William Kraus

Overview:

My training, expertise and research interests range from human integrative physiology and genetics to animal exercise models to cell culture models of skeletal muscle adaptation to mechanical stretch. I am trained clinically as an internist and preventive cardiologist, with particular expertise in preventive cardiology and cardiac rehabilitation.  My research training spans molecular biology and cell culture, molecular genetics, and integrative human exercise physiology and metabolism. I practice as a preventive cardiologist with a focus on cardiometabolic risk and exercise physiology for older athletes.  My research space has both a basic wet laboratory component and a human integrative physiology one.

One focus of our work is an integrative physiologic examination of exercise effects in human subjects in clinical studies of exercise training in normal individuals, in individuals at risk of disease (such as pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome; STRRIDE), and in individuals with disease (such as coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure and cancer).

A second focus of my research group is exploration of genetic determinates of disease risk in human subjects.  We conduct studies of early onset cardiovascular disease (GENECARD; CATHGEN), congestive heart failure (HF-ACTION), peripheral arterial disease (AMNESTI), and metabolic syndrome.  We are exploring analytic models of predicting disease risk using established and innovative statistical methodology.

A third focus of my group’s work is to understand the cellular signaling mechanisms underlying the normal adaptive responses of skeletal muscle to physiologic stimuli, such as occur in exercise conditioning, and to understand the abnormal maladaptive responses that occur in response to pathophysiologic stimuli, such as occur in congestive heart failure, aging and prolonged exposure to microgravity.

Recently we have begun to investigate interactions of genes and lifestyle interventions on cardiometabolic outcomes.  We have experience with clinical lifestyle intervention studies, particularly the contributions of genetic variants to interventions responses.  We call this Lifestyle Medicopharmacogenetics.

KEY WORDS:

exercise, skeletal muscle, energy metabolism, cell signaling, gene expression, cell stretch, heart failure, aging, spaceflight, human genetics, early onset cardiovascular disease, lifestyle medicine

Positions:

Richard and Pat Johnson University Distinguished Professor

Medicine, Cardiology
School of Medicine

Professor of Medicine

Medicine, Cardiology
School of Medicine

Professor in the School of Nursing

School of Nursing
School of Nursing

Member of Duke Molecular Physiology Institute

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1982

Duke University

Medical Resident, Medicine

Duke University

Fellow in Cardiology, Medicine

Duke University

Grants:

The Role of Ankyrin-B Mutations in Premature Senescence

Administered By
Medicine, Cardiology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

Mentored Clinical Research Scholar Program

Administered By
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
End Date

Epigenetic Mechanisms Promoting Longevity

Administered By
Duke Molecular Physiology Institute
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

Systemic Inflammation in Microphysiological Models of Muscle and Vascular Disease

Administered By
Biomedical Engineering
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Circulatory system and integrated muscle tissue for drug and tissue toxicity

Administered By
Biomedical Engineering
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Associations between neighborhood socioeconomic cluster and hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease within a cohort of cardiac catheterization patients.

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but these associations are rarely studied across large, diverse populations. METHODS: We used Ward's Hierarchical clustering to define eight neighborhood clusters across North Carolina using 11 census-based indicators of SES, race, housing, and urbanicity and assigned 6992 cardiac catheterization patients at Duke University Hospital from 2001 to 2010 to clusters. We examined associations between clusters and coronary artery disease index > 23 (CAD), history of myocardial infarction, hypertension, and diabetes using logistic regression adjusted for age, race, sex, body mass index, region of North Carolina, distance to Duke University Hospital, and smoking status. RESULTS: Four clusters were urban, three rural, and one suburban higher-middle-SES (referent). We observed greater odds of myocardial infarction in all six clusters with lower or middle-SES. Odds of CAD were elevated in the rural cluster that was low-SES and plurality Black (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.94-1.43) and in the rural cluster that was majority American Indian (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.91-1.90). Odds of diabetes and hypertension were elevated in two urban and one rural low- and lower-middle SES clusters with large Black populations. CONCLUSIONS: We observed higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in neighborhoods that were predominantly rural, low-SES, and non-White, highlighting the importance of public health and healthcare system outreach into these communities to promote cardiometabolic health and prevent and manage hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease.
Authors
Weaver, AM; McGuinn, LA; Neas, L; Devlin, RB; Dhingra, R; Ward-Caviness, CK; Cascio, WE; Kraus, WE; Hauser, ER; Diaz-Sanchez, D
MLA Citation
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498749
PMID
34610283
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Heart Journal
Volume
243
Published Date
Start Page
201
End Page
209
DOI
10.1016/j.ahj.2021.09.013

Making Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Interpretable for Clinicians.

ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a dynamic clinical tool for determining the cause for a person's exercise limitation. CPET provides clinicians with fundamental knowledge of the coupling of external to internal respiration (oxygen and carbon dioxide) during exercise. Subtle perturbations in CPET parameters can differentiate exercise responses among individual patients and disease states. However, perhaps because of the challenges in interpretation given the amount and complexity of data obtained, CPET is underused. In this article, we review fundamental concepts in CPET data interpretation and visualization. We also discuss future directions for how to best use CPET results to guide clinical care. Finally, we share a novel three-dimensional graphical platform for CPET data that simplifies conceptualization of organ system-specific (cardiac, pulmonary, and skeletal muscle) exercise limitations. Our goal is to make CPET testing more accessible to the general medical provider and make the test of greater use in the medical toolbox.
Authors
Andonian, BJ; Hardy, N; Bendelac, A; Polys, N; Kraus, WE
MLA Citation
Andonian, Brian J., et al. “Making Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Interpretable for Clinicians.Curr Sports Med Rep, vol. 20, no. 10, Oct. 2021, pp. 545–52. Pubmed, doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000895.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1498292
PMID
34622820
Source
pubmed
Published In
Curr Sports Med Rep
Volume
20
Published Date
Start Page
545
End Page
552
DOI
10.1249/JSR.0000000000000895

Rapid report on using data to make standardized decisions about enrollment during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from the MoTrPAC study.

Authors
George, SM; Chen, H; Miller, ME; Rejeski, WJ; Stowe, CL; Webb, C; Kraus, WE; Musi, N; Jakicic, JM
MLA Citation
George, Stephanie M., et al. “Rapid report on using data to make standardized decisions about enrollment during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from the MoTrPAC study.Ann Epidemiol, vol. 62, Oct. 2021, pp. 19–21. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.04.016.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1482083
PMID
33957248
Source
pubmed
Published In
Ann Epidemiol
Volume
62
Published Date
Start Page
19
End Page
21
DOI
10.1016/j.annepidem.2021.04.016

Weight-Related Behaviors of Children with Obesity during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, children and families have had to adapt their daily lives. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in the weight-related behaviors of children with obesity after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Semistructured interviews (n = 51) were conducted from April to June 2020 with parents of children with obesity. Families were participants in a randomized trial testing a clinic-community pediatric obesity treatment model. During interviews, families described their experience during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a particular emphasis on children's diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time behaviors. Rapid qualitative analysis methods were used to identify themes around changes in children's weight-related behaviors. Results: The mean child age was 9.7 (±2.8) years and the majority of children were Black (46%) or Hispanic (39%) and from low-income families (62%). Most parent participants were mothers (88%). There were differences in the perceived physical activity level of children, with some parents attributing increases in activity or maintenance of activity level to increased outdoor time, whereas others reported a decline due to lack of outdoor time, school, and structured activities. Key dietary changes included increased snacking and more meals prepared and consumed at home. There was a shift in sleep schedules with children going to bed and waking up later and an increase in leisure-based screen time. Parents played a role in promoting activity and managing children's screen time. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique lifestyle challenges and opportunities for lifestyle modification. Clinical Trials ID: NCT03339440.
Authors
Neshteruk, CD; Zizzi, A; Suarez, L; Erickson, E; Kraus, WE; Li, JS; Skinner, AC; Story, M; Zucker, N; Armstrong, SC
MLA Citation
Neshteruk, Cody D., et al. “Weight-Related Behaviors of Children with Obesity during the COVID-19 Pandemic.Child Obes, vol. 17, no. 6, Sept. 2021, pp. 371–78. Pubmed, doi:10.1089/chi.2021.0038.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1480670
PMID
33902326
Source
pubmed
Published In
Child Obes
Volume
17
Published Date
Start Page
371
End Page
378
DOI
10.1089/chi.2021.0038

Daily energy expenditure through the human life course.

Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method for males and females aged 8 days to 95 years. Total expenditure increased with fat-free mass in a power-law manner, with four distinct life stages. Fat-free mass-adjusted expenditure accelerates rapidly in neonates to ~50% above adult values at ~1 year; declines slowly to adult levels by ~20 years; remains stable in adulthood (20 to 60 years), even during pregnancy; then declines in older adults. These changes shed light on human development and aging and should help shape nutrition and health strategies across the life span.
Authors
Pontzer, H; Yamada, Y; Sagayama, H; Ainslie, PN; Andersen, LF; Anderson, LJ; Arab, L; Baddou, I; Bedu-Addo, K; Blaak, EE; Blanc, S; Bonomi, AG; Bouten, CVC; Bovet, P; Buchowski, MS; Butte, NF; Camps, SG; Close, GL; Cooper, JA; Cooper, R; Das, SK; Dugas, LR; Ekelund, U; Entringer, S; Forrester, T; Fudge, BW; Goris, AH; Gurven, M; Hambly, C; El Hamdouchi, A; Hoos, MB; Hu, S; Joonas, N; Joosen, AM; Katzmarzyk, P; Kempen, KP; Kimura, M; Kraus, WE; Kushner, RF; Lambert, EV; Leonard, WR; Lessan, N; Martin, C; Medin, AC; Meijer, EP; Morehen, JC; Morton, JP; Neuhouser, ML; Nicklas, TA; Ojiambo, RM; Pietiläinen, KH; Pitsiladis, YP; Plange-Rhule, J; Plasqui, G; Prentice, RL; Rabinovich, RA; Racette, SB; Raichlen, DA; Ravussin, E; Reynolds, RM; Roberts, SB; Schuit, AJ; Sjödin, AM; Stice, E; Urlacher, SS; Valenti, G; Van Etten, LM; Van Mil, EA; Wells, JCK; Wilson, G; Wood, BM; Yanovski, J; Yoshida, T; Zhang, X; Murphy-Alford, AJ; Loechl, C; Luke, AH; Rood, J; Schoeller, DA; Westerterp, KR; Wong, WW; Speakman, JR; IAEA DLW Database Consortium,
MLA Citation
Pontzer, Herman, et al. “Daily energy expenditure through the human life course.Science, vol. 373, no. 6556, Aug. 2021, pp. 808–12. Pubmed, doi:10.1126/science.abe5017.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1494161
PMID
34385400
Source
pubmed
Published In
Science
Volume
373
Published Date
Start Page
808
End Page
812
DOI
10.1126/science.abe5017