compared with those with no HI or IN symptoms. HI symptoms at the 3+ level were significantly associated with a higher OR of hypertension (HI 3+, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.51; HI continuous, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00-1.09), but associations were nonsignificant when models were adjusted for BMI. Latent growth modeling results indicated that compared with those reporting no HI or IN symptoms, those reporting 3 or more symptoms had higher initial levels of BMI during adolescence. Only HI symptoms were associated with change in BMI. CONCLUSION: Self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with adult BMI and change in BMI from adolescence to adulthood, providing further evidence of a link between ADHD symptoms and obesity.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Østbye, T; Yang, C; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Østbye, T, Yang, C, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and obesity and hypertension in early adulthood: a population-based study." Int J Obes (Lond) 35.6 (June 2011): 852-862.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5916
PMID
20975727
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Obesity
Volume
35
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
852
End Page
862
DOI
10.1038/ijo.2010.214

Reliability and validity of self- and other-ratings of symptoms of ADHD in adults.

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined concordance between raters of ADHD symptoms in adults; there is less information on how well rating scales function in distinguishing adult ADHD from other disorders. This study examined these variables using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). METHOD: The sample included 349 adults evaluated for attention problems. Correlations and kappa values were calculated using self- and observer-ratings of item-level symptoms; sensitivity, specificity, and discriminant validity of cluster scores in predicting clinician diagnoses were computed for 269 participants. RESULTS: Item-level concordance rates ranged from slight to fair. Cluster scores demonstrated a poor balance of sensitivity and specificity in predicting ADHD diagnosis; a high percentage of participants with internalizing disorders had scores in the clinical range. CONCLUSION: Self-and observer- ratings on the CAARS provide clinically relevant data about attention problems in adults, but the instrument does not effectively distinguish between ADHD and other adult psychiatric disorders.

Authors
Van Voorhees, EE; Hardy, KK; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Van Voorhees, EE, Hardy, KK, and Kollins, SH. "Reliability and validity of self- and other-ratings of symptoms of ADHD in adults." J Atten Disord 15.3 (April 2011): 224-234.
PMID
20424007
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
15
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
224
End Page
234
DOI
10.1177/1087054709356163

Psychomotor functioning and alertness with guanfacine extended release in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether treatment with guanfacine extended release (GXR) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) disrupted psychomotor functioning and alertness, or impacted daytime sleepiness. METHOD: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, phase 2, dose-optimization, noninferiority, laboratory classroom study of GXR (1, 2, and 3 mg/day) in 182 subjects aged 6 to 17 years with ADHD. Psychomotor functioning and alertness were assessed through several measures, including the Choice Reaction Time (CRT) test from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Sedative effects were examined via spontaneously reported adverse events of sedation, somnolence, and hypersomnia as well as fatigue and lethargy, and with two validated subject- and observer-rated sleepiness scales. Standard efficacy measures for ADHD also were included. Cardiovascular and laboratory parameters were assessed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the GXR and placebo groups on measures of psychomotor functioning or alertness from the CRT at endpoint (least-square mean difference: 2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): -22.9, 28.0], p = 0.8 for CRT; 2.5 [95% CI: -21.5, 26.4], p = 0.84 for correct responses; 15.5 [95% CI: -45.1, 14.1], p = 0.30 for movement time; and -8.2 [95% CI: -54.1, 37.6] p = 0.72 for total time). Most sedative adverse events were mild to moderate, occurred during dose titration, decreased with dose maintenance, and resolved during the study period. One subject in the GXR group discontinued due to fatigue and somnolence. GXR was not associated with increased daytime sleepiness. GXR treatment was associated with significant improvement in ADHD symptoms (6.3 [95% CI: 2.7, 9.8], p = 0.001 for ADHD Rating Scale IV total scores at endpoint). CONCLUSIONS: At doses that resulted in significant improvement in ADHD symptoms, impairment on cognitive tasks was not observed. Daytime sleepiness did not differ with GXR compared with placebo. Results suggest that the beneficial effects of GXR on ADHD symptoms are independent of sedation.

Authors
Kollins, SH; López, FA; Vince, BD; Turnbow, JM; Farrand, K; Lyne, A; Wigal, SB; Roth, T
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, López, FA, Vince, BD, Turnbow, JM, Farrand, K, Lyne, A, Wigal, SB, and Roth, T. "Psychomotor functioning and alertness with guanfacine extended release in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 21.2 (April 2011): 111-120.
PMID
21476931
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
21
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
111
End Page
120
DOI
10.1089/cap.2010.0064

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in young children with ADHD.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 5- and 6-year-old children. METHODS: This was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine in 101 children with ADHD. Atomoxetine or placebo was flexibly titrated to a maximum dose of 1.8 mg/kg per day. The pharmacotherapist reviewed psychoeducational material on ADHD and behavioral-management strategies with parents during each study visit. RESULTS: Significant mean decreases in parent (P = .009) and teacher (P = .02) ADHD-IV Rating Scale scores were demonstrated with atomoxetine compared with placebo. A total of 40% of children treated with atomoxetine met response criteria (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale indicating much or very much improved) compared with 22% of children on placebo, which was not significant (P = .1). Decreased appetite, gastrointestinal upset, and sedation were significantly more common with atomoxetine than placebo. Although some children demonstrated a robust response to atomoxetine, for others the response was more attenuated. Sixty-two percent of subjects who received atomoxetine were moderately, markedly, or severely ill according to the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale at study completion. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial of atomoxetine in children as young as 5 years. Atomoxetine generally was well tolerated and reduced core ADHD symptoms in the children on the basis of parent and teacher reports. Reductions in the ADHD-IV Rating Scale scores, however, did not necessarily translate to overall clinical and functional improvement, as demonstrated on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale. Despite benefits, the children in the atomoxetine group remained, on average, significantly impaired at the end of the study.

Authors
Kratochvil, CJ; Vaughan, BS; Stoner, JA; Daughton, JM; Lubberstedt, BD; Murray, DW; Chrisman, AK; Faircloth, MA; Itchon-Ramos, NB; Kollins, SH; Maayan, LA; Greenhill, LL; Kotler, LA; Fried, J; March, JS
MLA Citation
Kratochvil, CJ, Vaughan, BS, Stoner, JA, Daughton, JM, Lubberstedt, BD, Murray, DW, Chrisman, AK, Faircloth, MA, Itchon-Ramos, NB, Kollins, SH, Maayan, LA, Greenhill, LL, Kotler, LA, Fried, J, and March, JS. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in young children with ADHD." Pediatrics 127.4 (April 2011): e862-e868.
PMID
21422081
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pediatrics
Volume
127
Issue
4
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
e862
End Page
e868
DOI
10.1542/peds.2010-0825

The ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes are related to intelligence in an ADHD background: evidence from a large collaborative study totaling 4,963 subjects.

Intelligence is a highly heritable trait for which it has proven difficult to identify the actual genes. In the past decade, five whole-genome linkage scans have suggested genomic regions important to human intelligence; however, so far none of the responsible genes or variants in those regions have been identified. Apart from these regions, a handful of candidate genes have been identified, although most of these are in need of replication. The recent growth in publicly available data sets that contain both whole genome association data and a wealth of phenotypic data, serves as an excellent resource for fine mapping and candidate gene replication. We used the publicly available data of 947 families participating in the International Multi-Centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study to conduct an in silico fine mapping study of previously associated genomic locations, and to attempt replication of previously reported candidate genes for intelligence. Although this sample was ascertained for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were distributed normally. We tested 667 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 15 previously reported candidate genes for intelligence and 29451 SNPs in five genomic loci previously identified through whole genome linkage and association analyses. Significant SNPs were tested in four independent samples (4,357 subjects), one ascertained for ADHD, and three population-based samples. Associations between intelligence and SNPs in the ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes and in three genomic locations showed replicated association, but only in the samples ascertained for ADHD, suggesting that these genetic variants become particularly relevant to IQ on the background of a psychiatric disorder.

Authors
Rizzi, TS; Arias-Vasquez, A; Rommelse, N; Kuntsi, J; Anney, R; Asherson, P; Buitelaar, J; Banaschewski, T; Ebstein, R; Ruano, D; Van der Sluis, S; Markunas, CA; Garrett, ME; Ashley-Koch, AE; Kollins, SH; Anastopoulos, AD; Hansell, NK; Wright, MJ; Montgomery, GW; Martin, NG; Harris, SE; Davies, G; Tenesa, A; Porteous, DJ; Starr, JM; Deary, IJ; St Pourcain, B; Davey Smith, G; Timpson, NJ; Evans, DM; Gill, M; Miranda, A; Mulas, F; Oades, RD; Roeyers, H; Rothenberger, A; Sergeant, J et al.
MLA Citation
Rizzi, TS, Arias-Vasquez, A, Rommelse, N, Kuntsi, J, Anney, R, Asherson, P, Buitelaar, J, Banaschewski, T, Ebstein, R, Ruano, D, Van der Sluis, S, Markunas, CA, Garrett, ME, Ashley-Koch, AE, Kollins, SH, Anastopoulos, AD, Hansell, NK, Wright, MJ, Montgomery, GW, Martin, NG, Harris, SE, Davies, G, Tenesa, A, Porteous, DJ, Starr, JM, Deary, IJ, St Pourcain, B, Davey Smith, G, Timpson, NJ, Evans, DM, Gill, M, Miranda, A, Mulas, F, Oades, RD, Roeyers, H, Rothenberger, A, and Sergeant, J et al. "The ATXN1 and TRIM31 genes are related to intelligence in an ADHD background: evidence from a large collaborative study totaling 4,963 subjects." Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 156.2 (March 2011): 145-157.
PMID
21302343
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume
156
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
145
End Page
157
DOI
10.1002/ajmg.b.31149

Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets for Pediatric Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (vol 50, pg 171, 2011)

Authors
Jain, R; Segal, S; Kollins, SH; Khayrallah, M
MLA Citation
Jain, R, Segal, S, Kollins, SH, and Khayrallah, M. "Clonidine Extended-Release Tablets for Pediatric Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (vol 50, pg 171, 2011)." JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY 50.3 (March 2011): 313-313.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
50
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
313
End Page
313
DOI
10.1016/j.jaac.2011.01.019

Clonidine extended-release tablets for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy and safety of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets (CLON-XR) in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: This 8-week, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial, including 3 weeks of dose escalation, of patients 6 to 17 years old with ADHD evaluated the efficacy and safety of CLON-XR 0.2 mg/day or CLON-XR 0.4 mg/day versus placebo in three separate treatment arms. Primary endpoint was mean change in ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score from baseline to week 5 versus placebo using a last observation carried forward method. Secondary endpoints were improvement in ADHD-RS-IV inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Form, Clinical Global Impression of Severity, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement, and Parent Global Assessment from baseline to week 5. RESULTS: Patients (N = 236) were randomized to receive placebo (n = 78), CLON-XR 0.2 mg/day (n = 78), or CLON-XR 0.4 mg/day (n = 80). Improvement from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV total score was significantly greater in both CLON-XR groups versus placebo at week 5. A significant improvement in ADHD-RS-IV total score occurred between groups as soon as week 2 and was maintained throughout the treatment period. In addition, improvement in ADHD-RS-IV inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity subscales, Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Form, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement, Clinical Global Impression of Severity, and Parent Global Assessment, occurred in both treatment groups versus placebo. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was mild-to-moderate somnolence. Changes on electrocardiogram were minor and reflected the known pharmacology of clonidine. CONCLUSIONS: Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets were generally well tolerated by patients in the study and significantly improved ADHD symptoms in this pediatric population.

Authors
Jain, R; Segal, S; Kollins, SH; Khayrallah, M
MLA Citation
Jain, R, Segal, S, Kollins, SH, and Khayrallah, M. "Clonidine extended-release tablets for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 50.2 (February 2011): 171-179.
PMID
21241954
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
50
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
171
End Page
179
DOI
10.1016/j.jaac.2010.11.005

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults with a history of depression or history of substance use disorder.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and a history of depression and/or substance use disorder. History of these comorbidities was recorded from medical history forms completed by the study clinicians. DESIGN/SETTING: An exploratory, post-hoc analysis was conducted using data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, forced-dose titration study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV total scores and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale were used to evaluate the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was also evaluated. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 36 participants with a history of depression and 17 participants with a history of substance use disorder. Mean changes in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement from baseline to endpoint for these subpopulations were similar to those of participants without a history of depression and/or history of substance use disorder. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate was generally well tolerated in all subgroups. CONCLUSION: The response to lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and the treatment-emergent adverse event profiles of participants with a history of depression and/or a history of substance use disorder were similar to those of participants with no history of these disorders. Larger studies that prospectively enroll participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and these comorbid disorders are needed to more conclusively evaluate the safety and efficacy of stimulant treatment in these populations.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Youcha, S; Lasser, R; Thase, ME
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Youcha, S, Lasser, R, and Thase, ME. "Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults with a history of depression or history of substance use disorder." Innov Clin Neurosci 8.2 (February 2011): 28-32.
PMID
21468295
Source
pubmed
Published In
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
Volume
8
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
28
End Page
32

Erratum: alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Authors
Bidwell, LC; Dew, RE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, Dew, RE, and Kollins, SH. "Erratum: alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Curr Psychiatry Rep 13.1 (February 2011): 76-.
PMID
21136308
Source
pubmed
Published In
Current Psychiatry Reports
Volume
13
Issue
1
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
76
DOI
10.1007/s11920-010-0171-1

Abuse potential of stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD

© Cambridge University Press 2011. The use of psychostimulants and, more recently, other classes of drugs for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widespread. Although it is generally agreed that use in the United States is higher than in other countries, evidence for increasing medication use for ADHD in other countries exists (Schmidt-Troschke et al., 2004). The medications used to treat ADHD have unequivocal support for their efficacy in managing the core symptoms of ADHD in both children and adults (Faraone & Biederman, 2002; Faraone, Biederman, & Roe, 2002; Faraone et al., 2004; Wolraich, 2003). However, significant controversy has arisen in recent years over the possibility that stimulant use may be associated with substance use and abuse (Greenhill, Halperin, & Abikoff, 1999), and a significant challenge confronting researchers, clinicians, and the public is to understand the myriad issues pertaining to stimulant drug use and ADHD. To this end, the purpose of this chapter is (1) to delineate several related questions pertaining to stimulant drug use and ADHD and (2) to review the relevant research that bears on these questions. Specifically, this chapter addresses the following questions.

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "Abuse potential of stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD." ADHD in Adults: Characterization, Diagnosis, and Treatment. January 1, 2011. 230-239.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
230
End Page
239
DOI
10.1017/CBO9780511780752.020

Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: sex and age effects and effect size across the day.

BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety profiles by sex and age (6-9 vs 10-12 years) and magnitude and duration of effect by effect size overall and across the day of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) vs placebo were assessed. METHODS: This study enrolled children (6-12 years) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an open-label dose optimization with LDX (30-70 mg/d) followed by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover phase. Post hoc analyses assessed interaction between sex or age and treatment and assessed effect sizes for Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) and Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP) scales and ADHD Rating Scale IV measures. No corrections for multiple testing were applied on time points and subgroup statistical comparisons. RESULTS: 129 participants enrolled; 117 randomized. Both sexes showed improvement on all assessments at postdose time points; females showed less impairment than males for SKAMP and PERMP scores in treatment and placebo groups at nearly all times. Both age groups improved on all assessments at postdose time points. Children 10-12 years had less impairment in SKAMP ratings than those 6-9 years. Treatment-by-sex interactions were observed at time points for SKAMP-D, SKAMP total, and PERMP scores; no consistent pattern across scales or time points was observed. LDX demonstrated significant improvement vs placebo, by effect size, on SKAMP-D from 1.5-13 hours postdose. The overall LS mean (SE) SKAMP-D effect size was -1.73 (0.18). In the dose-optimization phase, common (≥2%) treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in males were upper abdominal pain, headache, affect lability, initial insomnia, and insomnia; in females were nausea and decreased weight. During the crossover phase for those taking LDX, higher incidence (≥2% greater) was observed in males for upper abdominal pain and insomnia and in females for nausea and headache. Overall incidence of TEAEs in age groups was similar. CONCLUSION: Apparent differences in impairment level between sex and age groups were noted. However, these results support the efficacy of LDX from 1.5 hours to 13 hours postdose in boys and girls with medium to large effect sizes across the day with some variability in TEAE incidence by sex. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00500149.

Authors
Wigal, SB; Kollins, SH; Childress, AC; Adeyi, B
MLA Citation
Wigal, SB, Kollins, SH, Childress, AC, and Adeyi, B. "Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: sex and age effects and effect size across the day. (Published online)" Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 4 (December 14, 2010): 32-.
PMID
21156071
Source
pubmed
Published In
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Volume
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
32
DOI
10.1186/1753-2000-4-32

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a new option in stimulant treatment for ADHD.

IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent disorder in children and adults, presents a substantial societal burden in both monetary cost and human suffering. Characterized by significant difficulties in maintaining attention, completing tasks, motor control, and appropriate social engagement, the disorder begins early in life and results in significant impairment across domains of functioning, including social, educational, and occupational achievement. The condition also carries heightened risk of substance use and dependence, and criminal activity. Pharmacologic treatment is a key component of ADHD management and has been found to be cost effective and generally well tolerated. However, despite increasing options for medication therapy, community management of ADHD is suboptimal. This review assesses current research on lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), a relatively recent addition to the range of treatment options. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: This review summarizes peer-reviewed literature on LDX published 2003 - 2010. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will gain insight into the efficacy and safety of LDX in the treatment of ADHD, and its place in the clinical armamentarium. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: LDX is a useful addition to the formulary, showing similar efficacy and safety profiles to other stimulants.

Authors
Dew, RE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Dew, RE, and Kollins, SH. "Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: a new option in stimulant treatment for ADHD." Expert Opin Pharmacother 11.17 (December 2010): 2907-2913. (Review)
PMID
20979573
Source
pubmed
Published In
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Volume
11
Issue
17
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
2907
End Page
2913
DOI
10.1517/14656566.2010.531009

Smoking withdrawal modulates right inferior frontal cortex but not presupplementary motor area activation during inhibitory control.

Smokers exhibit decrements in inhibitory control (IC) during withdrawal. The objective of this study was to investigate the neural basis of these effects in critical substrates of IC--right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Smokers were scanned following smoking as usual and after 24-h smoking abstinence. During scanning they completed a Go/No-Go task that required inhibiting responses to infrequent STOP trials. Event-related brain activation in response to successfully inhibited STOP trials was evaluated in two regions of interest: rIFC (10 mm sphere, x=40, y=30, z=26) and pre-SMA (10 mm sphere, x=2, y=18, z=40). Smoking abstinence robustly increased errors of commission on STOP trials (37.1 vs 24.8% in the satiated condition, p<0.001) while having no effects on GO trial accuracy or reaction time (RT). In rIFC, smoking abstinence was associated with a significantly increased event-related BOLD signal (p=0.026). Pre-SMA was unaffected by smoking condition. The results of this preliminary study suggest that successful IC during withdrawal is associated with increased processing demands on a cortical center associated with attention to inhibitory signals.

Authors
Kozink, RV; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kozink, RV, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking withdrawal modulates right inferior frontal cortex but not presupplementary motor area activation during inhibitory control." Neuropsychopharmacology 35.13 (December 2010): 2600-2606.
PMID
20861830
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume
35
Issue
13
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
2600
End Page
2606
DOI
10.1038/npp.2010.154

Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Pharmacologic management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded beyond stimulant medications to include alpha-2 adrenergic agonists. These agents exert their actions through presynaptic stimulation and likely involve facilitation of dopamine and noradrenaline neurotransmission, both of which are thought to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Furthermore, frontostriatal dysfunction giving rise to neuropsychological weaknesses has been well-established in patients with ADHD and may explain how alpha-2 agents exert their beneficial effects. In the following review, we consider relevant neurobiological underpinnings of ADHD with respect to why alpha-2 agents may be effective in treating this condition. We also review new formulations of alpha-2 agonists, emerging data on their use in ADHD, and implications for clinical practice. Integrating knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms and mechanisms of drug action may inform our medication choices and facilitate treatment of ADHD and related disorders.

Authors
Cinnamon Bidwell, L; Dew, RE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Cinnamon Bidwell, L, Dew, RE, and Kollins, SH. "Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Curr Psychiatry Rep 12.5 (October 2010): 366-373. (Review)
PMID
20652773
Source
pubmed
Published In
Current Psychiatry Reports
Volume
12
Issue
5
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
366
End Page
373
DOI
10.1007/s11920-010-0136-4

Effects of guanfacine extended release on oppositional symptoms in children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of guanfacine extended release (XR, Intuniv; Shire Development Inc., Wayne, PA, USA) in the treatment of oppositional symptoms in children aged 6-12 years with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the presence of oppositional symptoms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, flexible-dose, dose-optimization study, children aged 6-12 years were randomized to receive guanfacine XR (1-4 mg/day) or placebo for 9 weeks. Screening and washout periods were followed by a 5-week dose-optimization period, a 3-week dose-maintenance period and a 1-week tapering period. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to endpoint in the oppositional subscale of the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Form (CPRS-R:L) score. Change in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score was a secondary efficacy measure. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, ECG readings and laboratory studies. RESULTS: A total of 217 children were enrolled: 138 were randomized to receive guanfacine XR and 79 to receive placebo. Least-squares mean reductions from baseline to endpoint in CPRS-R:L oppositional subscale scores were 10.9 in the guanfacine XR group compared with 6.8 in the placebo group (p < 0.001; effect size = 0.59). A significantly greater reduction in ADHD-RS-IV total score from baseline to endpoint was also seen in the guanfacine-treated group compared with the placebo group (23.8 vs 11.5, respectively; p < 0.001; effect size = 0.92). A post hoc correlation analysis between percentage reduction from baseline to endpoint in CPRS-R:L oppositional subscale and ADHD-RS-IV total scores indicated that the decreases in oppositional symptoms and ADHD symptoms were highly correlated (r = 0.74). The most commonly reported, treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) in the guanfacine XR group were somnolence (50.7%), headache (22.1%), sedation (13.2%), upper abdominal pain (11.8%) and fatigue (11.0%) and most were mild or moderate in severity. TEAEs of sedation, somnolence or hypersomnia were experienced by 62.5% of subjects in the guanfacine XR group. These events were most common during the dose-titration period but most (63.5%) resolved prior to the taper period. TEAEs of fatigue, lethargy and asthenia were reported in 11.0%, 3.7% and 0.0% of subjects in the guanfacine XR group, respectively. Most subjects receiving guanfacine XR demonstrated modest changes in blood pressure, pulse rate and ECG readings that were not considered clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of children aged 6-12 years with ADHD and the presence of oppositional symptoms, significant reductions in CPRS-R:L oppositional subscale and ADHD-RS-IV total scores were observed with guanfacine XR treatment compared with placebo. Treatment with guanfacine XR at optimized doses was associated with mostly mild or moderate TEAEs. The findings of this study support the efficacy of guanfacine XR in the treatment of children with ADHD and the presence of oppositional symptoms. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00367835.

Authors
Connor, DF; Findling, RL; Kollins, SH; Sallee, F; López, FA; Lyne, A; Tremblay, G
MLA Citation
Connor, DF, Findling, RL, Kollins, SH, Sallee, F, López, FA, Lyne, A, and Tremblay, G. "Effects of guanfacine extended release on oppositional symptoms in children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." CNS Drugs 24.9 (September 2010): 755-768.
PMID
20806988
Source
pubmed
Published In
CNS Drugs
Volume
24
Issue
9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
755
End Page
768
DOI
10.2165/11537790-000000000-00000

Monetary incentives promote smoking abstinence in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke at rates significantly higher than the general population and have more difficulty quitting than nondiagnosed individuals. Currently, there are no evidence-based approaches for reducing smoking specifically in individuals with ADHD. Adult regular smokers with or without ADHD participated in a study of extended smoking withdrawal where monetary incentives were used to promote abstinence. Participants were paid according to an escalating schedule for maintaining abstinence measured as self-report of no smoking and an expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level of

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Van Voorhees, EE
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Van Voorhees, EE. "Monetary incentives promote smoking abstinence in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18.3 (June 2010): 221-228.
PMID
20545386
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
18
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
221
End Page
228
DOI
10.1037/a0019565

Subjective Effects of Methylphenidate

© 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights reserved. Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most widely prescribed psychotropic agents in the United States, and its increased use over the past two decades has been a source of growing controversy among scientists, clinicians, policy makers, and parents. This chapter highlights research and theory on the subjective effects of MPH and how their study can provide information addressing all these issues. The chapter begins by briefly reviewing the history of the clinical use of MPH and empirical work on the recent prescription trends of this drug. It then considers the question of what kinds of information the subjective effects of MPH can provide about both the clinical effects of the drug and its potential for abuse or misuse. The chapter reviews those studies that have evaluated the subjective effects of MPH in human participants, with emphasis on the methodological variation across studies in which these effects have been assessed. It emphasizes the measurement of MPH subjective effects in clinical samples of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including a recently completed study suggesting differential patterns of effects in this group versus healthy controls. Finally, the chapter provides an overview of potential neuropharmacological mechanisms.

Authors
Kollins, S
MLA Citation
Kollins, S. "Subjective Effects of Methylphenidate." (April 1, 2010). (Chapter)
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2010
DOI
10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195165319.003.0011

Genetic variants in SLC9A9 are associated with measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in families.

OBJECTIVE: A family was previously identified that cosegregates a pericentric inversion, inv(3)(p14 : q21), with an early-onset developmental condition, characterized by impulsive behavior and intellectual deficit. The inversion breakpoints lie within DOCK3 and SLC9A9 at the p-arm and q-arm, respectively. Based on this report, these genes were selected to be evaluated in a family-based attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) association study. METHODS: Conners' Parent (CPRS) and Teacher (CTRS) Rating Scales of AD/HD symptoms and Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) measures were collected and a minimal number of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in each gene were selected for analysis. Analyses were performed on families who met research criteria for AD/HD. Using the program, QTDT, each tagging SNP was tested for association with T-scores from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) subscales according to the CTRS and CPRS, and five CPT measures. RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple testing, a SNP in the 3' UTR of SLC9A9, rs1046706, remained significantly associated (false discovery rate, q value <0.05) with scores on the DSM-IV hyperactive-impulsive and total symptom subscales according to the CTRS and errors of commission on the CPT. In addition, an intronic SLC9A9 SNP, rs2360867, remained significantly associated with errors of commission. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SLC9A9 may be related to hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in AD/HD and the disruption of SLC9A9 may be responsible for the behavioral phenotype observed in the inversion family. The association with SLC9A9 is particularly interesting as it was recently implicated in a genome-wide association study for AD/HD. Further investigation of the role of SLC9A9 in AD/HD and other behavioral disorders is warranted.

Authors
Markunas, CA; Quinn, KS; Collins, AL; Garrett, ME; Lachiewicz, AM; Sommer, JL; Morrissey-Kane, E; Kollins, SH; Anastopoulos, AD; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Markunas, CA, Quinn, KS, Collins, AL, Garrett, ME, Lachiewicz, AM, Sommer, JL, Morrissey-Kane, E, Kollins, SH, Anastopoulos, AD, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Genetic variants in SLC9A9 are associated with measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in families." Psychiatr Genet 20.2 (April 2010): 73-81.
PMID
20032819
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychiatric Genetics
Volume
20
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
73
End Page
81
DOI
10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283351209

Implications of extending the ADHD age-of-onset criterion to age 12: results from a prospectively studied birth cohort.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the DSM-IV definition of the disorder. METHOD: A birth cohort of 2,232 British children was prospectively evaluated at ages 7 and 12 years for ADHD using information from mothers and teachers. The prevalence of diagnosed ADHD at age 12 was evaluated with and without the inclusion of individuals who met DSM-IV age-of-onset criterion through mothers' or teachers' reports of symptoms at age 7. Children with onset of ADHD symptoms before versus after age 7 were compared on their clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD. RESULTS: Extending the age-of-onset criterion to age 12 resulted in a negligible increase in ADHD prevalence by age 12 years of 0.1%. Children who first manifested ADHD symptoms between ages 7 and 12 did not present correlates or risk factors that were significantly different from children who manifested symptoms before age 7. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this prospective birth cohort might suggest that adults who are able to report symptom onset by age 12 also had symptoms by age 7, even if they are not able to report them. The data suggest that the prevalence estimate, correlates and risk factors of ADHD will not be affected if the new diagnostic scheme extends the age-of-onset criterion to age 12.

Authors
Polanczyk, G; Caspi, A; Houts, R; Kollins, SH; Rohde, LA; Moffitt, TE
MLA Citation
Polanczyk, G, Caspi, A, Houts, R, Kollins, SH, Rohde, LA, and Moffitt, TE. "Implications of extending the ADHD age-of-onset criterion to age 12: results from a prospectively studied birth cohort." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49.3 (March 2010): 210-216.
PMID
20410710
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
49
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
210
End Page
216

Effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment for ADHD on growth.

OBJECTIVE: To complete an exploratory uncontrolled study of the effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) on growth of children treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) from 281 children ages 6 to 13 years from longitudinal assessments up to 15 months were compared to norms from the Centers for Disease Control. RESULTS: At study entry, children were taller and heavier than average. Growth delays were largest for weight and BMI, and there was a 13 percentile point decrease in height. Children continued to grow in terms of height while treated with LDX; we found no increase in raw weight or BMI during the study period. LDX treatment was significantly associated with diminished gains in height, weight, and BMI compared to levels that would be expected based on age-appropriate standards from the Centers for Disease Control. Growth delays were greatest for the heaviest and tallest children, for those who had not previously received stimulant therapy, and for those with a greater cumulative exposure to LDX. More work is needed to determine effects on ultimate adult height. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior studies of stimulants, treatment with LDX leads to statistically significant reductions in expected height, weight, and BMI. Growth of patients with ADHD treated with LDX should be closely monitored and corrective action taken should growth delays be observed.

Authors
Faraone, SV; Spencer, TJ; Kollins, SH; Glatt, SJ
MLA Citation
Faraone, SV, Spencer, TJ, Kollins, SH, and Glatt, SJ. "Effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate treatment for ADHD on growth." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49.1 (January 2010): 24-32.
PMID
20215923
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
49
Issue
1
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
24
End Page
32

Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD: Clinical Implications (vol 302, pg 1084, 2009)

Authors
Volkow, ND; Wang, GJ; Kollins, SH; Wigal, TL; Newcorn, JH; Telang, F; Fowler, JS; Zhu, W; Logan, J; Ma, YM; Pradhan, K; Wong, C; Swanson, JM
MLA Citation
Volkow, ND, Wang, GJ, Kollins, SH, Wigal, TL, Newcorn, JH, Telang, F, Fowler, JS, Zhu, W, Logan, J, Ma, YM, Pradhan, K, Wong, C, and Swanson, JM. "Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD: Clinical Implications (vol 302, pg 1084, 2009)." JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION 302.13 (October 7, 2009): 1420-1420.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
302
Issue
13
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1420
End Page
1420

Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications.

CONTEXT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity--is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D(2)/D(3) receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001-2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [(11)C]cocaine and for D(2)/D(3) receptors using [(11)C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio -1). RESULTS: For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P < .005) in regions of the dopamine reward pathway in the left side of the brain. Region-of-interest analyses corroborated these findings. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference) for DAT in the nucleus accumbens for controls was 0.71 vs 0.63 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.13, P = .004) and in the midbrain for controls was 0.16 vs 0.09 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03-0.12; P < or = .001); for D(2)/D(3) receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06-0.30, P = .004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.17, P = .01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04-0.22; P = .003) and the mean D(2)/D(3) for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.10-0.56; P = .005) and differences in D(2)/D(3) in the hypothalamic region, with controls having a mean of 0.12 vs 0.05 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P = .004). Ratings of attention correlated with D(2)/D(3) in the accumbens (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P = .001), midbrain (r = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.52; P = .001), caudate (r = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.50; P = .003), and hypothalamic (r = 0.31; CI, 0.10-0.49; P = .003) regions and with DAT in the midbrain (r = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16-0.53; P < or = .001). CONCLUSION: A reduction in dopamine synaptic markers associated with symptoms of inattention was shown in the dopamine reward pathway of participants with ADHD.

Authors
Volkow, ND; Wang, G-J; Kollins, SH; Wigal, TL; Newcorn, JH; Telang, F; Fowler, JS; Zhu, W; Logan, J; Ma, Y; Pradhan, K; Wong, C; Swanson, JM
MLA Citation
Volkow, ND, Wang, G-J, Kollins, SH, Wigal, TL, Newcorn, JH, Telang, F, Fowler, JS, Zhu, W, Logan, J, Ma, Y, Pradhan, K, Wong, C, and Swanson, JM. "Evaluating dopamine reward pathway in ADHD: clinical implications." JAMA 302.10 (September 9, 2009): 1084-1091.
PMID
19738093
Source
pubmed
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
302
Issue
10
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1084
End Page
1091
DOI
10.1001/jama.2009.1308

A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

BACKGROUND: Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children 6 to 12 years of age and in adults. In a previous laboratory school study, LDX demonstrated efficacy 2 hours postdose with duration of efficacy through 12 hours. The current study further characterizes the time course of effect of LDX. METHODS: Children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD were enrolled in a laboratory school study. The multicenter study consisted of open-label, dose-optimization of LDX (30, 50, 70 mg/d, 4 weeks) followed by a randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-way crossover phase (1 week each). Efficacy measures included the SKAMP (deportment [primary] and attention [secondary]) and PERMP (attempted/correct) scales (secondary) measured at predose and at 1.5, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12, and 13 hours postdose. Safety measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), physical examination, vital signs, and ECGs. RESULTS: A total of 117 subjects were randomized and 111 completed the study. Compared with placebo, LDX demonstrated significantly greater efficacy at each postdose time point (1.5 hours to 13.0 hours), as measured by SKAMP deportment and attention scales and PERMP (P < .005). The most common treatment-emergent AEs during dose optimization were decreased appetite (47%), insomnia (27%), headache (17%), irritability (16%), upper abdominal pain (16%), and affect lability (10%), which were less frequent in the crossover phase (6%, 4%, 5%, 1%, 2%, and 0% respectively). CONCLUSION: In school-aged children (6 to 12 years) with ADHD, efficacy of LDX was maintained from the first time point (1.5 hours) up to the last time point assessed (13.0 hours). LDX was generally well tolerated, resulting in typical stimulant AEs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Official Title: A Phase IIIb, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multi-Center, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Optimization, Cross-Over, Analog Classroom Study to Assess the Time of Onset of Vyvanse (Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate) in Pediatric Subjects Aged 6-12 With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00500149 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00500149.

Authors
Wigal, SB; Kollins, SH; Childress, AC; Squires, L; 311 Study Group,
MLA Citation
Wigal, SB, Kollins, SH, Childress, AC, Squires, L, and 311 Study Group, . "A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (Published online)" Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 3.1 (June 9, 2009): 17-.
PMID
19508731
Source
pubmed
Published In
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Volume
3
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
17
DOI
10.1186/1753-2000-3-17

Effects of postnatal parental smoking on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and oppositional symptoms.

To assess the effects of postnatal parental smoking on subsequent parent and teacher ratings of DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and oppositional behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and their siblings. Children between 5 and 12 years of age with ADHD and their siblings were included. DSM-IV ADHD symptom subscales (Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive), and oppositionality subscale scores from Conners' Rating Scales were predicted on the basis of parental smoking status in the first 7 years after birth using Generalized Estimating Equations controlling for a range of relevant covariates. Postnatal parental smoking was associated with both parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms and oppositional behavior. After controlling for a number of covariates, several of these relationships were still significant. The risk of maternal smoking for the development of ADHD symptoms does not end during pregnancy. Research on the mechanisms underlying the observed associations is needed.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Lachiewicz, AM; Morrissey-Kane, E; FitzGerald, D; Collins, AL; Anastopoulos, AD; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Lachiewicz, AM, Morrissey-Kane, E, FitzGerald, D, Collins, AL, Anastopoulos, AD, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Effects of postnatal parental smoking on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and oppositional symptoms." J Nerv Ment Dis 197.6 (June 2009): 442-449.
PMID
19525745
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Volume
197
Issue
6
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
442
End Page
449
DOI
10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181a61d9e

Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

RATIONALE: There has been controversy over the abuse potential of methylphenidate (MPH) in the context of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the reinforcing and subjective effects of oral MPH in adults with and without ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following screening, 33 adults (n = 16 with ADHD; n = 17 free from psychiatric diagnoses) completed four pairs of experimental sessions, each of which included a sampling session and a self-administration session. During sampling sessions, subjects received in randomized order 0 (placebo), 20, 40, and 60 mg MPH. During self-administration sessions, subjects completed a progressive ratio (PR) task to earn portions of the dose received on the corresponding sampling session. Subjective effects were recorded throughout all sessions. The main outcome measure for the study was the number of ratios completed on the PR task. Secondary measures included peak subjective effects and area-under-the-curve values for subjective effects. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the ADHD group completed more ratios on the PR task. Both groups showed robust effects of methylphenidate on subjective endpoints. Main effects of group were noted on subjective effects involving concentration and arousal. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to placebo, MPH produced reinforcing effects only for the ADHD group and not for the control group. Increases in stimulant-related subjective effects in non-ADHD subjects were not associated with drug reinforcement.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, J; Robinson, R; Hallyburton, M; Chrisman, AK
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, J, Robinson, R, Hallyburton, M, and Chrisman, AK. "Reinforcing and subjective effects of methylphenidate in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204.1 (May 2009): 73-83.
PMID
19104775
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
204
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
73
End Page
83
DOI
10.1007/s00213-008-1439-6

Interactions between genotype and depressive symptoms on obesity.

Depression and Genetic variation in serotonin and monoamine transmission have both been associated with body mass index (BMI), but their interaction effects are not well understood. We examined the interaction between depressive symptoms and functional polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) on categories of BMI. Participants were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate interactions between candidate genes and depression on risk of obesity (BMI > or = 30) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25). Males with an MAOA active allele with high depressive symptoms were at decreased risk of obesity (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06-0.78) and overweight + obesity (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.89). No similar effect was observed among females. These findings highlight that the obesity-depression relationship may vary as a function of gender and genetic polymorphism, and suggest the need for further study.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Agurs-Collins, T; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Garrett, ME; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Agurs-Collins, T, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Garrett, ME, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Interactions between genotype and depressive symptoms on obesity." Behav Genet 39.3 (May 2009): 296-305.
PMID
19337825
Source
pubmed
Published In
Behavior Genetics
Volume
39
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
296
End Page
305
DOI
10.1007/s10519-009-9266-z

Association between smoking and retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a large sample of new mothers.

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the association between retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms experienced during childhood and five cigarette smoking-related outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: A large sample (N = 1,117) of new mothers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study completed retrospective reports of their childhood ADHD symptomatology, as well as concurrent and retrospective reports of their smoking behavior. Linear regression models tested the association between ADHD symptomatology and smoking outcomes. RESULTS: Childhood ADHD symptomatology was predictive of the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently and during pregnancy, as well as the age at onset of smoking. We found nonlinear associations between hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in pregnancy, as well as between inattentive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently. Women who retrospectively reported intermediate levels of ADHD symptoms during their childhood reported smoking more cigarettes per day than women who reported low or high levels of ADHD symptoms during childhood. We also found multiplicative relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, such that inattentive symptoms were predictive of an earlier age at smoking onset only when hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were low; moreover, the magnitude of this association was stronger for Black relative to White women. DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrate the importance of considering differential effects of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcomes as a function of sex and race. They also represent a potentially indirect means through which women who have even a moderate childhood history of ADHD symptomatology may create a set of circumstances that compromise the health and well-being of their own children.

Authors
Willoughby, MT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Family Life Investigative Group,
MLA Citation
Willoughby, MT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Family Life Investigative Group, . "Association between smoking and retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a large sample of new mothers." Nicotine Tob Res 11.3 (March 2009): 313-322.
PMID
19307443
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
11
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
313
End Page
322
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntp001

Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: an ex-Gaussian analysis.

Smoking abstinence differentially affects cognitive functioning in smokers with ADHD, compared to non-ADHD smokers. Alternative approaches for analyzing reaction time data from these tasks may further elucidate important group differences. Adults smoking > or = 15 cigarettes with (n=12) or without (n=14) a diagnosis of ADHD completed a continuous performance task (CPT) during two sessions under two separate laboratory conditions--a 'Satiated' condition wherein participants smoked up to and during the session; and an 'Abstinent' condition, in which participants were abstinent overnight and during the session. Reaction time (RT) distributions from the CPT were modeled to fit an ex-Gaussian distribution. The indicator of central tendency for RT from the normal component of the RT distribution (mu) showed a main effect of Group (ADHD < Control) and a Group x Session interaction (ADHD group RTs decreased when abstinent). RT standard deviation for the normal component of the distribution (sigma) showed no effects. The ex-Gaussian parameter tau, which describes the mean and standard deviation of the non-normal component of the distribution, showed significant effects of session (Abstinent > Satiated), Group x Session interaction (ADHD increased significantly under Abstinent condition compared to Control), and a trend toward a main effect of Group (ADHD > Control). Alternative approaches to analyzing RT data provide a more detailed description of the effects of smoking abstinence in ADHD and non-ADHD smokers and results differ from analyses using more traditional approaches. These findings have implications for understanding the neuropsychopharmacology of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal.

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Epstein, JN
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Epstein, JN. "Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: an ex-Gaussian analysis." Drug Alcohol Depend 100.1-2 (February 1, 2009): 169-172.
PMID
19041198
Source
pubmed
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
100
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
169
End Page
172
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.019

SNPs in dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and norepinephrine transporter gene (NET) are associated with continuous performance task (CPT) phenotypes in ADHD children and their families.

Haplotype-tagging SNP analyses were conducted to identify molecular genetic substrates of quantitative phenotypes derived from performance on a Continuous Performance Task (CPT). Three hundred sixty-four individuals were sampled from 152 families ascertained on the basis of at least one child having ADHD. Probands, their affected and unaffected siblings, and parents were administered a CPT. Four different components of performance were analyzed and tested for association with SNPs from 10 candidate genes involved in monoaminergic function. After correcting for multiple comparisons and controlling for multiple individuals from the same family, significant associations were identified between commission errors and SNPs in the DRD2 gene (rs2075654, rs1079596), and between reaction time variability and a SNP in the NET gene (rs3785155). These findings suggest that commission errors and reaction time variability are excellent candidates as ADHD endophenotypes based on previously published criteria. Results also shed light on the molecular genetic basis of specific processes that may underlie the disorder.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Anastopoulos, AD; Lachiewicz, AM; FitzGerald, D; Morrissey-Kane, E; Garrett, ME; Keatts, SL; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Anastopoulos, AD, Lachiewicz, AM, FitzGerald, D, Morrissey-Kane, E, Garrett, ME, Keatts, SL, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "SNPs in dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and norepinephrine transporter gene (NET) are associated with continuous performance task (CPT) phenotypes in ADHD children and their families." Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B.8 (December 5, 2008): 1580-1588.
PMID
18821566
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Volume
147B
Issue
8
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1580
End Page
1588
DOI
10.1002/ajmg.b.30876

Methylphenidate and amphetamine do not induce cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of children with ADHD.

OBJECTIVE: In response to previously published findings of methylphenidate-induced chromosomal changes in children, this study was designed to determine whether methylphenidate- or amphetamine-based drugs induce chromosomal damage (structural aberrations, micronuclei, and sister chromatid exchanges) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after 3 months of continuous treatment. METHOD: Stimulant drug-naïve subjects, 6 to 12 years of age, in good overall health, and judged to be appropriate candidates for stimulant therapy based on rigorously diagnosed ADHD using DSM-IV criteria, were randomized into two open-label treatment groups (methylphenidate or mixed amphetamine salts). Each subject provided a blood sample before initiation of treatment and after 3 months of treatment. Pretreatment and posttreatment frequencies of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and sister chromatid exchanges were determined for each subject. RESULTS: Sixty-three subjects enrolled in the study; 47 subjects completed the full 3 months of treatment, 25 in the methylphenidate group and 22 in the amphetamine group. No significant treatment-related increases were observed in any of the three measures of cytogenetic damage in the 47 subjects who completed treatment or the 16 subjects who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Earlier findings of methylphenidate-induced chromosomal changes in children were not replicated in this study. These results add to the accumulating evidence that therapeutic levels of methylphenidate do not induce cytogenetic damage in humans. Furthermore, our results indicate that amphetamine-based products do not pose a risk for cytogenetic damage in children.

Authors
Witt, KL; Shelby, MD; Itchon-Ramos, N; Faircloth, M; Kissling, GE; Chrisman, AK; Ravi, H; Murli, H; Mattison, DR; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Witt, KL, Shelby, MD, Itchon-Ramos, N, Faircloth, M, Kissling, GE, Chrisman, AK, Ravi, H, Murli, H, Mattison, DR, and Kollins, SH. "Methylphenidate and amphetamine do not induce cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of children with ADHD." J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47.12 (December 2008): 1375-1383.
PMID
18978633
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
47
Issue
12
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1375
End Page
1383
DOI
10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181893620

ADHD and smoking: from genes to brain to behavior.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tobacco smoking are among the most common and costly psychiatric and behavioral problems. The rates of co-occurrence of these two common problems are larger than expected by chance. Despite progress in identifying the neural and genetic substrates of each, the mechanisms underlying the high rates of comorbidity between ADHD and smoking remain largely unknown. We propose that ADHD and smoking involve dysregulation of dopaminergic and nicotinic-acetylcholinergic circuits and that these aberrations are likely to arise, at least in part, from genetic variations. This review describes an integrative model of the ADHD-smoking comorbidity, with an emphasis on shared neuropharmacological mechanisms. We first describe the prevalence of smoking among ADHD patients. We then describe how ADHD influences stages of smoking behavior (e.g., initiation, maintenance, and relapse). We review common potential genetic substrates of ADHD and smoking, focusing on genes that regulate monoaminergic neurotransmission. We review the behavioral and neuropharmacological bases of smoking and ADHD, focusing on the modulatory roles of nicotine on attention and behavioral control. Finally, we discuss the implications of this model for prevention and clinical outcomes.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "ADHD and smoking: from genes to brain to behavior." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1141 (October 2008): 131-147. (Review)
PMID
18991955
Source
pubmed
Published In
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume
1141
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
131
End Page
147
DOI
10.1196/annals.1441.016

Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 30, 50, and 70 mg/day lisdexamfetamine dimesylate compared with placebo in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: Following a 7- to 28-day washout, 420 adults aged 18 to 55 years with moderate to severe ADHD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) were treated with 30, 50, or 70 mg/day lisdexamfetamine or placebo, respectively, for 4 weeks (N = 119, 117, 122, and 62, respectively). The 50- and 70- mg/day groups underwent forced-dose titration. The primary efficacy measure was the clinician-determined ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) total score. The study was conducted from May 2006 to November 2006. RESULTS: Treatment groups were well matched at baseline, including in ADHD-RS scores. At endpoint, changes in ADHD-RS scores were significantly greater for each lisdexamfetamine dose than for placebo (placebo = -8.2, 30 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = -16.2, 50 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = -17.4, 70 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = -18.6; all p < .0001 vs. placebo), with no differences between doses. Significant differences relative to placebo were observed in each lisdexamfetamine group, beginning at week 1 and for each week throughout. The percentage of subjects who improved (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale rating < or = 2) was significantly greater for each lisdexamfetamine dose than for placebo at each week and at endpoint (placebo = 29%, 30 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = 57%, 50 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = 62%, 70 mg/day lisdexamfetamine = 61%; all p < .01). Adverse events were generally mild and included dry mouth, decreased appetite, and insomnia. CONCLUSION: All 3 lisdexamfetamine doses were significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of adults with ADHD, with improvements noted within 1 week. Lisdexamfetamine was generally well tolerated by these patients.

Authors
Adler, LA; Goodman, DW; Kollins, SH; Weisler, RH; Krishnan, S; Zhang, Y; Biederman, J; 303 Study Group,
MLA Citation
Adler, LA, Goodman, DW, Kollins, SH, Weisler, RH, Krishnan, S, Zhang, Y, Biederman, J, and 303 Study Group, . "Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Clin Psychiatry 69.9 (September 2008): 1364-1373.
PMID
19012818
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume
69
Issue
9
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1364
End Page
1373

ADHD, substance use disorders, and psychostimulant treatment: current literature and treatment guidelines.

OBJECTIVE: This review explores the relationship between ADHD and substance use disorder (SUD), factors that determine the abuse potential of psychostimulants, and strategies for identifying and treating at-risk ADHD patients. METHOD: This study uses a Medline review of literature. RESULTS: Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are effective first-line pharmacotherapy for ADHD and when used appropriately in individuals with ADHD do not appear to be frequently abused by patients. Diversion and misuse of prescription stimulants are growing concerns, especially among young adults and college students. Short-acting psychostimulant formulations may have higher potential for abuse, misuse, and diversion, but more data are needed to substantiate this observation. Nonstimulant treatments for ADHD may be considered for patients at particularly high risk for substance use, misuse, or diversion of stimulants. CONCLUSION: In treating patients with ADHD and comorbid substance use, psychostimulants may be a useful pharmacologic alternative. However, the risks of such treatment with high-risk populations must be considered alongside potential benefits.

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "ADHD, substance use disorders, and psychostimulant treatment: current literature and treatment guidelines." J Atten Disord 12.2 (September 2008): 115-125. (Review)
PMID
18192623
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
12
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
115
End Page
125
DOI
10.1177/1087054707311654

Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in lymphocytes of pediatric ADHD patients treated with stimulant drugs

Authors
Witt, KL; Shelby, MD; Itchon-Ramos, N; Faircloth, M; Kissling, GE; Chrisman, AK; Ravi, H; Murli, H; Mattison, DR; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Witt, KL, Shelby, MD, Itchon-Ramos, N, Faircloth, M, Kissling, GE, Chrisman, AK, Ravi, H, Murli, H, Mattison, DR, and Kollins, SH. "Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in lymphocytes of pediatric ADHD patients treated with stimulant drugs." August 2008.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume
49
Issue
7
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
528
End Page
528

Efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Authors
Goodman, D; Adler, L; Kollins, SH; Weisler, R; Krishnan, S; Zhang, Y; Biederman, J
MLA Citation
Goodman, D, Adler, L, Kollins, SH, Weisler, R, Krishnan, S, Zhang, Y, and Biederman, J. "Efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." July 2008.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP)
Volume
11
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
292
End Page
293

A qualitative review of issues arising in the use of psycho-stimulant medications in patients with ADHD and co-morbid substance use disorders.

OBJECTIVE: This review addresses the relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs), with an emphasis on factors that determine the potential for psychostimulant abuse. Strategies for identification and treatment of patients with ADHD who are at risk for, or have, co-morbid SUD are also addressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The article was based on a qualitative review of current literature addressing co-morbid ADHD and SUD. DISCUSSION: Adolescent and adult patients with ADHD are at increased risk for SUD, as well as a number of other psychiatric disorders. Psychostimulant agents like methylphenidate (MPH) and mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) are effective first-line pharmacotherapies for ADHD; however, they are Schedule II controlled substances with a potential for abuse. Evidence suggests that treatment of ADHD during childhood with stimulant agents may reduce the risk of developing SUD later on. Factors associated with the highest risk of SUD in patients with ADHD include co-morbid antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, an eating disorder, severe ADHD and/or antisocial behavior symptoms, and dropping out of school. Treatment initiation during adolescence or young adulthood also has been linked to increased risk of polydrug use and non-medical stimulant use, a pattern of behavior consistent with a risk of SUD development. Treatment plans for patients with ADHD and co-morbid SUD should include behavioral interventions, careful monitoring, and when appropriate, pharmacotherapy. When oral formulations of psychostimulants are used at recommended doses and frequencies, they are unlikely to yield effects consistent with abuse potential in patients with ADHD. Long-acting stimulant formulations and non-stimulants, like atomoxetine or bupropion, have a lower potential for abuse, and provide several safe and effective treatment options for the development of a comprehensive management plan for patients with co-morbid ADHD and SUD. CONCLUSIONS: The present review is neither exhaustive nor systematic. Moreover, the reviewed studies vary widely with regards to methodology and patient populations. In light of these limitations, several conclusions are still warranted. Patients with ADHD are at increased risk for SUD. Under certain conditions, psychostimulants may be a pharmacologic option in the treatment of patients with co-morbid ADHD and SUD. However, clinicians should be mindful of the risks and benefits of this treatment approach in a high-risk population and should also bear in mind the labeling guidelines when working with this co-morbidity.

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "A qualitative review of issues arising in the use of psycho-stimulant medications in patients with ADHD and co-morbid substance use disorders." Curr Med Res Opin 24.5 (May 2008): 1345-1357. (Review)
PMID
18384709
Source
pubmed
Published In
Current Medical Research and Opinion
Volume
24
Issue
5
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1345
End Page
1357
DOI
10.1185/030079908X280707

Cognitive and sedative effects of guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Safety and sleep effects

Authors
Kollins, SH; Wigal, T; Vince, B; Lyne, A; Farrand, K
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Wigal, T, Vince, B, Lyne, A, and Farrand, K. "Cognitive and sedative effects of guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Safety and sleep effects." April 1, 2008.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
63
Issue
7
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
246S
End Page
246S

Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study.

RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke at higher rates than the general population; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of overnight abstinence on withdrawal symptoms and cognitive performance in adult smokers with and without ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals smoking > or = 15 cigarettes per day were recruited from the community and underwent an evaluation to establish a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 12) or not (n = 14). Withdrawal symptoms, mood, craving, cognitive performance, and smoking cue reactivity were measured during two laboratory sessions-in a 'Satiated' condition participants smoked up to and during the session while in an 'Abstinent' condition, participants were required to be smoking abstinent overnight and remain abstinent during the session. RESULTS: The effects of abstinence on ADHD and non-ADHD smokers did not differ for withdrawal symptom severity, mood, craving or cue reactivity. Significant Group x Condition interactions were observed for measures of attention and response inhibition on the Conners' CPT. For reaction time (RT) variability and errors of commission, the ADHD group exhibited greater decrements in performance after overnight abstinence compared to the non-ADHD group. The effects of abstinence on other cognitive measures (e.g., rapid visual information processing task, cued Go/No-Go task) did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study is the first to systematically evaluate the effects of acute smoking abstinence in adult smokers diagnosed with ADHD. Individuals with the disorder may smoke at higher rates due to greater worsening of attention and response inhibition after abstinence.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Lutz, AM; Fitzgerald, DP; Murray, DW; Redman, C; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Lutz, AM, Fitzgerald, DP, Murray, DW, Redman, C, and Rose, JE. "Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197.1 (March 2008): 95-105.
PMID
18038223
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
197
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
95
End Page
105
DOI
10.1007/s00213-007-1009-3

Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories.

OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Interactions with gender and race/ethnicity were also examined. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset of 1,584 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between genotypes and obesity (BMI > 29.9) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25) with normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) as a referent. Linear regression models were used to examine change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between SLC6A4 5HTTLPR and categories of BMI, and between MAOA promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) among men and categories of BMI. Stratified analyses revealed that the association between these two genes and excess BMI was significant for men overall and for white and Hispanic men specifically. Linear regression models indicated a significant effect of SLC6A4 5HTTLPR on change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. DISCUSSION: Our findings lend further support to the involvement of genes implicated in dopamine and serotonin regulation on energy balance.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Agurs-Collins, TD; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Kail, ME; Bergen, AW; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Agurs-Collins, TD, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Kail, ME, Bergen, AW, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories." Obesity (Silver Spring) 16.2 (February 2008): 348-355.
PMID
18239643
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
16
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
348
End Page
355
DOI
10.1038/oby.2007.65

Interactions between genotype and retrospective ADHD symptoms predict lifetime smoking risk in a sample of young adults.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with an increased risk of smoking, and genetic studies have identified similar candidate genes associated with both ADHD and smoking phenotypes. This paper addresses the question of whether ADHD symptoms interact with candidate gene variation to predict smoking risk. Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset from Add Health of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine relationships between self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and lifetime history of regular smoking. Polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in contributing to risk for smoking. Trends were observed for interactions between the DRD4 gene and, among males, the MAOA gene and ADHD symptoms to predict smoking risk. No main effect for any of these polymorphisms was observed. We observed neither main effects nor interactions with CYP2A6, DAT, and SLC6A4 genes. These findings suggest that genotypes associated with catecholamine neurotransmission interact with ADHD symptoms to contribute to smoking risk.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Kollins, SH; Kail, ME; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, Kail, ME, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Interactions between genotype and retrospective ADHD symptoms predict lifetime smoking risk in a sample of young adults." Nicotine Tob Res 10.1 (January 2008): 117-127.
PMID
18188752
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
10
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
117
End Page
127
DOI
10.1080/14622200701704913

Psychosocial treatments for preschool-aged children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

This article reviews the research literature on psychosocial treatments for preschool-aged children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the context of the developmental and contextual needs of this population (e.g., increased parenting demands, differences in classroom structure, and the child's emerging developmental capacities). Discussion of the findings and limitations of existing studies is provided for parent-training approaches, classroom management strategies, and multimodal treatments. Although the empirical base is quite small for ADHD-specific samples, parent-training interventions have the greatest overall support for improving behavioral outcomes, with a variety of different approaches having shown effectiveness. Very few studies of classroom management and multimodal interventions have been conducted in this age group; however, initial data show promising results for teacher training and consultation interventions. The body of research suggests that the most effective treatments for clinical samples of preschoolers with ADHD and their families may be individually delivered, developmentally appropriate, and multimodal.

Authors
Laforett, DR; Murray, DW; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Laforett, DR, Murray, DW, and Kollins, SH. "Psychosocial treatments for preschool-aged children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder." Dev Disabil Res Rev 14.4 (2008): 300-310. (Review)
PMID
19072758
Source
pubmed
Published In
Developmental Disabilities Research Review
Volume
14
Issue
4
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
300
End Page
310
DOI
10.1002/ddrr.36

Advances in the pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Authors
Kollins, SH; March, JS
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and March, JS. "Advances in the pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Biol Psychiatry 62.9 (November 1, 2007): 951-953. (Review)
PMID
17950067
Source
pubmed
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
62
Issue
9
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
951
End Page
953
DOI
10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.08.009

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predict nicotine dependence and progression to regular smoking from adolescence to young adulthood.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between retrospectively reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and progression to smoking and the association with nicotine dependence. METHODS: Study sample consisted of a nationally representative cohort of U.S. adolescents (n = 13,494). Logistic regression was used to examine ADHD symptoms from both the inattentive (IN) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) domains and smoking trajectories. Linear regression was used to examine nicotine dependence. RESULTS: HI symptoms were associated with progression from nonsmoking to regular smoking (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.21), and with progression from experimentation to regular smoking (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.08-1.26). IN and HI symptoms were associated with nicotine dependence among current smokers (IN: beta = 0.17, SE = 0.03, p < 0.0001; HI: beta = 0.10, SE = 0.04., p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results have important implications for the development of prevention and treatment modalities.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predict nicotine dependence and progression to regular smoking from adolescence to young adulthood." J Pediatr Psychol 32.10 (November 2007): 1203-1213.
PMID
17602186
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Volume
32
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1203
End Page
1213
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jsm051

Methylphenidate effects on functional outcomes in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on functional outcomes, including children's social skills, classroom behavior, emotional status, and parenting stress, during the 4-week, double-blind placebo controlled phase of the Preschoolers with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment Study (PATS). METHODS: A total of 114 preschoolers who had improved with acute MPH treatment, were randomized to their best MPH dose (M = 14.22 mg/day; n = 63) or placebo (PL; n = 51). Assessments included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN), Social Competence Scale (SCS), Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), and Early Childhood Inventory (ECI), and Parenting Stress Index (PSI). RESULTS: Medication effects varied by informant and outcome measure. Parent measures and teacher SWAN scores did not differentially improve with MPH. Parent-rated depression (p < 0.02) and dysthymia (p < 0.001) on the ECI worsened with MPH, but scores were not in the clinical range. Significant medication effects were found on clinician CGI-S (p < 0.0001) and teacher social competence ratings (SCS, p < 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Preschoolers with ADHD treated with MPH for 4 weeks improve in some aspects of functioning. Additional improvements might require longer treatment, higher doses, and/or intensive behavioral treatment in combination with medication.

Authors
Abikoff, HB; Vitiello, B; Riddle, MA; Cunningham, C; Greenhill, LL; Swanson, JM; Chuang, SZ; Davies, M; Kastelic, E; Wigal, SB; Evans, L; Ghuman, JK; Kollins, SH; McCracken, JT; McGough, JJ; Murray, DW; Posner, K; Skrobala, AM; Wigal, T
MLA Citation
Abikoff, HB, Vitiello, B, Riddle, MA, Cunningham, C, Greenhill, LL, Swanson, JM, Chuang, SZ, Davies, M, Kastelic, E, Wigal, SB, Evans, L, Ghuman, JK, Kollins, SH, McCracken, JT, McGough, JJ, Murray, DW, Posner, K, Skrobala, AM, and Wigal, T. "Methylphenidate effects on functional outcomes in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 581-592.
PMID
17979579
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
581
End Page
592
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0068

Effectiveness of methylphenidate in the 10-month continuation phase of the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine immediate-release methylphenidate effectiveness during the 10-month open-label continuation phase of the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treatment Study (PATS). METHODS: One hundred and forty preschoolers with ADHD, who had improved with acute immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) treatment, entered a 10-month, open-label medication maintenance at six sites. Assessments included the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), CGI-Improvement (CGI-I), Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS), Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire (SNAP), Scale Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN), Social Competence Scale, Social Skills Rating System (SSRS), and Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). RESULTS: For the 95 children who completed the 10-month treatment, improvement occurred on the CGI-S (p = 0.02), CGI-I (p < 0.01), C-GAS (p = 0.001), and SSRS (p = 0.01). SNAP and SWAN scores remained stable. Forty five children discontinued: 7 for adverse effects, 7 for behavior worsening, 7 for switching to long-acting stimulants, 3 for inadequate benefit, and 21 for other reasons. The mean MPH dose increased from 14.04 mg/day +/- SD 7.57 (0.71 +/- 0.38 mg/kg per day) at month 1 to 19.98 mg/day +/- 9.56 (0.92 +/- 0.40 mg/kg per day) at month 10. CONCLUSIONS: With careful monitoring and gradual medication dose increase, most preschoolers with ADHD maintained improvement during long-term IR-MPH treatment. There was substantial variability in effective and tolerated dosing.

Authors
Vitiello, B; Abikoff, HB; Chuang, SZ; Kollins, SH; McCracken, JT; Riddle, MA; Swanson, JM; Wigal, T; McGough, JJ; Ghuman, JK; Wigal, SB; Skrobala, AM; Davies, M; Posner, K; Cunningham, C; Greenhill, LL
MLA Citation
Vitiello, B, Abikoff, HB, Chuang, SZ, Kollins, SH, McCracken, JT, Riddle, MA, Swanson, JM, Wigal, T, McGough, JJ, Ghuman, JK, Wigal, SB, Skrobala, AM, Davies, M, Posner, K, Cunningham, C, and Greenhill, LL. "Effectiveness of methylphenidate in the 10-month continuation phase of the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 593-604.
PMID
17979580
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
593
End Page
604
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0058

Parent versus teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: To assess parent-teacher concordance on ratings of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a sample of preschool children referred for an ADHD treatment study. METHODS: Parent and teacher symptom ratings were compared for 452 children aged 3-5 years. Agreement was calculated using Pearson correlations, Cohen's kappa, and conditional probabilities. RESULTS: The correlations between parent and teacher ratings were low for both Inattentive (r = .24) and Hyperactive-Impulsive (r = .26) symptom domains, with individual symptoms ranging from .01-.28. Kappa values for specific symptoms were even lower. Conditional probabilities suggest that teachers are only moderately likely to agree with parents on the presence or absence of symptoms. Parents were quite likely to agree with teachers' endorsement of symptoms, but much less likely to agree when teachers indicated that a symptom was not present. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide important data regarding base rates and concordance rates in this age group and support the hypothesis that preschool-aged children at risk for ADHD exhibit significant differences in behavior patterns across settings. Obtaining ratings from multiple informants is therefore considered critical for obtaining a full picture of young children's functioning.

Authors
Murray, DW; Kollins, SH; Hardy, KK; Abikoff, HB; Swanson, JM; Cunningham, C; Vitiello, B; Riddle, MA; Davies, M; Greenhill, LL; McCracken, JT; McGough, JJ; Posner, K; Skrobala, AM; Wigal, T; Wigal, SB; Ghuman, JK; Chuang, SZ
MLA Citation
Murray, DW, Kollins, SH, Hardy, KK, Abikoff, HB, Swanson, JM, Cunningham, C, Vitiello, B, Riddle, MA, Davies, M, Greenhill, LL, McCracken, JT, McGough, JJ, Posner, K, Skrobala, AM, Wigal, T, Wigal, SB, Ghuman, JK, and Chuang, SZ. "Parent versus teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 605-620.
PMID
17979581
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
605
End Page
620
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0060

Factor structure of parent- and teacher-rated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: This study examines one-, two-, and three-factor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the existing 18 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, 4th edition (DSM-IV) symptoms in a sample of symptomatic preschoolers. METHODS: Parent and/or teacher ratings of DSM-IV symptoms were obtained for 532 children (aged 3-5.5) who were screened for the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using symptoms identified on the Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scales was conducted to assess a two-factor model representing the DSM-IV dimensions of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I), a three-factor model reflecting inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and a single-factor model of all ADHD symptoms. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was subsequently used to examine the latent structure of the data. RESULTS: For parent ratings, the two-factor and three-factor models were marginally acceptable according to several widely used fit indices, whereas the one-factor model failed to meet minimum thresholds for goodness-of-fit. For teachers, none of the models was a solid fit for the data. Maximum likelihood EFAs resulted in satisfactory two and three-factor models for both parents and teachers, although all models contained several moderate cross loadings. Factor loadings were generally concordant with those published for older children and community-based samples. CONCLUSION: ADHD subtypes according to current DSM-IV specifications may not be the best descriptors of the disorder in the preschool age group.

Authors
Hardy, KK; Kollins, SH; Murray, DW; Riddle, MA; Greenhill, L; Cunningham, C; Abikoff, HB; McCracken, JT; Vitiello, B; Davies, M; McGough, JJ; Posner, K; Skrobala, AM; Swanson, JM; Wigal, T; Wigal, SB; Ghuman, JK; Chuang, SZ
MLA Citation
Hardy, KK, Kollins, SH, Murray, DW, Riddle, MA, Greenhill, L, Cunningham, C, Abikoff, HB, McCracken, JT, Vitiello, B, Davies, M, McGough, JJ, Posner, K, Skrobala, AM, Swanson, JM, Wigal, T, Wigal, SB, Ghuman, JK, and Chuang, SZ. "Factor structure of parent- and teacher-rated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 621-634.
PMID
17979582
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
621
End Page
634
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0073

Effects of source of DNA on genotyping success rates and allele percentages in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: In children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents, who were participants of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), we assessed the effect of source of DNA (from buccal or blood cells) on the genotyping success rate and allele percentages for the five polymorphisms in three candidate genes (DAT1, DRD4, and SNAP 25) investigated in the PATS pharmacogenetic study of response to stimulant medication. METHOD: At baseline assessment, 241 individuals (113 probands and 128 parents) consented to participate; 144 individuals (52 probands and 92 parents) provided blood samples from venipuncture, and 97 individuals (61 probands and 36 parents) provided buccal samples from cheek swab as specimens for isolation of DNA. Three types of polymorphisms-variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism, tandem duplication polymorphism (TDP), and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-were evaluated, including the DRD4 gene 48-bp VNTR in exon III, the DAT1 gene 40-bp VNTR in 3'-untranslated region, the DRD4 gene TDP 120-bp duplication in the promoter region, the SNAP-25 gene TC-1069 SNP, and the SNAP-25 gene TG-1065 SNP. Standard procedures were used to genotype individuals for each of these five polymorphisms. RESULTS: Using the methods available in 2004, the genotyping success rate was on the average much greater for DNA from blood cells than buccal cells (e.g., 91% vs. 54% in probands). For some polymorphisms (DRD4-VNTR, DRD4-TDP, and SNAP25-TC SNP), allele proportion also varied by blood versus buccal source of DNA (e.g., 26.5% vs. 18.6% for the 7-repeat allele of the DRD4 gene). CONCLUSIONS: The much lower success rate for genotyping based on DNA from buccal than blood cells is likely due to the quality of DNA derived from these two sources. The observed source differences in allele proportion may be due to self-selection related to choice of how specimens were collected (from cheek swab or venipuncture), or to a selective detection of some alleles based on differences in DNA quality.

Authors
Swanson, JM; Moyzis, RK; McGough, JJ; McCracken, JT; Riddle, MA; Kollins, SH; Greenhill, LL; Abikoff, HB; Wigal, T; Wigal, SB; Posner, K; Skrobala, AM; Davies, M; Ghuman, JK; Cunningham, C; Vitiello, B; Stehli, A; Smalley, SL; Grady, D
MLA Citation
Swanson, JM, Moyzis, RK, McGough, JJ, McCracken, JT, Riddle, MA, Kollins, SH, Greenhill, LL, Abikoff, HB, Wigal, T, Wigal, SB, Posner, K, Skrobala, AM, Davies, M, Ghuman, JK, Cunningham, C, Vitiello, B, Stehli, A, Smalley, SL, and Grady, D. "Effects of source of DNA on genotyping success rates and allele percentages in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 635-646.
PMID
17979583
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
635
End Page
646
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0076

Comorbidity moderates response to methylphenidate in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS).

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether demographic or pretreatment clinical and social characteristics influenced the response to methylphenidate (MPH) in the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). METHODS: Exploratory moderator analyses were conducted on the efficacy data from the PATS 5-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled six-site titration trial. Children (N = 165, age 3-5.5 years) were randomized to 1 week each of four MPH doses (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg) and placebo administered three times per day (t.i.d.). We assessed the fixed effects on the average slope in the regression outcome on moderators, weight-adjusted dose, and the moderator-by-dose interaction using SAS PROC GENMOD. RESULTS: A significant interaction effect was found for a number of co-morbid disorders diagnosed in the preschoolers at baseline (p = 0.005). Preschoolers with three or more co-morbid disorders did not respond to MPH (Cohen's d at 7.5 mg dose relative to placebo = -0.37) compared to a significant response in the preschoolers with 0, 1, or 2 co-morbid disorders (Cohen's d = 0.89, 1.00, and 0.56, respectively). Preschoolers with more co-morbidity were found to have more family adversity. No significant interaction effect was found with the other variables. CONCLUSIONS: In preschoolers with ADHD, the presence of no or one co-morbid disorder (primarily oppositional defiant disorder) predicted a large treatment response at the same level as has been found in school-aged children, and two co-morbid disorders predicted moderate treatment response; whereas the presence of three or more co-morbid disorders predicted no treatment response to MPH.

Authors
Ghuman, JK; Riddle, MA; Vitiello, B; Greenhill, LL; Chuang, SZ; Wigal, SB; Kollins, SH; Abikoff, HB; McCracken, JT; Kastelic, E; Scharko, AM; McGough, JJ; Murray, DW; Evans, L; Swanson, JM; Wigal, T; Posner, K; Cunningham, C; Davies, M; Skrobala, AM
MLA Citation
Ghuman, JK, Riddle, MA, Vitiello, B, Greenhill, LL, Chuang, SZ, Wigal, SB, Kollins, SH, Abikoff, HB, McCracken, JT, Kastelic, E, Scharko, AM, McGough, JJ, Murray, DW, Evans, L, Swanson, JM, Wigal, T, Posner, K, Cunningham, C, Davies, M, and Skrobala, AM. "Comorbidity moderates response to methylphenidate in the Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.5 (October 2007): 563-580.
PMID
17979578
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
563
End Page
580
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0071

Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility.

Trait impulsivity and response inhibition have been shown to be related to smoking behavior. One measure of response inhibition - antisaccade performance, or the ability to inhibit looking at a novel stimulus - has been shown to be worsened by smoking abstinence, improved by nicotine administration and predictive of smoking cessation outcomes. However, relations between antisaccade performance and measures of trait impulsivity have not been extensively evaluated in smokers. In the present study, twelve dependent smokers (n=12) completed an eye tracking task following smoking as usual and overnight abstinence; and they completed baseline measures of trait impulsivity, smoking history and provided biological samples. As expected, overnight abstinence significantly increased antisaccade errors (p<0.002) while having no effect on prosaccade performance. Abstinence-induced increases in antisaccade errors were positively correlated with baseline plasma cotinine and Sensation Seeking Scale Boredom Susceptibility, and negatively correlated with IQ. These results suggest that smoking abstinence significantly increases errors of response inhibition and that the magnitude of this increase is related to trait impulsivity and nicotine intake variables.

Authors
Pettiford, J; Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Kollins, SH; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Pettiford, J, Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, Kollins, SH, Rose, JE, and McClernon, FJ. "Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility." Addict Behav 32.10 (October 2007): 2351-2357.
PMID
17399907
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
32
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
2351
End Page
2357
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.02.004

A pilot study of atomoxetine in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine during acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 5 and 6 year olds. METHOD: Twenty two children (male n = 19, 86%) with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine for 8 weeks in a three-site, open-label pilot study. Dosing was flexible, with titration to a maximum of 1.8 mg/kg per day. Parent education on behavior management was provided as part of each pharmacotherapy visit. RESULTS: Subjects demonstrated a mean decrease of 20.68 points (SD = 12.80, p < 0.001)) on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV-RS) total score, 10.18 (SD = 7.48, p < 0.001) on the inattentive subscale and 10.50 (SD = 7.04, p < 0.001) on the hyperactive/impulsive subscale. Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) was improved in 82% of the children (95% CI, 66-98%) and Children's Global Assessment (CGAS) scores improved 18.91 points on average (SD = 12.20, p < 0.001). The mean final dose of atomoxetine was 1.25 mg/kg per day (SD = 0.35 mg/kg per day). Mood lability was the most commonly reported adverse event (n = 12, 54.5%). Eleven subjects (50%) reported decreased appetite and a mean weight loss of 1.04 kg (SD = 0.80 kg) (p < 0.001) was observed for the group. Vital sign changes were mild and not clinically significant. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events or lack of efficacy. CONCLUSION: Atomoxetine was generally effective for reducing core ADHD symptoms in the 5 and 6 year olds in this open-label study.

Authors
Kratochvil, CJ; Vaughan, BS; Mayfield-Jorgensen, ML; March, JS; Kollins, SH; Murray, DW; Ravi, H; Greenhill, LL; Kotler, LA; Paykina, N; Biggins, P; Stoner, J
MLA Citation
Kratochvil, CJ, Vaughan, BS, Mayfield-Jorgensen, ML, March, JS, Kollins, SH, Murray, DW, Ravi, H, Greenhill, LL, Kotler, LA, Paykina, N, Biggins, P, and Stoner, J. "A pilot study of atomoxetine in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 17.2 (April 2007): 175-185.
PMID
17489712
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
2
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
175
End Page
185
DOI
10.1089/cap.2006.0143

Abuse liability of medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The use of psychostimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been controversial for a number of reasons. In an effort to clarify the extent to which the psychostimulant methylphenidate has abuse potential, the existing published evidence has been reviewed and is summarized here, with an emphasis on delineating a number of related but independent issues that are often confused. The existing evidence reviewed is pertinent to three questions: Does stimulant drug use increase the risk for substance abuse later in life? Do ADHD medications have the potential for abuse?, and What is the distinction between drug abuse and misuse/diversion with respect to ADHD medication?

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "Abuse liability of medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Am J Addict 16 Suppl 1 (2007): 35-42. (Review)
PMID
17453605
Source
pubmed
Published In
The American Journal on Addictions
Volume
16 Suppl 1
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
35
End Page
42
DOI
10.1080/10550490601082775

Clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool children: The Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of preschoolers diagnosed with moderate to severe attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) recruited for the multisite Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). The diagnosis and evaluation process will also be described. Method: A comprehensive multidimensional, multi-informant assessment protocol was implemented including the semistructured PATS Diagnostic Interview. Parent and teacher-report measures were used to supplement information from interviews. Consensus agreement by a cross-site panel on each participant's diagnoses was required. Analyses were conducted to describe the sample and to test associations between ADHD severity and demographic and clinical variables. Results: The assessment protocol identified 303 preschoolers (3-5.5 years) with moderate to severe ADHD Hyperactive/Impulsive or Combined type. The majority of participants (n = 211, 69.6%) experienced co-morbid disorders, with oppositional defiant disorder, communication disorders, and anxiety disorders being the most common. Participants with co-morbid communication disorders were found to be more anxious and depressed. ADHD severity was found to correlate with more internalizing difficulties and lower functioning. Although boys and girls had similar symptom presentations, younger children had significantly higher ADHD severity. Conclusions: Preschoolers with moderate to severe ADHD experience high co-morbidity and impairment, which have implications for both assessment and treatment. © 2007 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Authors
Posner, K; Melvin, GA; Murray, DW; Gugga, SS; Fisher, P; Skrobala, A; Cunningham, C; Vitiello, B; Abikoff, HB; Ghuman, JK; Kollins, S; Wigal, SB; Wigal, T; McCracken, JT; McGough, JJ; Kastelic, E; Boorady, R; Davies, M; Chuang, SZ; Swanson, JM; Riddle, MA; Greenhill, LL
MLA Citation
Posner, K, Melvin, GA, Murray, DW, Gugga, SS, Fisher, P, Skrobala, A, Cunningham, C, Vitiello, B, Abikoff, HB, Ghuman, JK, Kollins, S, Wigal, SB, Wigal, T, McCracken, JT, McGough, JJ, Kastelic, E, Boorady, R, Davies, M, Chuang, SZ, Swanson, JM, Riddle, MA, and Greenhill, LL. "Clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preschool children: The Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS)." Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 17.5 (2007): 547-562.
PMID
17979577
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
17
Issue
5
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
547
End Page
562
DOI
10.1089/cap.2007.0075

ADHD and substance abuse update

Authors
Levin, FR; Adamson, JJ; Antshel, KM; Biederman, J; Faraone, SV; Kollins, SH; Mariani, JJ; Monuteaux, MC; Petty, CR; Santry, AM; Sgambati, S; Spencer, TJ; Whitley, JS; Wilens, TE; Wilson, JJ
MLA Citation
Levin, FR, Adamson, JJ, Antshel, KM, Biederman, J, Faraone, SV, Kollins, SH, Mariani, JJ, Monuteaux, MC, Petty, CR, Santry, AM, Sgambati, S, Spencer, TJ, Whitley, JS, Wilens, TE, and Wilson, JJ. "ADHD and substance abuse update." AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS 16 (2007): 1-4.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
The American Journal on Addictions
Volume
16
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1
End Page
4
DOI
10.1080/10550490601082726

Psychometric properties of an adult ADHD diagnostic interview.

Although research has been conducted to support the psychometric properties of rating scales used to assess ADHD in adults, little work has been published examining semi-structured interviews to assess ADHD in adults. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) in a sample (N = 30) of patients referred to an outpatient clinic. Kappa statistics for individual symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity were in the fair to good range for current report and retrospective childhood report. Kappa values for overall diagnosis, which included all DSM-IV symptoms, were fair for both current (adult) ADHD diagnosis (kappa = .67) and childhood report (kappa = .69). Concurrent validity was demonstrated for adult hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and child inattentive symptoms. The findings are discussed in the context of overall issues pertaining to adult ADHD assessment.

Authors
Epstein, JN; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Epstein, JN, and Kollins, SH. "Psychometric properties of an adult ADHD diagnostic interview." J Atten Disord 9.3 (February 2006): 504-514.
PMID
16481667
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
504
End Page
514
DOI
10.1177/1087054705283575

Stimulant-related reductions of growth rates in the PATS

OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) before and after initiation of treatment with methylphenidate at titrated doses (average, 14.2 mg/day) administered three times daily, 7 days/week for ≈1 year. METHOD: The heights and weights of 140 children with ADHD were measured up to 29 times in the PATS protocol, starting at an average age of 4.4 years. The relationship between standard (z) scores and time on medication was examined using mixed-effect regression to estimate change in relative size (slope). RESULTS: Average relative size at baseline was significantly (p < .0001) greater than zero for z height (+0.45) and z weight (+0.78), indicating greater than expected height (by 2.04 cm) and weight (by 1.78 kg). During treatment, slopes were significantly (p < .0001) less than zero for z height (-0.304/yr) and z weight (-0.530/yr), indicating reduction of growth rates. For 95 children who remained on medication, annual growth rates were 20.3% less than expected for height (5.41 cm/yr - 6.79 cm/yr = -1.38 cm/yr) and 55.2% for weight (1.07 kg/yr - 2.39 kg/yr = -1.32 kg/yr). CONCLUSIONS: Risks of reduced growth rates should be balanced against expected benefits when preschool-age children are treated with stimulant medication. Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Authors
Swanson, J; Greenhill, L; Wigal, T; Kollins, S; Stehli, A; Davies, M; Chuang, S; Vitiello, B; Skrobala, A; Posner, K; Abikoff, H; Oatis, M; McCracken, J; McGough, J; Riddle, M; Ghuman, J; Cunningham, C; Wigal, S
MLA Citation
Swanson, J, Greenhill, L, Wigal, T, Kollins, S, Stehli, A, Davies, M, Chuang, S, Vitiello, B, Skrobala, A, Posner, K, Abikoff, H, Oatis, M, McCracken, J, McGough, J, Riddle, M, Ghuman, J, Cunningham, C, and Wigal, S. "Stimulant-related reductions of growth rates in the PATS." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45.11 (2006): 1304-1313.
PMID
17023868
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
45
Issue
11
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1304
End Page
1313
DOI
10.1097/01.chi.0000235075.25038.5a

Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD

OBJECTIVE: The Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) was a NIMH-funded, six-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR), given t.i.d. to children ages 3 to 5.5 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: The 8-phase, 70-week PATS protocol included two double-blind, controlled phases, a crossover-titration trial followed by a placebo-controlled parallel trial. The crossover-titration phase's primary efficacy measure was a combined score from the Swanson, Kotkin, Atkins, M-Flynn, and Pelham (SKAMP) plus the Conners, Loney, and Milich (CLAM) rating scales; the parallel phase's primary outcome measure was excellent response, based on composite scores on the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP) rating scale. RESULTS: Of 303 preschoolers enrolled, 165 were randomized into the titration trial. Compared with placebo, significant decreases in ADHD symptoms were found on MPH at 2.5 mg (p < .01), 5 mg (p < .001), and 7.5 mg (p < .001) t.i.d. doses, but not for 1.25 mg (p < .06). The mean optimal MPH total daily dose for the entire group was 14.2 ± 8.1 mg/day (0.7 ± 0.4 mg/kg/day). For the preschoolers (n = 114) later randomized into the parallel phase, only 21% on best-dose MPH and 13% on placebo achieved MTA-defined categorical criterion for remission set for school-age children with ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: MPH-IR, delivered in 2.5-, 5-, and 7.5-mg doses t.i.d., produced significant reductions on ADHD symptom scales in preschoolers compared to placebo, although effect sizes (0.4-0.8) were smaller than those cited for school-age children on the same medication. Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Authors
Greenhill, L; Kollins, S; Abikoff, H; McCracken, J; Riddle, M; Swanson, J; McGough, J; Wigal, S; Wigal, T; Vitiello, B; Skrobala, A; Posner, K; Ghuman, J; Cunningham, C; Davies, M; Chuang, S; Cooper, T
MLA Citation
Greenhill, L, Kollins, S, Abikoff, H, McCracken, J, Riddle, M, Swanson, J, McGough, J, Wigal, S, Wigal, T, Vitiello, B, Skrobala, A, Posner, K, Ghuman, J, Cunningham, C, Davies, M, Chuang, S, and Cooper, T. "Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45.11 (2006): 1284-1293.
PMID
17023867
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
45
Issue
11
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1284
End Page
1293
DOI
10.1097/01.chi.0000235077.32661.61

Safety and tolerability of methylphenidate in preschool children with ADHD

OBJECTIVE: To report on the safety and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) 3- to 5-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during 1 year of treatment. METHOD: Exactly 183 children (3-5 years old) entered a treatment study of MPH, consisting of a 1-week open-label lead-in (n = 183); a 5-week placebo-controlled, double-blind phase (n = 165); a 5-week double-blind, parallel phase (n = 114); and 10 months of open-label maintenance (n = 140 entered, 95 completed). Mean total daily MPH doses rose from the titration trial best dose, 14.1 (±8.1) mg/day, to 20.5 (±9.7) mg/day mean total daily dose at the end of maintenance. Pulse, blood pressure, and the presence of treatment emergent adverse events (AEs), parent and teacher AE ratings, and vital signs were recorded in each phase. RESULTS: Thirty percent of parents spontaneously reported moderate to severe AEs in all study phases after baseline. These included emotional outbursts, difficulty falling asleep, repetitive behaviors/thoughts, appetite decrease, and irritability. During titration, decreased appetite (χ = 5.4, p < .03), trouble sleeping (χ = 5.4, p < .03), and weight loss (χ = 4.0, p < .05) occurred statistically more often on MPH than on placebo. During maintenance, trouble sleeping and appetite loss persisted and other MPH-related AEs decreased. There were transient, one-time pulse and blood pressure elevations in five children. Twenty-one children (11%) discontinued because of drug-attributed AEs. CONCLUSIONS: Eleven percent of preschoolers discontinued treatment because of intolerable MPH AEs. Of the serious AEs reported, one occurred in baseline, two in lead-in, three in titration, one in parallel, and one in maintenance. Only one was possibly related to MPH. Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Authors
Wigal, T; Greenhill, L; Chuang, S; McGough, J; Vitiello, B; Skrobala, A; Swanson, J; Wigal, S; Abikoff, H; Kollins, S; McCracken, J; Riddle, M; Posner, K; Ghuman, J; Davies, M; Thorp, B; Stehli, A
MLA Citation
Wigal, T, Greenhill, L, Chuang, S, McGough, J, Vitiello, B, Skrobala, A, Swanson, J, Wigal, S, Abikoff, H, Kollins, S, McCracken, J, Riddle, M, Posner, K, Ghuman, J, Davies, M, Thorp, B, and Stehli, A. "Safety and tolerability of methylphenidate in preschool children with ADHD." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45.11 (2006): 1294-1303.
PMID
17028508
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
45
Issue
11
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1294
End Page
1303
DOI
10.1097/01.chi.0000235082.63156.27

Rationale, design, and methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale and design of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). METHOD: PATS was a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded, multicenter, randomized, efficacy trial designed to evaluate the short-term (5 weeks) efficacy and long-term (40 weeks) safety of methylphenidate (MPH) in preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Three hundred three subjects ages 3 to 5.5 years old who met criteria for a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD entered the trial. Subjects participated in an 8-phase, 70-week trial that included screening, parent training, baseline, open-label safety lead-in, double-blind crossover titration, double-blind parallel efficacy, open-label maintenance, and double-blind discontinuation. Medication response was assessed during the crossover titration phase using a combination of parent and teacher ratings. Special ethical considerations throughout the trial warranted a number of design changes. RESULTS: This report describes the design of this trial, the rationale for reevaluation and modification of the design, and the methods used to conduct the trial. CONCLUSIONS: The PATS adds to a limited literature and improves our understanding of the safety and efficacy of MPH in the treatment of preschoolers with ADHD, but changes in the design and problems in implementation of this study impose some specific limitations that need to be addressed in future studies. Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Authors
Kollins, S; Greenhill, L; Swanson, J; Wigal, S; Abikoff, H; McCracken, J; Riddle, M; McGough, J; Vitiello, B; Wigal, T; Skrobala, A; Posner, K; Ghuman, J; Davies, M; Cunningham, C; Bauzo, A
MLA Citation
Kollins, S, Greenhill, L, Swanson, J, Wigal, S, Abikoff, H, McCracken, J, Riddle, M, McGough, J, Vitiello, B, Wigal, T, Skrobala, A, Posner, K, Ghuman, J, Davies, M, Cunningham, C, and Bauzo, A. "Rationale, design, and methods of the Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS)." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45.11 (2006): 1275-1283.
PMID
17023869
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
45
Issue
11
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1275
End Page
1283
DOI
10.1097/01.chi.0000235074.86919.dc

Evidence base for the use of stimulant medication in preschool children with ADHD

Increasingly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is being recognized as a valid disorder in preschool-aged children. There are only limited data available, however, to provide useful guidelines for the pharmacological management of this impairing condition in this age range. This article (1) reviews the available studies on stimulant treatment in preschoolers with ADHD; (2) provides an overview of the recently completed National Institute of Mental Health-funded Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS); (3) highlights special considerations in conducting psychopharmacological research in this age range; and (4) provides clinical guidelines for managing the ADHD in preschoolers on the basis of available evidence. ©2006Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Greenhill, L
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and Greenhill, L. "Evidence base for the use of stimulant medication in preschool children with ADHD." Infants and Young Children 19.2 (2006): 132-141.
Source
scival
Published In
Infants and Young Children
Volume
19
Issue
2
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
132
End Page
141

Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in preschoolers with ADHD

OBJECTIVE: The authors explored genetic moderators of symptom reduction and side effects in methylphenidate-treated preschool-age children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: DNA was isolated from 81 subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover methylphenidate titration. Parents and teachers completed ADHD symptom scales and side effect ratings for each of five randomly administered weekly conditions that included immediate-release methylphenidate 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 mg and placebo given three times daily. Candidate genes hypothesized to influence stimulant effects or individual risks for ADHD were genotyped. RESULTS: Although the primary analysis did not indicate significant genetic effects, secondary analyses revealed associations between symptom response and variants at the dopamine receptor (DRD4) promoter (p = .05) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) allelesT1065G (p = .03) andT1069C (p = .05). SNAP25 variants were also associated with tics (p = .02), buccal-lingual movements (p = .01), and irritability (p =.04). DRD4 variants were also associated with picking (p = .03). Increasing dose predicted irritability (p = .05) and social withdrawal (p = .03) with DRD4 variants. There were no significant effects for the dopamine transporter (DAT1). CONCLUSIONS: Emerging evidence suggests the potential for understanding the individual variability of response to and side effects of ADHD medications from the study of genetics, although additional research is required before these findings are proven to have clinical utility. Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

Authors
McGough, J; McCracken, J; Swanson, J; Riddle, M; Kollins, S; Greenhill, L; Abikoff, H; Davies, M; Chuang, S; Wigal, T; Wigal, S; Posner, K; Skrobala, A; Kastelic, E; Ghuman, J; Cunningham, C; Shigawa, S; Moyzis, R; Vitiello, B
MLA Citation
McGough, J, McCracken, J, Swanson, J, Riddle, M, Kollins, S, Greenhill, L, Abikoff, H, Davies, M, Chuang, S, Wigal, T, Wigal, S, Posner, K, Skrobala, A, Kastelic, E, Ghuman, J, Cunningham, C, Shigawa, S, Moyzis, R, and Vitiello, B. "Pharmacogenetics of methylphenidate response in preschoolers with ADHD." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 45.11 (2006): 1314-1322.
PMID
17023870
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume
45
Issue
11
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1314
End Page
1322
DOI
10.1097/01.chi.0000235083.40285.08

Comments on 'Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methylphenidate' by El-Zein et al.

Authors
Preston, RJ; Kollins, SH; Swanson, JM; Greenhill, LL; Wigal, T; Elliott, GR; Vitiello, B
MLA Citation
Preston, RJ, Kollins, SH, Swanson, JM, Greenhill, LL, Wigal, T, Elliott, GR, and Vitiello, B. "Comments on 'Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methylphenidate' by El-Zein et al." Cancer Lett 230.2 (December 18, 2005): 292-294. (Letter)
PMID
16019134
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Letters
Volume
230
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
292
End Page
294
DOI
10.1016/j.canlet.2005.05.038

A pilot study of methylphenidate preference assessment in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

OBJECTIVE: The use of methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is widely accepted; however, there is increased concern regarding its abuse potential. Few studies have examined the reinforcing effects of drugs in individuals receiving them for clinical purposes. This study attempts to assess MPH preference in children with ADHD using a choice procedure in order to explore the relationship among drug preference, clinical efficacy, and abuse potential. METHODS: Participants were 5 children (10-14 years of age) receiving MPH for the treatment of ADHD. Reinforcing effects were assessed using a double-blind choice procedure, with six sampling sessions and six choice sessions. Participant-rated effects were measured using self-report questionnaires. Clinical effects were measured using direct observations and behavior ratings. RESULTS: Differences between the number of MPH, Placebo, and Neither choices across participants were significant (chi2 = 9.6; p < 0.01). Three of five participants reliably chose MPH more often than placebo. MPH produced idiosyncratic patterns of participant-rated effects but failed to produce significant clinical effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings add to the literature on the reinforcing effects of MPH and are the first reported in a clinical sample of children. Further research exploring the role of clinical efficacy in MPH preference is warranted.

Authors
MacDonald Fredericks, E; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
MacDonald Fredericks, E, and Kollins, SH. "A pilot study of methylphenidate preference assessment in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 15.5 (October 2005): 729-741.
PMID
16262590
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Volume
15
Issue
5
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
729
End Page
741
DOI
10.1089/cap.2005.15.729

Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults.

CONTEXT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased risk of smoking, and some studies have suggested that inattentive symptoms specifically may underlie this risk. Few studies, however, have examined ADHD symptoms in nonclinical samples to determine the extent to which the number of symptoms-independent of the full diagnosis-confer risk for smoking-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between smoking-related variables and the number of retrospectively reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study population consists of 15 197 eligible participants from wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to examine the relation between self-reported ADHD symptoms and the lifetime likelihood of being a regular smoker, defined by having smoked at least 1 cigarette a day for 30 days. For individuals reporting regular smoking, we also examined the extent to which ADHD symptoms predicted age at onset of regular smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. RESULTS: A linear relation was identified between the number of self-reported inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and smoking outcome measures (P<.001 for each symptom domain). Controlling for demographic and conduct disorder symptoms, each reported inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom significantly increased the likelihood of ever regular smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.14 and OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.19, respectively). For those reporting lifetime regular smoking, reported symptoms decreased the estimated age at onset and increased the number of cigarettes smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with adult smoking outcome variables in this nationally representative sample, providing further evidence of a likely link between ADHD symptoms and risk for tobacco use.

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults." Arch Gen Psychiatry 62.10 (October 2005): 1142-1147.
PMID
16203959
Source
pubmed
Published In
Archives of General Psychiatry
Volume
62
Issue
10
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1142
End Page
1147
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.62.10.1142

A laboratory school comparison of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) and atomoxetine (Strattera) in school-aged children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Mixed amphetamine salts extended release (MAS XR; Adderall XR) and atomoxetine (Strattera) were compared in children 6 to 12 years old with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined or hyperactive/impulsive type in a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group, forced-dose-escalation laboratory school study. Primary efficacy measure was the SKAMP (Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham) behavioral rating scale. Changes in mean SKAMP deportment scores from baseline were significantly greater for MAS XR (n = 102) than for atomoxetine (n = 101) overall (-0.56 and -0.13, respectively; p < .0001) and at each week (p < .001). Adverse events were similar for both treatment groups. The extended time course of action and greater therapeutic efficacy of MAS XR suggests that it is more effective than atomoxetine in children with ADHD.

Authors
Wigal, SB; McGough, JJ; McCracken, JT; Biederman, J; Spencer, TJ; Posner, KL; Wigal, TL; Kollins, SH; Clark, TM; Mays, DA; Zhang, Y; Tulloch, SJ
MLA Citation
Wigal, SB, McGough, JJ, McCracken, JT, Biederman, J, Spencer, TJ, Posner, KL, Wigal, TL, Kollins, SH, Clark, TM, Mays, DA, Zhang, Y, and Tulloch, SJ. "A laboratory school comparison of mixed amphetamine salts extended release (Adderall XR) and atomoxetine (Strattera) in school-aged children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder." J Atten Disord 9.1 (August 2005): 275-289.
PMID
16371674
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
9
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
275
End Page
289
DOI
10.1177/1087054705281121

Assessing methylphenidate preference in ADHD patients using a choice procedure.

RATIONALE: Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with positive clinical effects across a wide range of domains. Despite the clinical effectiveness of MPH, concern has arisen with respect to its abuse potential. OBJECTIVES: To assess MPH preference in adults diagnosed with ADHD using a choice procedure and to evaluate the relationship among drug preference, therapeutic efficacy, and abuse potential in a clinical sample. METHODS: Participants were ten volunteers (ages 18-22 years) with ADHD who were receiving MPH treatment. Preference was assessed using a double-blind choice procedure with four sampling sessions wherein subjects received either placebo or MPH and eight choice sessions when they chose either capsule or no capsules. RESULTS: Overall, MPH was chosen significantly more often than placebo (chi2=52.5; P<0.001) and participants were equally separated into groups of those who chose MPH reliably (MPH choosers) and those who did not (MPH non-choosers). MPH decreased ADHD symptoms and resulted in lower ratings of stimulant effects among MPH choosers. MPH choosers also reported higher levels of baseline ADHD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher preference of MPH than placebo in this clinical sample, other measures of abuse potential were not elevated, and MPH choosers were more symptomatic than non-choosers. As such, MPH preference in ADHD populations likely reflects therapeutic efficacy rather than abuse potential. Future work should examine MPH choice in diagnosed and non-diagnosed populations to further explore the role of clinical efficacy in the preference of this stimulant drug.

Authors
Fredericks, EM; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fredericks, EM, and Kollins, SH. "Assessing methylphenidate preference in ADHD patients using a choice procedure." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 175.4 (October 2004): 391-398.
PMID
15258716
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
175
Issue
4
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
391
End Page
398
DOI
10.1007/s00213-004-1838-2

A comparison of once-daily extended-release methylphenidate formulations in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the laboratory school (the Comacs Study).

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in the pharmacodynamic (PD) profile of 2 second-generation extended-release (ER) formulations of methylphenidate (MPH): Metadate CD (MCD; methylphenidate HCl, US Pharmacopeia) extended-release capsules, CII, and Concerta (CON; methylphenidate HCl) extended-release tablets, CII. Little empirical information exists to help the clinician compare the PD effects of the available ER formulations on attention and behavior. Previous studies have shown that the near-equal doses of MCD and CON provide equivalent, total exposure to MPH as measured by area under the plasma concentration time curve, yet their pharmacokinetic (PK) plasma concentration versus time profiles are different. We previously offered a theoretical PK/PD account of the similarities and differences among available ER formulations based on the hypothesis that all formulations produce effects related to MPH delivered by 2 processes: 1) an initial bolus dose of immediate-release (IR) MPH that is expected to achieve peak plasma concentration in the early morning and have rapid onset of efficacy within 2 hours of dosing, which for the MCD capsule is delivered by 30% of the total daily dose as uncoated beads and for the CON tablet is delivered by an overcoat of 22% of the total daily dose; and 2) an extended, controlled delivery of ER MPH that is expected to achieve peak plasma concentrations in the afternoon to maintain efficacy for a programmed period of time after the peak of the initial bolus, which for the MCD capsule is delivered by polymer-coated beads and for the CON tablet by an osmotic-release oral system. According to this PK/PD model, clinical superiority is expected at any point in time for the formulation with the highest MPH plasma concentration. METHODS: This was a multisite, double-blind, double-dummy, 3-way crossover study of 2 active treatments (MCD and CON) and placebo (PLA). Children with confirmed diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were stratified to receive bioequivalent doses of MCD and CON that were considered to be low (20 mg of MCD and 18 mg of CON), medium (40 mg of MCD and 36 mg of CON), or high (60 mg of MCD and 54 mg of CON), and in a randomized order each of the study treatments was administered once daily in the morning for 1 week. On the seventh day of each treatment week, children attended a laboratory school, where surrogate measures of response were obtained by using teacher ratings of attention and deportment and a record of permanent product of performance on a 10-minute math test at each of the 7 classroom sessions spread across the day at 1.5-hour intervals. Safety was assessed by patient reports of adverse events, parent ratings on a stimulant side-effects scale, and measurement of vital signs. RESULTS: The analyses of variance revealed large, statistically significant main effects for the within-subject factor of treatment for all 3 outcome measures (deportment, attention, and permanent product). The interactions of treatment x session were also highly significant for all 3 outcome measures. Inspection of the PD profiles for the treatment x session interactions suggested 4 patterns of efficacy across the day: 1) PLA > MCD approximately CON (PLA superiority) immediately after dosing; 2) MCD > CON > PLA during the morning (MCD superiority); 3) MCD approximately CON > PLA during the afternoon (PD equivalence of MCD and CON); and 4) CON > MCD approximately PLA in the early evening (CON superiority). The effect of site was significant, because some study centers had low and some high scores for behavior in the lab classroom, but both the low- and high-scoring sites showed similar PD patterns across the day. The interaction of dose x treatment was not significant, indicating that the pattern of treatment effects was consistent across each dose level. There were no statistically significant overall differences among the 3 treatments for the frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events, ratings of side effects, or vital signs. Two additional PK/PD questions were addressed: 1. The a priori hypothesis called for a comparison of the average of sessions (removing session as a factor) during a time period that corresponds to the length of a typical school day (from 1.5 through 7.5 hours after dosing). For the planned contrast of the 2 treatment conditions (MCD versus CON), the difference was significant, confirming the a priori hypothesis of superiority of near-equal daily doses of MCD over CON for this predefined postdosing period. 2. In the design of the study, the dose factor represented the total daily dose, consisting of 2 components: the initial bolus doses of IR MPH, which differ for the near-equal total daily doses of MCD and CON, and the reservoir doses of ER MPH, which were the same for the 2 formulations. To evaluate the moderating effects of the bolus component of dose on outcome, average effect size (ES) was calculated for the efficacy outcomes at the time of expected peak PK concentration times of the initial bolus component for each formulation at the 3 dose levels. The correlation (r) of ES with IR MPH bolus dose was significant for each of the 3 outcome measures (r approximately .9), indicating that the magnitude of effects in the early morning may be attributed to the dose administered by the IR MPH bolus of each formulation. For the 2 dose conditions with equal 12-mg IR MPH boluses (MCD 40 and CON 54), the ESs were large and indistinguishable (eg, deportment ES approximately 0.75 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily doses of MCD and CON produced statistically significantly different PD effects on surrogate measures of behavior and performance among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the laboratory school setting. As predicted by the PK/PD model, superiority at any point in time was achieved by the formulation with the highest expected plasma MPH concentration.

Authors
Swanson, JM; Wigal, SB; Wigal, T; Sonuga-Barke, E; Greenhill, LL; Biederman, J; Kollins, S; Nguyen, AS; DeCory, HH; Dirksen, SJH; Hatch, SJ
MLA Citation
Swanson, JM, Wigal, SB, Wigal, T, Sonuga-Barke, E, Greenhill, LL, Biederman, J, Kollins, S, Nguyen, AS, DeCory, HH, Dirksen, SJH, and Hatch, SJ. "A comparison of once-daily extended-release methylphenidate formulations in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the laboratory school (the Comacs Study)." Pediatrics 113.3 Pt 1 (2004): e206-e216.
PMID
14993578
Source
scival
Published In
Pediatrics
Volume
113
Issue
3 Pt 1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
e206
End Page
e216

Delay discounting is associated with substance use in college students.

This study investigated whether a measure of delay discounting was associated with substance use variables in a sample of college students. Participants (N=47) completed a substance use survey and a delay-discounting measure that asked them to make a series of choices between a fixed amount of hypothetical money to be delivered immediately and a larger amount to be delivered after a range of delays. Discounting values were significantly associated with a number of substance use variables, most notably age of first alcohol use (r=-.34; P<.05), age of first smoking (r=-.51; P<.05), age of first marijuana use (r=-.48; P<.05), number of times "passed out" from alcohol use (r=.73; P<.01), and total number of illicit drugs used (r=.32; P<.05). Individuals reporting more illicit drug use and younger ages of first use tend to discount the value of future hypothetical rewards more steeply than their peers.

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "Delay discounting is associated with substance use in college students." Addict Behav 28.6 (August 2003): 1167-1173.
PMID
12834659
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
28
Issue
6
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
1167
End Page
1173

Comparing the abuse potential of methylphenidate versus other stimulants: a review of available evidence and relevance to the ADHD patient.

The use of psychostimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been controversial for a number of reasons. In an effort to clarify the extent to which the psychostimulant methylphenidate has abuse potential, the existing published evidence has been reviewed and is summarized here, with an emphasis on delineating a number of related but independent issues that are often confused. Methylphenidate produces behavioral effects associated with abuse potential as assessed by traditional assays, but the relevance of this literature to the clinical use of the drug in the treatment of ADHD is ambiguous at best. Existing neuropharmacologic data suggest that methylphenidate has pharmacokinetic properties that reduce its abuse potential as compared with other stimulant drugs of abuse, such as cocaine.

Authors
Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH. "Comparing the abuse potential of methylphenidate versus other stimulants: a review of available evidence and relevance to the ADHD patient." J Clin Psychiatry 64 Suppl 11 (2003): 14-18. (Review)
PMID
14529325
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume
64 Suppl 11
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
14
End Page
18

Sensitization to the cardiovascular but not subject-rated effects of oral cocaine in humans.

BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial nonhuman literature in the area, few studies have experimentally evaluated the effects of repeated stimulant administration in human participants. This study examined the effects of repeated cocaine in individuals with histories of abuse and dependence. METHODS: Twenty-two individuals with recent histories of cocaine abuse received under double-blind conditions, in pseudorandom order, four administrations of oral cocaine (150 mg [n = 14] or 200 mg [n = 8]) and two administrations of placebo. All administrations were given on separate days. Cardiovascular measures were collected and included heart rate, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, mean arterial pressure, and pressure rate product. Subject-rated effects were assessed using the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) and a 15-item drug-effect questionnaire. RESULTS: There were significant differences between placebo days and cocaine days in both cardiovascular and subject-rated effects. Moreover, three of five cardiovascular measures analyzed revealed a significant main effect for day of cocaine administration. A planned follow-up contrast revealed a significant increasing linear trend for each of these variables across days. No significant effects were found for day of administration for the subject-rated items. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that, under controlled laboratory conditions, repeated oral cocaine administration may result in sensitization to the cardiovascular effects, but not subject-rated effects.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Rush, CR
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and Rush, CR. "Sensitization to the cardiovascular but not subject-rated effects of oral cocaine in humans." Biol Psychiatry 51.2 (January 15, 2002): 143-150.
PMID
11822993
Source
pubmed
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
51
Issue
2
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
143
End Page
150

Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review.

Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. Methylphenidate is clearly effective for the treatment of ADHD, but there is controversy as to whether it has significant abuse potential like other psychostimulants (e.g., D-amphetamine and cocaine). In general, the drug is believed to be abused at rates much lower than those for other stimulants. The present review examines studies that investigated the behavioral pharmacological profile of methylphenidate and discusses how results from these studies address its abuse liability. Using MEDLINE search terms methylphenidate, drug discrimination, reinforcement, self-administration, subjective effects, subject-rated effects, abuse potential, and abuse liability, along with a review of the references from identified articles, 60 studies were located in which the reinforcing, discriminative-stimulus, or subjective effects of methylphenidate were directly assessed in nonhumans or humans. Forty-eight (80.0%) of the studies reviewed indicate that methylphenidate either functions in a manner similar to D-amphetamine or cocaine (e.g., functions as a reinforcer, substitutes fully in drug discrimination experiments), or produces a pattern of subjective effects suggestive of abuse potential. The results are discussed as they pertain to factors that may account for the apparent discrepancy in abuse rates between methylphenidate and other stimulants, including characterization of actual abuse rates, defining abuse and misuse, pharmacokinetic factors, and validity of abuse liability assays.

Authors
Kollins, SH; MacDonald, EK; Rush, CR
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, MacDonald, EK, and Rush, CR. "Assessing the abuse potential of methylphenidate in nonhuman and human subjects: a review." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 68.3 (March 2001): 611-627. (Review)
PMID
11325419
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume
68
Issue
3
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
611
End Page
627

Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Authors
Kollins, SH; Barkley, RA; DuPaul, GJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Barkley, RA, and DuPaul, GJ. "Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Focus on Exceptional Children 33.5 (January 1, 2001).
Source
scopus
Published In
Focus on Exceptional Children
Volume
33
Issue
5
Publish Date
2001

Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Authors
Kollins, SH; Barkley, RA; DuPaul, GJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Barkley, RA, and DuPaul, GJ. "Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." FOCUS ON EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 33.5 (January 2001): 1-+.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Focus on Exceptional Children
Volume
33
Issue
5
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
1
End Page
+

Temporal discounting: basic research and the analysis of socially important behavior.

Recent basic research on human temporal discounting is reviewed to illustrate procedures, summarize key findings, and draw parallels with both nonhuman animal research and conceptual writings on self-control. Lessons derived from this research are then applied to the challenge of analyzing socially important behaviors such as drug abuse, eating and exercise, and impulsiveness associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attending to the broader temporal context in which behavior occurs may aid in the analysis of socially important behavior. Applying this perspective to the study of behavior in natural environments also highlights the importance of combining methodological flexibility with conceptual rigor to promote the extension of applied behavior analysis to a broader array of socially important behaviors.

Authors
Critchfield, TS; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Critchfield, TS, and Kollins, SH. "Temporal discounting: basic research and the analysis of socially important behavior." J Appl Behav Anal 34.1 (2001): 101-122. (Review)
PMID
11317983
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Volume
34
Issue
1
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
101
End Page
122
DOI
10.1901/jaba.2001.34-101

Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Authors
Kollins, SH; Barkley, RA; DuPaul, GJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Barkley, RA, and DuPaul, GJ. "Use and management of medications for children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Focus on Exceptional Children 33.5 (2001): X-24.
Source
scival
Published In
Focus on Exceptional Children
Volume
33
Issue
5
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
X
End Page
24

Effects of methylphenidate on sensitivity to reinforcement in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an application of the matching law.

The behavior of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been hypothesized to be the result of decreased sensitivity to consequences compared to typical children. The present study examined sensitivity to reinforcement in 2 boys diagnosed with ADHD using the matching law to provide more precise and quantitative measurement of this construct. This experiment also evaluated the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on sensitivity to reinforcement of children with ADHD. Subjects completed math problems to earn tokens under four different variable-interval (VI) schedules of reinforcement presented in random order under both medicated and nonmedicated conditions. Results showed that, in the medicated condition, the matching functions for both subjects resulted in higher asymptotic values, indicating an overall elevation of behavior rate under these conditions. The variance accounted for by the matching law was also higher under the medicated conditions, suggesting that their behavior more closely tracked the changing rates of reinforcement while taking MPH compared to placebo. Under medicated conditions, the reinforcing efficacy of response-contingent tokens decreased. Results are discussed with respect to quantifying behavioral changes and the extent to which the drug interacts with prevailing contingencies (i.e., schedule values) to influence behavioral variability.

Authors
Murray, LK; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Murray, LK, and Kollins, SH. "Effects of methylphenidate on sensitivity to reinforcement in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an application of the matching law." J Appl Behav Anal 33.4 (2000): 573-591.
PMID
11214032
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Volume
33
Issue
4
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
573
End Page
591
DOI
10.1901/jaba.2000.33-573

The good, the bad, and the aggregate.

To evaluate progress and focus goals, scientific disciplines need to identify relations that are robust across many situations. One approach is the literature review, which characterizes generality across studies. Some writers (e.g., Baron & Derenne, 2000) claim that quantitative literature reviews, but not narrative reviews, violate the methodological precepts of behavior analysis by pooling data from nonidentical studies. We argue that it is impossible to assess generality without varying the context in which relationships are studied. Properly chosen data-aggregation strategies can reveal which behavior-environment relations are general and which are procedure dependent. Within behavior analysis, reluctance to conduct quantitative reviews may reflect unsupported assumptions about the consequences of aggregating data across studies. Whether specific data-aggregation techniques help or harm a research program is an empirical issue that cannot be resolved by unstructured discussion. Some examples of how aggregation has been used in identifying behavior-environment relations are examined.

Authors
Critchfield, TS; Newland, MC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Critchfield, TS, Newland, MC, and Kollins, SH. "The good, the bad, and the aggregate." Behav Anal 23.1 (2000): 107-115.
PMID
22478342
Source
pubmed
Published In
The Behavior analyst / MABA
Volume
23
Issue
1
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
107
End Page
115

Effects of training dose on the relationship between discriminative-stimulus and self-reported drug effects of d-amphetamine in humans.

The aim of the present experiment was to examine the relationship between the discriminative-stimulus and self-reported effects of drugs in humans. To accomplish this aim, nine healthy adult volunteers (four females, five males) were trained to discriminate between placebo and 10 mg d-amphetamine (low-dose group) or 20 mg d-amphetamine (high-dose group). After acquiring the placebo-amphetamine discrimination, a range of doses of d-amphetamine (1.25-20 mg) was tested to determine if they shared discriminative stimulus effects with the training dose. Participants in the low-dose group exhibited a significant leftward shift in the dose-response function for discrimination performance, which is concordant with previous preclinical and human drug discrimination studies that assessed the effects of training dose. Consistent with the drug discrimination findings, participants in the low-dose group exhibited a significant leftward shift in the dose-response function for several self-reported drug effects (e.g., Like the Drug and Stimulated). However, several other self-reported drug effect items were not significantly influenced by training condition (e.g., Anxious/Nervous and Bad Effects). These results suggest that the discriminative-stimulus and self-reported drug effects of d-amphetamine overlap, but are not isomorphic. Furthermore, these results illustrate that behavioral history significantly influences subsequent drug effects in humans.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Rush, CR
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and Rush, CR. "Effects of training dose on the relationship between discriminative-stimulus and self-reported drug effects of d-amphetamine in humans." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 64.2 (October 1999): 319-326.
PMID
10515308
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume
64
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
319
End Page
326

Factors affecting the reliability of clinical judgments about the function of children's school-refusal behavior.

Conducted two studies to examine the interrater reliability, test-retest stability, and the effect of various clinician variables, such as years of clinical experience, theoretical orientation, and prior experience with children, on clinical judgments about the reinforcement functions of children's school-refusal behavior. Results indicated that the judgments by individual clinicians were of questionable reliability. Judgments aggregated across 3 clinicians yielded acceptable interrater and test-retest reliability in Study 1, but a greater number of clinicians were necessary to achieve acceptable reliability in Study 2. Years of clinical experience and training were the only clinician variables related to the reliability of judgments about reinforcement functions. Several recommendations for the clinical assessment of the function of children's school-refusal behavior are discussed.

Authors
Daleiden, EL; Chorpita, BF; Kollins, SH; Drabman, RS
MLA Citation
Daleiden, EL, Chorpita, BF, Kollins, SH, and Drabman, RS. "Factors affecting the reliability of clinical judgments about the function of children's school-refusal behavior." J Clin Child Psychol 28.3 (September 1999): 396-406.
PMID
10446689
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Volume
28
Issue
3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
396
End Page
406
DOI
10.1207/S15374424jccp280312

Quantitative integration of single-subject studies: Methods and misinterpretations.

Derenne and Baron (1999) criticized a quantitative literature review by Kollins, Newland, and Critchfield (1997) and raised several important issues with respect to the integration of single-subject data. In their criticism they argued that the quantitative integration of data across experiments conducted by Kollins et al. is a meta-analysis and, as such, is inappropriate. We reply that Kollins et al. offered behavior analysts a technique for integrating quantitative information in a way that draws from the strengths of behavior analysis. Although the quantitative technique is true to the original spirit of meta-analysis, it bears little resemblance to meta-analyses as currently conducted or defined and offers behavior analysts a potentially useful tool for comparing data from multiple sources. We also argue that other criticisms raised by Derenne and Baron were inaccurate or irrelevant to the original article. Our response highlights two main points: (a) There are meaningful quantitative techniques for examining single-subject data across studies without compromising the integrity of behavior analysis; and (b) the healthiest way to refute or question findings in any viable field of scientific inquiry is through empirical investigation.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Newland, MC; Critchfield, TS
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Newland, MC, and Critchfield, TS. "Quantitative integration of single-subject studies: Methods and misinterpretations." Behav Anal 22.2 (1999): 149-157.
PMID
22478332
Source
pubmed
Published In
The Behavior analyst / MABA
Volume
22
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
149
End Page
157

Has behavior therapy drifted from its experimental roots? A survey of publication trends in mainstream behavioral journals

In recent years it has been suggested that behavior therapy, characterized in part by single-subject designs and an idiographic approach to addressing practical problems, is drifting from its experimental roots. To examine trends in behavior therapy, and to provide an objective index of drift, two archival studies were conducted to identify publication trends in the use of single-subject designs vs. group designs, as well as citations to select basic behavioral science journals. In Study 1, articles appearing in Behavior Therapy from 1970 through 1996 were reviewed and categorized in terms of type of article, design, and citations to experimental journals. Findings from Study 1 suggest declining publication trends in single-subject designs and citations to experimental journals in Behavior Therapy, with a modest increase in the use of group designs over the period. Study 2 was designed to replicate and extend our initial findings by surveying three behavioral journals in addition to Behavior Therapy using the PsychLit database and years covering 1974 through 1996: Behaviour Research and Therapy, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, and Behavior Modification. Consistent with Study 1, results of Study 2 showed declining trends in single-subject designs for all mainstream behavioral journals. The significance of these findings in light of the argument that behavior therapy has drifted from its experimental roots is discussed, with emphasis on contingencies that may be responsible for the trends observed.

Authors
Forsyth, JP; Kollins, S; Palav, A; Duff, K; Maher, S
MLA Citation
Forsyth, JP, Kollins, S, Palav, A, Duff, K, and Maher, S. "Has behavior therapy drifted from its experimental roots? A survey of publication trends in mainstream behavioral journals." Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 30.3 (1999): 205-220.
PMID
10619545
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Volume
30
Issue
3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
205
End Page
220
DOI
10.1016/S0005-7916(99)00020-8

Behavioural assessment of children and adolescents

This article is an overview for pediatricians who conduct behavioural assessments of children and adolescents. It identifies the most common behavioural problems encountered by pediatricians and brief descriptions of selected tests that are administered by psychologists and other trained mental health professionals. Also covered are suggestions for the pediatrician on conducting diagnostic interviews and information regarding referral decision making.

Authors
Phillips, EL; Kollins, S; Edgerly, D
MLA Citation
Phillips, EL, Kollins, S, and Edgerly, D. "Behavioural assessment of children and adolescents." Indian Journal of Pediatrics 66.3 (1999): 389-399.
PMID
10798087
Source
scival
Published In
Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Volume
66
Issue
3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
389
End Page
399

Discriminative and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Despite the demonstrated beneficial effects of methylphenidate and d-amphetamine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the discriminative and subjective effects of these compounds in children are not well understood. This study was designed to characterize such effects in children diagnosed with ADHD. In a series of 3 experiments, 17 children were examined to determine whether methylphenidate (n = 12) and d-amphetamine (n = 5) could be reliably discriminated at doses typically used in clinical practice. Under some conditions (e.g., when they were instructed to attend to the drug effects or when a wide range of doses was used), children discriminated methylphenidate (5.0-30.0 mg) from placebo. Children tested under a range of doses of d-amphetamine (2.5-20.0 mg) were unable to discriminate this drug from placebo reliably. Neither methylphenidate nor d-amphetamine produced reliable participant-rated effects.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Shapiro, SK; Newland, MC; Abramowitz, A
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Shapiro, SK, Newland, MC, and Abramowitz, A. "Discriminative and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6.4 (November 1998): 375-389.
PMID
9861552
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
6
Issue
4
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
375
End Page
389

Comparison of acute behavioral effects of sustained-release and immediate-release methylphenidate.

The rate of onset of a drug's effect is an important determinant of its abuse potential. This experiment examined the acute behavioral effects of orally administered sustained-release methylphenidate (SR; 20-40 mg), immediate-release methylphenidate (IR; 20-40 mg), and placebo in 10 healthy volunteers. Drug effects were assessed before drug administration and periodically afterwards for 6 hr using drug-effect questionnaires and performance measures that are sensitive to the acute effects of stimulants. The IR formulation produced stimulant-like drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of "good effects") that generally varied as a function of dose and time. The SR formulation produced only transient effects on these measures. These findings are consistent with previous research on the influence of rate of onset using other drugs and suggest that the abuse potential of IR methylphenidate may be greater than that of SR methylphenidate.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Rush, CR; Pazzaglia, PJ; Ali, JA
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Rush, CR, Pazzaglia, PJ, and Ali, JA. "Comparison of acute behavioral effects of sustained-release and immediate-release methylphenidate." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6.4 (November 1998): 367-374.
PMID
9861551
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
6
Issue
4
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
367
End Page
374

Discriminative-stimulus and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate, bupropion, and triazolam in d-amphetamine-trained humans.

The discriminative-stimulus and participate-rated effects of a range of doses of d-amphetamine (2.5-20 mg), methylphenidate (5-40 mg), bupropion (50-400 mg), and triazolam (0.0625-0.5 mg) were tested in 5 humans trained to discriminate between oral d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo. d-Amphetamine and methylphenidate generally dose dependently increased drug-appropriate responding. Bupropion and triazolam on average occasioned less than or equal to 40% drug-appropriate responding. d-Amphetamine, methylphenidate, and bupropion produced stimulant-like participant-rated effects, while triazolam produced sedative-like effects. These results further demonstrate that the acute behavioral effects of d-amphetamine and methylphenidate overlap extensively in humans, which is concordant with preclinical studies. Bupropion produced some d-amphetamine-like, participant-rated drug effects but did not occasion significant levels of d-amphetamine-appropriate responding. These findings are concordant with previous findings of a dissociation between the discriminative-stimulus and participant-rated effects of drugs.

Authors
Rush, CR; Kollins, SH; Pazzaglia, PJ
MLA Citation
Rush, CR, Kollins, SH, and Pazzaglia, PJ. "Discriminative-stimulus and participant-rated effects of methylphenidate, bupropion, and triazolam in d-amphetamine-trained humans." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 6.1 (February 1998): 32-44.
PMID
9526144
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
6
Issue
1
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
32
End Page
44

How much do consequences matter? (vol 4, pg 208, 1997)

Authors
Kollins, SH; Newland, MC; Critchfield, TS
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Newland, MC, and Critchfield, TS. "How much do consequences matter? (vol 4, pg 208, 1997)." PSYCHONOMIC BULLETIN & REVIEW 4.3 (September 1997): 431-431.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review
Volume
4
Issue
3
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
431
End Page
431
DOI
10.3758/BF03210806

Human sensitivity to reinforcement in operant choice: How much do consequences matter?

The results of many human operant conditioning experiments appear to show that humans are less sensitive than nonhumans to operant consequences, suggesting species discontinuities in basic behavioral processes. A reanalysis of 31l data sets from 25 studies employing variable-interval schedules of reinforcement designed to assess sensitivity to reinforcement corroborates the claim that human behavioral allocation among alternatives often deviates from predictions based on rates of experimentally programmed consequences. Close inspection of the studies in question, however, suggests that methodological issues contribute heavily to the differences noted so far between humans and nonhumans and that an explanation based upon species discontinuities is not tenable.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Newland, MC; Critchfield, TS
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Newland, MC, and Critchfield, TS. "Human sensitivity to reinforcement in operant choice: How much do consequences matter?." Psychon Bull Rev 4.2 (June 1997): 208-220.
PMID
21331827
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychonomic Bulletin and Review
Volume
4
Issue
2
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
208
End Page
220
DOI
10.3758/BF03209395

Experimental analysis of childhood psychopathology: A laboratory matching analysis of the behavior of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

The behavior of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been hypothesized to involve differential sensitivity to parameters of reward and punishment. However, support for these theories has been limited because, in part, of the methods used to investigate them. The current study examined the behavior of six ADHD children and six comparison children on a computer task designed to present different parameters of reinforcement by using concurrent reinforcement schedules. A quantitative analysis of the sensitivity to changing contingencies of reinforcement was conducted by examining the performance of the children across five experimental conditions. Results suggest that although there may have been several mediating variables, children diagnosed with ADHD may show less sensitivity to changing parameters of reinforcement rate as measured by response ratios and time allocation to two concurrently available alternatives. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the utility of such experimental methods in the study of childhood behavior disorders.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Lane, SD; Shapiro, SK
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Lane, SD, and Shapiro, SK. "Experimental analysis of childhood psychopathology: A laboratory matching analysis of the behavior of children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Psychological Record 47.1 (1997): 25-44.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychological Record
Volume
47
Issue
1
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
25
End Page
44
Show More