You are here

McClernon, Francis Joseph

Overview:

Positions:

Professor in Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences

Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Member of the Center for Brain Imaging and Analysis

Duke-UNC Center for Brain Imaging and Analysis
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 2001

Ph.D. — Southern Illinois University

News:

Grants:

Nicotine Withdrawal and Reward Processing: Connecting Neurobiology to Real-World Behavior

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
April 01, 2017
End Date
March 31, 2022

Targeting reward dysfunction as a mechanism to improve smoking cessation

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
May 01, 2016
End Date
April 30, 2021

Interdisciplinary Research Training Program in AIDS

Administered By
Medicine, Infectious Diseases
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
September 01, 2010
End Date
August 31, 2020

Effects of Nicotine Reduction on Smoking Behavior in ADHD Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 13, 2015
End Date
June 30, 2020

Bringing PrEP to Campus: Examining Strategies for PrEP Delivery to Historically Black College and Universities (HBCU)

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2005
End Date
June 30, 2020

Innovative Smartphone Application for Quitting Smoking among Seriously Mentally Ill

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
August 15, 2016
End Date
July 31, 2019

Reactions to Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes in Young Adult Low-Frequency Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 15, 2016
End Date
June 30, 2019

Environment Cue-Reactivity: Brain, Behavior and Clinical Outcomes in Tobacco Use

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2014
End Date
May 31, 2019

Neural Correlates of Social Reward in Smoking and Depression

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Brain and Behavior Research Foundation
Role
Mentor
Start Date
January 15, 2017
End Date
January 14, 2019

Acute and chronic nicotine modulation of reinforcement learning

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
April 01, 2013
End Date
March 31, 2018

Strengthening Instrumental Extinction to Prevent Smoking Relapse

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
February 01, 2015
End Date
January 31, 2018

Project 2: Evaluating New Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes - Supplement

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
University of Minnesota
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2014
End Date
August 31, 2017

NeuroAIDS research with disadvantaged drug users

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Sponsor
Start Date
August 01, 2014
End Date
July 31, 2017

Behavioral and genetic mechanisms of smoking risk in individuals with ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 15, 2012
End Date
July 31, 2017

Emotion Dysregulation, ADHD, and Smoking

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
July 01, 2012
End Date
June 30, 2017

mSMART: Mobile App based Personalized Solutions and Tools for Medication Adherence of Rx Pills

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Intelligent Automation Inc.
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 10, 2014
End Date
June 09, 2017

A Compute Cluster for Brain Imaging and Analysis

Administered By
Duke-UNC Center for Brain Imaging and Analysis
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Major User
Start Date
April 01, 2016
End Date
March 31, 2017

Investigating the Effects of E-Cigarette Television Ads on Smokers

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
Research Triangle Institute International
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2016
End Date
January 31, 2017

Neurocognitive Impact of Marijuana Use in Patients with HIV/AIDS

Administered By
Psychology and Neuroscience
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Sponsor
Start Date
July 01, 2013
End Date
December 31, 2015

Neurobehavioral and fMRI Research in HIV Infection and Cocaine Dependence

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co-Mentor
Start Date
March 01, 2010
End Date
August 31, 2015

Development of a Smartphone-Based Virtual Sensor for Detecting Smoking Behavior

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2012
End Date
June 30, 2015

Environments as Smoking Cues: Imaging Brain Substrates, Developing New Treatments

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 15, 2012
End Date
December 30, 2014

Project 1: Evaluating New Nicotine Standards in Cigarettes - Supplement

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Translational Neuroscience
AwardedBy
University of Pittsburgh
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2013
End Date
August 31, 2014

Elucidating links between ADHD symptoms and tobacco/alcohol use trajectories

Administered By
Community and Family Medicine
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Advisor
Start Date
September 15, 2010
End Date
August 31, 2014

Neuropharmacology of Response Inhibition in Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2009
End Date
August 31, 2014

Brain Substrates of Extinction-Based Treatment for Nicotine Dependence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 15, 2008
End Date
June 30, 2014

Optimal Smoking Cessation Treatment in PTSD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
July 25, 2003
End Date
April 30, 2014

Novel Ondansetron Formulation for Combination Treatment of Psychostimulant Abuse

Administered By
Duke Clinical Research Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 30, 2009
End Date
August 31, 2013

Neurobiology of Nicotine and Non-nicotine Components of Tobacco Addiction

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
May 15, 2008
End Date
March 31, 2013

Neuroimaging of Nicotine Dependence, Depression and Emotion Regulation

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 15, 2012
End Date
January 06, 2013

Genetic basis of smoking abstinence, smoking reinforcement, and inhibitory control

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2009
End Date
April 30, 2012

Supplemental Nicotine Administration for Smoking Cessation in PTSD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
May 08, 2009
End Date
April 30, 2012

Smoking reinforcement in adults with and without ADHD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2009
End Date
February 29, 2012

Smoking & Anxiety In Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 30, 1998
End Date
February 29, 2012

Neuropharmacology of Emotion-Cognition Interaction in Nicotine Dependence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2009
End Date
July 31, 2011

Precision Targeting of fMRI-Guided TMS Using a Robotic Arm System

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Brain Stimulation and Neurophysiology
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Investigator
Start Date
June 15, 2010
End Date
June 14, 2011

Mechanisms of Nicotine Dependence in ADHD Adults

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
May 15, 2007
End Date
October 30, 2009

Neuroimaging Attentional Impairment During Abstinence

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2004
End Date
June 30, 2009

The Effect of Smoking on Startle & PPI in PTSD

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
April 01, 2006
End Date
January 31, 2009

Summer Research with NIDA for Underrepresented Minorities

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2004
End Date
June 30, 2008

Drug Cue Reactivity in Smokers: An fMRI Investigation

Administered By
Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Addictions
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 30, 2002
End Date
September 29, 2004
Show More

Publications:

Smoking environment cues reduce ability to resist smoking as measured by a delay to smoking task.

Environments associated with smoking may promote lapse and relapse in smokers attempting to quit. Here we examined the effects of exposure to visual smoking environment cues on smoking urge and the ability to resist smoking, as measured with a delay-to-smoking task in which monetary contingencies are provided for resisting smoking.Adult daily smokers (n=22) completed two experimental sessions, each following 6h smoking abstinence. Sessions differed only in the type of cue participants were exposed to (smoking environments vs. nonsmoking environments). Participants completed subjective ratings of smoking urge, withdrawal and other reactions (i.e. craving, affect). Behavioral outcomes on the delay-to-smoking task included latency to first cigarette, number of cigarettes smoked and average number of puffs per cigarette.Across cue exposure sessions, 64% of participants initiated smoking (no effect of condition was observed). However, exposure to smoking environments as compared to the nonsmoking environments resulted in greater craving, faster initiation of smoking, and more smoked cigarettes. Greater craving was associated with a shorter time to initiate smoking, but this effect did not differ across sessions. In contrast, withdrawal was more strongly associated with number of cigarettes smoked during smoking environment sessions.Together, these results suggest smoking environments increase smoking urge and promote smoking behavior. Further research is necessary to examine the specific and interactive effects of smoking-related environments on real-world smoking lapse and relapse.

Authors
Stevenson, JG; Oliver, JA; Hallyburton, MB; Sweitzer, MM; Conklin, CA; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Stevenson, JG, Oliver, JA, Hallyburton, MB, Sweitzer, MM, Conklin, CA, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking environment cues reduce ability to resist smoking as measured by a delay to smoking task." Addictive behaviors 67 (April 2017): 49-52.
PMID
28012965
Source
epmc
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
67
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
49
End Page
52
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.12.007

Association Between Baseline Corticothalamic-Mediated Inhibitory Control and Smoking Relapse Vulnerability.

Tobacco use disorder is associated with dysregulated neurocognitive function in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)-one node in a corticothalamic inhibitory control (IC) network.To examine associations between IC neural circuitry structure and function and lapse/relapse vulnerability in 2 independent studies of adult smokers.In study 1, treatment-seeking smokers (n = 81) completed an IC task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before making a quit attempt and then were followed up for 10 weeks after their quit date. In study 2, a separate group of smokers (n = 26) performed the same IC task during fMRI, followed by completing a laboratory-based smoking relapse analog task. Study 1 was performed at Duke University Medical Center between 2008 and 2012; study 2 was conducted at the Medical University of South Carolina between 2013 and 2016.Associations between corticothalamic-mediated IC, gray-matter volume, and smoking lapse/relapse.Of the 81 study participants in study 1 (cessation study), 45 were women (56%), with mean (SD) age, 38.4 (10.2) years. In study 1, smoking relapse was associated with less gray-matter volume (F1,74 = 28.32; familywise error P threshold = 0.03), greater IC task-related blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response in the right IFG (F1,78 = 14.87) and thalamus (F1,78 = 14.97) (P < .05), and weaker corticothalamic task-based functional connectivity (tbFC) (F1,77 = 5.87; P = .02). Of the 26 participants in study 2 (laboratory study), 15 were women (58%), with mean (SD) age, 34.9 (10.3). Similar to study 1, in study 2, greater IC-BOLD response in the right IFG (t23 = -2.49; β = -0.47; P = .02), and weaker corticothalamic tbFC (t22 = 5.62; β = 0.79; P < .001) were associated with smoking sooner during the smoking relapse-analog task. In both studies, corticothalamic tbFC mediated the association between IC performance and smoking outcomes.In these 2 studies, baseline differences in corticothalamic circuitry function were associated with mediated IC and smoking relapse vulnerability. These findings warrant further examination of interventions for augmenting corticothalamic neurotransmission and enhancing IC during the course of tobacco use disorder treatment.

Authors
Froeliger, B; McConnell, PA; Bell, S; Sweitzer, M; Kozink, RV; Eichberg, C; Hallyburton, M; Kaiser, N; Gray, KM; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, McConnell, PA, Bell, S, Sweitzer, M, Kozink, RV, Eichberg, C, Hallyburton, M, Kaiser, N, Gray, KM, and McClernon, FJ. "Association Between Baseline Corticothalamic-Mediated Inhibitory Control and Smoking Relapse Vulnerability." JAMA psychiatry 74.4 (April 2017): 379-386.
PMID
28249070
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA Psychiatry
Volume
74
Issue
4
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
379
End Page
386
DOI
10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0017

Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes.

The Food and Drug Administration can reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes to very low levels. This potential regulatory action is hypothesised to improve public health by reducing smoking, but may have unintended consequences related to weight gain.Weight gain was evaluated from a double-blind, parallel, randomised clinical trial of 839 participants assigned to smoke 1 of 6 investigational cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from 0.4 to 15.8 mg/g or their own usual brand for 6 weeks. Additional analyses evaluated weight gain in the lowest nicotine content cigarette groups (0.4 and 0.4 mg/g, high tar) to examine the effect of study product in compliant participants as assessed by urinary biomarkers. Differences in outcomes due to gender were also explored.There were no significant differences in weight gain when comparing the reduced nicotine conditions with the 15.8 mg/g control group across all treatment groups and weeks. However, weight gain at week 6 was negatively correlated with nicotine exposure in the 2 lowest nicotine content cigarette conditions. Within the 2 lowest nicotine content cigarette conditions, male and female smokers biochemically verified to be compliant on study product gained significantly more weight than non-compliant smokers and control groups.The effect of random assignment to investigational cigarettes with reduced nicotine on weight gain was likely obscured by non-compliance with study product. Men and women who were compliant in the lowest nicotine content cigarette conditions gained 1.2 kg over 6 weeks, indicating weight gain is a likely consequence of reduced exposure to nicotine.NCT01681875, Post-results.

Authors
Rupprecht, LE; Koopmeiners, JS; Dermody, SS; Oliver, JA; al'Absi, M; Benowitz, NL; Denlinger-Apte, R; Drobes, DJ; Hatsukami, D; McClernon, FJ; Pacek, LR; Smith, TT; Sved, AF; Tidey, J; Vandrey, R; Donny, EC
MLA Citation
Rupprecht, LE, Koopmeiners, JS, Dermody, SS, Oliver, JA, al'Absi, M, Benowitz, NL, Denlinger-Apte, R, Drobes, DJ, Hatsukami, D, McClernon, FJ, Pacek, LR, Smith, TT, Sved, AF, Tidey, J, Vandrey, R, and Donny, EC. "Reducing nicotine exposure results in weight gain in smokers randomised to very low nicotine content cigarettes." Tobacco control 26.e1 (March 2017): e43-e48.
PMID
27856940
Source
epmc
Published In
Tobacco control
Volume
26
Issue
e1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
e43
End Page
e48
DOI
10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053301

Use and Perceived Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Among North Carolina Middle and High School Students.

Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise among adolescents, but little is known regarding their risk perceptions of e-cigarette use. We aimed to describe the lifetime use and perceived risk of e-cigarette use in the context of other risk-taking behaviors among adolescents in North Carolina.Data were derived from the 2015 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which was administered to 503 middle school and 444 high school students in the Chapel Hill-Carrboro public school district. Survey participants self-reported their sex; ethnicity; school grade; ever-use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, alcohol, and other illicit substances; perceived risk of harm of these products; and perceived view of their parents' and friends' perceptions of these products. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between student-reported characteristics, risk behaviors, perceived product risk, and ever-use of e-cigarettes.This study found that 4.6% of middle school students and 37.2% of high school students reported ever-use of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use increased and perception of e-cigarette risk decreased with advancing grade. Ever-use of e-cigarettes surpassed ever-use of combustible cigarettes at all grades; 49.4% of e-cigarette users had never smoked cigarettes. The perception that friends view e-cigarette use as "wrong" correlated negatively with e-cigarette use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.97).Self-reported results from students in one school district have limited generalizability to larger groups.E-cigarette use among adolescents in North Carolina correlates positively with perceived friends' views of e-cigarettes, and use correlates negatively with personal perception of the risk of e-cigarettes. Based on our survey results, education and public health intervention regarding e-cigarette use may be best targeted at youth prior to their transition to high school.

Authors
Giovacchini, CX; Pacek, L; McClernon, FJ; Que, LG
MLA Citation
Giovacchini, CX, Pacek, L, McClernon, FJ, and Que, LG. "Use and Perceived Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Among North Carolina Middle and High School Students." January 2017.
PMID
28115555
Source
epmc
Published In
North Carolina Medical Journal
Volume
78
Issue
1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
7
End Page
13
DOI
10.18043/ncm.78.1.7

A Pilot Trial Examining African American and White Responses to Algorithm-Guided Smoking Cessation Medication Selection in Persons Living with HIV.

Algorithm-based treatments (AT) may be an effective clinical tool to aid HIV clinicians in prescribing pharmacotherapy to increase smoking cessation among people living with HIV (PLWH). Initial results from AT indicated significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy and medication utilization and declines in cigarettes smoked per day across time. Given historical racial disparities, it is unclear if both African Americans and White smokers would benefit equally from this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine racial differences in response to AT guided smoking cessation for African American and White smokers living with HIV. One hundred PLWH smokers (n = 100) were randomized to receive either AT guided smoking cessation or Treatment as Usual (TAU) which consisted of instructing participants to talk to a provider about smoking cessation assistance when ready to make a quit attempt. Participants were African American (75%) and White (25%) and majority men (71%) who had never been married (56%). African Americans smoked fewer cigarettes and were more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared to White smokers at baseline. African Americans increased their use of other tobacco products (cigars/cigarillos) over time relative to White smokers. A significant interaction between race and quit goal was observed, with White smokers who reported complete abstinence as their goal having higher quit rates, while African Americans who reported a goal other than complete abstinence demonstrating higher quit rates. The increased use of cigars/cigarillos during quit attempts as well as having a goal other than complete abstinence should be considered when applying algorithm based interventions for PLWH African American smokers.

Authors
Valera, P; McClernon, FJ; Burkholder, G; Mugavero, MJ; Willig, J; O'Cleirigh, C; Cropsey, KL
MLA Citation
Valera, P, McClernon, FJ, Burkholder, G, Mugavero, MJ, Willig, J, O'Cleirigh, C, and Cropsey, KL. "A Pilot Trial Examining African American and White Responses to Algorithm-Guided Smoking Cessation Medication Selection in Persons Living with HIV." AIDS and behavior (December 9, 2016).
PMID
27942999
Source
epmc
Published In
AIDS and Behavior
Publish Date
2016

Evaluation of a reduced nicotine product standard: Moderating effects of and impact on cannabis use.

The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act authorized the FDA to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes. Research is needed to guide proposed regulations, including evaluation of consequences to public health. This study evaluated how a reduced nicotine product standard might be moderated by and impact cannabis use.Secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial examining the effects of nicotine content in cigarettes in adult daily smokers. Linear regression assessed whether baseline cannabis use moderated behavioral, subjective, or physiological effects of smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) versus normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes. Repeated measures analysis of associations between nicotine condition and prevalence and frequency of cannabis use was completed using generalized estimating equations (GEE).Cannabis use did not moderate most of the following effects of VLNC cigarettes: Among cannabis users and non-users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported lower nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, biomarkers of nicotine exposure, and craving compared to smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. Non-cannabis using smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes also reported lower smoking dependence motives and had lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and total puff volume versus smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. For cannabis users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported decreased positive affect. VLNC cigarette use did not impact the prevalence or frequency of cannabis use.Findings provide evidence that nicotine reduction in cigarettes could have beneficial effects on cigarette smoking regardless of cannabis use. Results suggest that transitioning to VLNC cigarettes is unlikely to alter current rates of cannabis use.

Authors
Pacek, LR; Vandrey, R; Dermody, SS; Denlinger-Apte, RL; Lemieux, A; Tidey, JW; McClernon, FJ; Bangdiwala, AS; Drobes, DJ; al'Absi, M; Strasser, AA; Koopmeiners, JS; Hatsukami, DK; Donny, EC
MLA Citation
Pacek, LR, Vandrey, R, Dermody, SS, Denlinger-Apte, RL, Lemieux, A, Tidey, JW, McClernon, FJ, Bangdiwala, AS, Drobes, DJ, al'Absi, M, Strasser, AA, Koopmeiners, JS, Hatsukami, DK, and Donny, EC. "Evaluation of a reduced nicotine product standard: Moderating effects of and impact on cannabis use." Drug and alcohol dependence 167 (October 2016): 228-232.
PMID
27590743
Source
epmc
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
167
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
228
End Page
232
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.08.620

Implicit Attitudes and Smoking Behavior in a Smoking Cessation Induction Trial.

Although studies have suggested that implicit attitudes may predict smoking-related decisions, evidence that changes in implicit attitudes toward smoking are related to changes in smoking behavior is lacking. Using data from a trial comparing interventions to induce quit attempts among unmotivated smokers, this study examined whether changes in implicit attitudes were associated with quit attempts and cessation after controlling for explicit motivation.Daily smokers recruited from the community completed measures of implicit attitudes (Implicit Association Test) and explicit measure of motivation to smoke at baseline, mid-intervention (week 12 [W12]) and follow-up (week 26 [W26]). Quit attempts and cessation were assessed at follow-up, and cessation was biochemically verified.As hypothesized, Implicit Association Test scores became more negative from baseline to W12, a change that was sustained at follow-up. Logistic regression analyses in which implicit attitudes were used to predict smoking outcomes revealed that negative changes in implicit attitudes from baseline to W12 and from baseline to W26 were significantly related to quit attempts (OR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.52, 0.97], p < .05 for both) independent of explicit motivation. Negative changes in implicit attitudes from baseline to W26 were significantly related to cessation (OR = 0.50, 95% CI [0.25, 1.00], p < .05).Negative changes in implicit attitudes were associated with positive changes in smoking behavior independent of explicit motivation. This result indicates that smoking cessation interventions may be enhanced by incorporating strategies to change implicit attitudes, and that changes in implicit attitudes are also potentially important intervention outcomes.Smoking cessation interventions may be improved by going beyond the current focus on explicit psychological constructs and targeting automatic cognitive processes such as implicit attitudes. The results are encouragement to examine how best to manipulate smokers' implicit attitudes as well as to determine the effect on their smoking behavior.

Authors
Lee, HS; Addicott, M; Martin, LE; Harris, KJ; Goggin, K; Richter, KP; Patten, CA; McClernon, FJ; Fleming, K; Catley, D
MLA Citation
Lee, HS, Addicott, M, Martin, LE, Harris, KJ, Goggin, K, Richter, KP, Patten, CA, McClernon, FJ, Fleming, K, and Catley, D. "Implicit Attitudes and Smoking Behavior in a Smoking Cessation Induction Trial." Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (September 27, 2016).
PMID
27679606
Source
epmc
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Publish Date
2016

Smoking Abstinence-Induced Changes in Resting State Functional Connectivity with Ventral Striatum Predict Lapse During a Quit Attempt.

The ventral and dorsal striatum are critical substrates of reward processing and motivation and have been repeatedly linked to addictive disorders, including nicotine dependence. However, little is known about how functional connectivity between these and other brain regions is modulated by smoking withdrawal and may contribute to relapse vulnerability. In the present study, 37 smokers completed resting state fMRI scans during both satiated and 24-h abstinent conditions, prior to engaging in a 3-week quit attempt supported by contingency management. We examined the effects of abstinence condition and smoking outcome (lapse vs non-lapse) on whole-brain connectivity with ventral and dorsal striatum seed regions. Results indicated a significant condition by lapse outcome interaction for both right and left ventral striatum seeds. Robust abstinence-induced increases in connectivity with bilateral ventral striatum were observed across a network of regions implicated in addictive disorders, including insula, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior/mid-cingulate cortex among non-lapsers; the opposite pattern was observed for those who later lapsed. For dorsal striatum seeds, 24-h abstinence decreased connectivity across both groups with several regions, including medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and supplemental motor area. These findings suggest that modulation of striatal connectivity with the cingulo-insular network during early withdrawal may be associated with smoking cessation outcomes.

Authors
Sweitzer, MM; Geier, CF; Addicott, MA; Denlinger, R; Raiff, BR; Dallery, J; McClernon, FJ; Donny, EC
MLA Citation
Sweitzer, MM, Geier, CF, Addicott, MA, Denlinger, R, Raiff, BR, Dallery, J, McClernon, FJ, and Donny, EC. "Smoking Abstinence-Induced Changes in Resting State Functional Connectivity with Ventral Striatum Predict Lapse During a Quit Attempt." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 41.10 (September 2016): 2521-2529.
PMID
27091382
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
41
Issue
10
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
2521
End Page
2529
DOI
10.1038/npp.2016.56

The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Froeliger, B; Rose, JE; Kozink, RV; Addicott, MA; Sweitzer, MM; Westman, EC; Van Wert, DM
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Froeliger, B, Rose, JE, Kozink, RV, Addicott, MA, Sweitzer, MM, Westman, EC, and Van Wert, DM. "The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function." Addiction biology 21.4 (July 2016): 954-961.
PMID
25904425
Source
epmc
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
21
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
954
End Page
961
DOI
10.1111/adb.12253

Non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use among persons living with HIV drawn from a nationally representative sample.

Smoking is more prevalent among persons living with HIV (PLWH) than the general population. Little is known about the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use (PTU; using multiple tobacco products) among this population, which, in the general population is associated with poor health and cessation outcomes. We aimed to characterize the prevalence of cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco use, PTU, and correlates of tobacco use status among a nationally-representative sample of PLWH.Data came from 472 HIV-positive adults from the 2005-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).The prevalence of PTU overall was 8.7% (95% CI=5.6-13.2), and 16.6% (95% CI=10.2-25.7) among past-year tobacco users. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, participants with a high school education or greater (aRRR=2.03, 95% CI=1.03-4.00) were more likely to be non-tobacco users than single product users. Past year drug users (aRRR=0.35, 95% CI=0.19-0.66) and past month binge drinkers (aRRR=0.24, 95% CI=0.12-0.50) were less likely to be non-tobacco users than single product users. Compared to 18-25 year olds, individuals age 26-34 (aRRR=0.13, 95% CI=0.03-0.65) and 35+ (aRRR=0.24, 95% CI=0.09-0.63), and with lifetime anxiety disorder(s) (aRRR=0.18, 95% CI=0.06-0.57) were less likely to be PTUs as compared to single product users. Individuals who reported liking to test themselves by doing risky things were more likely to be PTUs than single product users (aRRR=2.95, 95% CI=1.27-6.84).PTU was slightly higher than in the general population, and should be taken into account when developing cessation interventions tailored to tobacco users living with HIV.

Authors
Pacek, LR; Sweitzer, MM; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Pacek, LR, Sweitzer, MM, and McClernon, FJ. "Non-cigarette tobacco and poly-tobacco use among persons living with HIV drawn from a nationally representative sample." Drug and alcohol dependence 162 (May 2016): 251-255.
PMID
27049581
Source
epmc
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
162
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
251
End Page
255
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.03.020

Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt.We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money.Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt.As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p < 0.025), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward.These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

Authors
Sweitzer, MM; Geier, CF; Denlinger, R; Forbes, EE; Raiff, BR; Dallery, J; McClernon, FJ; Donny, EC
MLA Citation
Sweitzer, MM, Geier, CF, Denlinger, R, Forbes, EE, Raiff, BR, Dallery, J, McClernon, FJ, and Donny, EC. "Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt." Psychopharmacology 233.5 (March 2016): 751-760.
PMID
26660448
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
233
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
751
End Page
760
DOI
10.1007/s00213-015-4152-2

Hippocampal and Insular Response to Smoking-Related Environments: Neuroimaging Evidence for Drug-Context Effects in Nicotine Dependence.

Environments associated with prior drug use provoke craving and drug taking, and set the stage for lapse/relapse. Although the neurobehavioral bases of environment-induced drug taking have been investigated with animal models, the influence of drug-environments on brain function and behavior in clinical populations of substance users is largely unexplored. Adult smokers (n=40) photographed locations personally associated with smoking (personal smoking environments; PSEs) or personal nonsmoking environment (PNEs). Following 24-h abstinence, participants underwent fMRI scanning while viewing PSEs, PNEs, standard smoking and nonsmoking environments, as well as proximal smoking (eg, lit cigarette) and nonsmoking (eg, pencil) cues. Finally, in two separate sessions following 6-h abstinence they viewed either PSEs or PNEs while cue-induced self-reported craving and smoking behavior were assessed. Viewing PSEs increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in right posterior hippocampus (pHPC; F(2,685)=3.74, p<0.024) and bilateral insula (left: F(2,685)=6.87, p=0.0011; right: F(2,685)=5.34, p=0.005). In the laboratory, viewing PSEs, compared with PNEs, was associated with higher craving levels (F(2,180)=18.32, p<0.0001) and greater ad lib smoking (F(1,36)=5.01, p=0.032). The effect of PSEs (minus PNEs) on brain activation in right insula was positively correlated with the effect of PSEs (minus PNEs) on number of puffs taken from a cigarette (r=0.6, p=0.001). Our data, for the first time in humans, elucidates the neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of real-world drug-associated environments on drug taking behavior under conditions of drug abstinence. These findings establish targets for the development and evaluation of treatments seeking to reduce environment provoked relapse.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Conklin, CA; Kozink, RV; Adcock, RA; Sweitzer, MM; Addicott, MA; Chou, Y-H; Chen, N-K; Hallyburton, MB; DeVito, AM
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Conklin, CA, Kozink, RV, Adcock, RA, Sweitzer, MM, Addicott, MA, Chou, Y-H, Chen, N-K, Hallyburton, MB, and DeVito, AM. "Hippocampal and Insular Response to Smoking-Related Environments: Neuroimaging Evidence for Drug-Context Effects in Nicotine Dependence." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 41.3 (February 2016): 877-885.
PMID
26179147
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
41
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
877
End Page
885
DOI
10.1038/npp.2015.214

"I Use Weed for My ADHD": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for problematic cannabis use. However, clinical and anecdotal evidence suggest an increasingly popular perception that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, including via online resources. Given that the Internet is increasingly utilized as a source of healthcare information and may influence perceptions, we conducted a qualitative analysis of online forum discussions, also referred to as threads, on the effects of cannabis on ADHD to systematically characterize the content patients and caregivers may encounter about ADHD and cannabis.A total of 268 separate forum threads were identified. Twenty percent (20%) were randomly selected, which yielded 55 separate forum threads (mean number of individual posts per forum thread = 17.53) scored by three raters (Cohen's kappa = 0.74). A final sample of 401 posts in these forum threads received at least one endorsement on predetermined topics following qualitative coding procedures.Twenty-five (25%) percent of individual posts indicated that cannabis is therapeutic for ADHD, as opposed to 8% that it is harmful, 5% that it is both therapeutic and harmful, and 2% that it has no effect on ADHD. This pattern was generally consistent when the year of each post was considered. The greater endorsement of therapeutic versus harmful effects of cannabis did not generalize to mood, other (non-ADHD) psychiatric conditions, or overall domains of daily life. Additional themes emerged (e.g., cannabis being considered sanctioned by healthcare providers).Despite that there are no clinical recommendations or systematic research supporting the beneficial effects of cannabis use for ADHD, online discussions indicate that cannabis is considered therapeutic for ADHD-this is the first study to identify such a trend. This type of online information could shape ADHD patient and caregiver perceptions, and influence cannabis use and clinical care.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Sweitzer, MM; Tunno, AM; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Sweitzer, MM, Tunno, AM, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. ""I Use Weed for My ADHD": A Qualitative Analysis of Online Forum Discussions on Cannabis Use and ADHD." PloS one 11.5 (January 2016): e0156614-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/12559
PMID
27227537
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
11
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
e0156614
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0156614

The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults.

Given that the vast majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of drug cue reactivity use unisensory visual cues, but that multisensory cues may elicit greater craving-related brain responses, the current study sought to compare the fMRI BOLD response to unisensory visual and multisensory, visual plus odor, smoking cues in 17 nicotine-dependent adult cigarette smokers. Brain activation to smoking-related, compared to neutral, pictures was assessed under cigarette smoke and odorless odor conditions. While smoking pictures elicited a pattern of activation consistent with the addiction literature, the multisensory (odor+picture) smoking cues elicited significantly greater and more widespread activation in mainly frontal and temporal regions. BOLD signal elicited by the multisensory, but not unisensory cues, was significantly related to participants' level of control over craving as well. Results demonstrated that the co-presentation of cigarette smoke odor with smoking-related visual cues, compared to the visual cues alone, elicited greater levels of craving-related brain activation in key regions implicated in reward. These preliminary findings support future research aimed at a better understanding of multisensory integration of drug cues and craving.

Authors
Cortese, BM; Uhde, TW; Brady, KT; McClernon, FJ; Yang, QX; Collins, HR; LeMatty, T; Hartwell, KJ
MLA Citation
Cortese, BM, Uhde, TW, Brady, KT, McClernon, FJ, Yang, QX, Collins, HR, LeMatty, T, and Hartwell, KJ. "The fMRI BOLD response to unisensory and multisensory smoking cues in nicotine-dependent adults." Psychiatry research 234.3 (December 2015): 321-327.
PMID
26475784
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychiatry Research
Volume
234
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
321
End Page
327
DOI
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2015.10.008

Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes.

Little is known regarding the underlying neurobiology of smoking cessation. Neuroimaging studies indicate a role for the insula in connecting the interoceptive awareness of tobacco craving with a larger brain network that motivates smoking. We investigated differences in insula-based functional connectivity between smokers who did not relapse during a quit attempt vs those who relapsed. Smokers (n=85) underwent a resting-state functional connectivity scan and were then randomized into two groups (either smoking usual brand cigarettes or smoking very low nicotine cigarettes plus nicotine replacement therapy) for 30 days before their target quit date. Following the quit date, all participants received nicotine replacement therapy and their smoking behavior was observed for 10 weeks. Participants were subsequently classified as nonrelapsed (n=44) or relapsed (i.e., seven consecutive days of smoking ⩾1 cigarette/day; n=41). The right and left insula, as well as insula subdivisions (posterior, ventroanterior, and dorsoanterior) were used as seed regions of interest in the connectivity analysis. Using the right and left whole-insula seed regions, the nonrelapsed group had greater functional connectivity than the relapsed group with the bilateral pre- and postcentral gyri. This effect was isolated to the right and left posterior insula seed regions. Our results suggest that relapse vulnerability is associated with weaker connectivity between the posterior insula and primary sensorimotor cortices. Perhaps greater connectivity in this network improves the ability to inhibit a motor response to cigarette cravings when those cravings conflict with a goal to remain abstinent. These results are consistent with recent studies demonstrating a positive relationship between insula-related functional connectivity and cessation likelihood among neurologically intact smokers.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Sweitzer, MM; Froeliger, B; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Sweitzer, MM, Froeliger, B, Rose, JE, and McClernon, FJ. "Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 40.11 (October 2015): 2648-2656.
PMID
25895453
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
40
Issue
11
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
2648
End Page
2656
DOI
10.1038/npp.2015.114

Suboptimal foraging behavior: a new perspective on gambling.

Why do people gamble? Conventional views hold that gambling may be motivated by irrational beliefs, risk-seeking, impulsive temperament, or dysfunction within the same reward circuitry affected by drugs of abuse. An alternate, unexplored perspective is that gambling is an extension of natural foraging behavior to a financial environment. However, when these foraging algorithms are applied to stochastic gambling outcomes, undesirable results may occur. To test this hypothesis, we recruited participants based on their frequency of gambling-yearly (or less), monthly, and weekly-and investigated how gambling frequency related to irrational beliefs, risk-taking/impulsivity, and foraging behavior. We found that increased gambling frequency corresponded to greater gambling-related beliefs, more exploratory choices on an explore/exploit foraging task, and fewer points earned on a Patchy Foraging Task. Gambling-related beliefs negatively related to performance on the Patchy Foraging Task, indicating that individuals with more gambling-related cognitions tended to leave a patch too quickly. This indicates that frequent gamblers have reduced foraging ability to maximize rewards; however, gambling frequency -and by extension, poor foraging ability- was not related to risk-taking or impulsive behavior. These results suggest that gambling reflects the application of a dysfunctional foraging process to financial outcomes.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Pearson, JM; Kaiser, N; Platt, ML; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Pearson, JM, Kaiser, N, Platt, ML, and McClernon, FJ. "Suboptimal foraging behavior: a new perspective on gambling." Behavioral neuroscience 129.5 (October 2015): 656-665.
PMID
26191945
Source
epmc
Published In
Behavioral Neuroscience
Volume
129
Issue
5
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
656
End Page
665
DOI
10.1037/bne0000082

Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes.

The Food and Drug Administration can set standards that reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes.We conducted a double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial between June 2013 and July 2014 at 10 sites. Eligibility criteria included an age of 18 years or older, smoking of five or more cigarettes per day, and no current interest in quitting smoking. Participants were randomly assigned to smoke for 6 weeks either their usual brand of cigarettes or one of six types of investigational cigarettes, provided free. The investigational cigarettes had nicotine content ranging from 15.8 mg per gram of tobacco (typical of commercial brands) to 0.4 mg per gram. The primary outcome was the number of cigarettes smoked per day during week 6.A total of 840 participants underwent randomization, and 780 completed the 6-week study. During week 6, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day was lower for participants randomly assigned to cigarettes containing 2.4, 1.3, or 0.4 mg of nicotine per gram of tobacco (16.5, 16.3, and 14.9 cigarettes, respectively) than for participants randomly assigned to their usual brand or to cigarettes containing 15.8 mg per gram (22.2 and 21.3 cigarettes, respectively; P<0.001). Participants assigned to cigarettes with 5.2 mg per gram smoked an average of 20.8 cigarettes per day, which did not differ significantly from the average number among those who smoked control cigarettes. Cigarettes with lower nicotine content, as compared with control cigarettes, reduced exposure to and dependence on nicotine, as well as craving during abstinence from smoking, without significantly increasing the expired carbon monoxide level or total puff volume, suggesting minimal compensation. Adverse events were generally mild and similar among groups.In this 6-week study, reduced-nicotine cigarettes versus standard-nicotine cigarettes reduced nicotine exposure and dependence and the number of cigarettes smoked. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Food and Drug Administration Center for Tobacco Products; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01681875.).

Authors
Donny, EC; Denlinger, RL; Tidey, JW; Koopmeiners, JS; Benowitz, NL; Vandrey, RG; al'Absi, M; Carmella, SG; Cinciripini, PM; Dermody, SS; Drobes, DJ; Hecht, SS; Jensen, J; Lane, T; Le, CT; McClernon, FJ; Montoya, ID; Murphy, SE; Robinson, JD; Stitzer, ML; Strasser, AA; Tindle, H; Hatsukami, DK
MLA Citation
Donny, EC, Denlinger, RL, Tidey, JW, Koopmeiners, JS, Benowitz, NL, Vandrey, RG, al'Absi, M, Carmella, SG, Cinciripini, PM, Dermody, SS, Drobes, DJ, Hecht, SS, Jensen, J, Lane, T, Le, CT, McClernon, FJ, Montoya, ID, Murphy, SE, Robinson, JD, Stitzer, ML, Strasser, AA, Tindle, H, and Hatsukami, DK. "Randomized Trial of Reduced-Nicotine Standards for Cigarettes." The New England journal of medicine 373.14 (October 2015): 1340-1349.
PMID
26422724
Source
epmc
Published In
The New England journal of medicine
Volume
373
Issue
14
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1340
End Page
1349
DOI
10.1056/nejmsa1502403

Racial differences in parenting style typologies and heavy episodic drinking trajectories.

This study examines racial differences between Whites and Blacks in the association of parenting style typologies with changes in heavy episodic drinking from adolescence to young adulthood.The analytic sample consists of 9,942 adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which followed respondents from ages 12 to 31 years. Confirmatory factor analysis and factor mixture modeling are used to classify parenting style typologies based on measures of parental acceptance and control. Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED) trajectories are evaluated using a zero-inflated Poisson multigroup latent growth curve modeling approach.The mixture model identified 4 heterogeneous groups that differed based on the 2 latent variables (parental acceptance and control): balanced (65.8% of the sample), authoritarian (12.2%), permissive (19.4%), and uninvolved or neglectful (2.7%). Regardless of race, we found that at age 12 years, children of authoritarian parents have a higher probability of not engaging in HED than children of parents with balanced, permissive, or neglectful parenting styles. However, among Black youth who reported HED at age 12, authoritarian parenting was associated with greater level of HED at age 12 but a less steep increase in level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with balanced parenting. For White adolescents, uninvolved, permissive, and authoritarian parenting were not associated with a greater level of HED as age increased yearly as compared with adolescents exposed to balanced parenting.The influence of parenting styles on HED during adolescence persists into young adulthood and differs by race for youth engaging in HED.

Authors
Clark, TT; Yang, C; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Clark, TT, Yang, C, McClernon, FJ, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Racial differences in parenting style typologies and heavy episodic drinking trajectories." Health psychology : official journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association 34.7 (July 2015): 697-708.
PMID
25222086
Source
epmc
Published In
Health Psychology
Volume
34
Issue
7
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
697
End Page
708
DOI
10.1037/hea0000150

Prediction of smoking cessation with treatment: the emerging contribution of brain imaging research.

Authors
Brody, AL; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Brody, AL, and McClernon, FJ. "Prediction of smoking cessation with treatment: the emerging contribution of brain imaging research." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 40.6 (May 2015): 1309-1310.
PMID
25868069
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
40
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1309
End Page
1310
DOI
10.1038/npp.2015.31

Olfactory cue reactivity in nicotine-dependent adult smokers.

Cue-elicited reactivity is a significant factor in relapse during smoking quit attempts. Previous research has focused primarily on visual smoking cues, with very limited research examining reactivity to olfactory triggers. Twenty-six adult non-treatment-seeking, nicotine-dependent smokers were exposed to 7 odorants during a cue-reactivity session measuring heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective craving. Cues included 2 cigarette odors (fresh tobacco and cigarette smoke), 2 odors previously identified as smoking-related (freshly mowed grass and coffee), 2 odors previously identified as unrelated to smoking (lavender and burned rubber), and 1 odorless control (propylene glycol). Pairwise comparisons demonstrated that subjective intensity of craving was significantly higher following exposure to the fresh tobacco odor compared with the odorless control (p < .01). A significant main effect for cue type on a physiological measure of arousal was also revealed, with a fresh tobacco odor-elicited significant increase in skin conductance level compared with the odorless control. However, no main effect of cue type on heart rate was found (p = .25). The results of the present study indicate that cigarette odor is an effective olfactory cue that heightens both subjective craving and increases skin conductance in smokers. Future research is needed to evaluate whether avoidance of these odors, or extinction of responses to them, can reduce relapse risk during smoking quit attempts.

Authors
Cortese, BM; Uhde, TW; LaRowe, SD; Stein, SV; Freeman, WC; McClernon, FJ; Brady, KT; Hartwell, KJ
MLA Citation
Cortese, BM, Uhde, TW, LaRowe, SD, Stein, SV, Freeman, WC, McClernon, FJ, Brady, KT, and Hartwell, KJ. "Olfactory cue reactivity in nicotine-dependent adult smokers." Psychology of addictive behaviors : journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors 29.1 (March 2015): 91-96.
PMID
25180553
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Volume
29
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
91
End Page
96
DOI
10.1037/adb0000018

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences.

This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed.A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development.ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites.ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender.

Authors
Lee, C-T; Clark, TT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, Clark, TT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences." Drug and alcohol dependence 148 (March 2015): 180-187.
PMID
25616515
Source
epmc
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
148
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
180
End Page
187
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.002

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: Race and gender differences

© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Purpose: This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. Methods: A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. Results: ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. Conclusion: ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender.

Authors
Lee, CT; Clark, TT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, JF; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, CT, Clark, TT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, JF, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: Race and gender differences." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 148 (January 1, 2015): 180-187.
Source
scopus
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
148
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
180
End Page
187
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.01.002

ADHD and smoking

© Cambridge University Press 2015.Introduction Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disability in the United States. Annually, smoking leads to more than 400 000 premature deaths in the USA and nearly 5 million deaths worldwide [1]. In the USA alone, $150 billion in annual costs are attributable to smoking-related illnesses and lost worker productivity [2]. Several large-scale, epidemiological studies have reported that individuals who have psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to smoke than individuals from the general population [3, 4]. The prevalence of smoking among individuals with a current psychiatric condition is nearly double that of individuals without current mental illness [4, 5]. While individuals who reported a psychiatric diagnosis in the past month make up approximately 30% of the US population, they consume an estimated 44.3% of all cigarettes [4]. The number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in an individual is also associated with higher levels of nicotine dependence and greater withdrawal severity [4, 6]. Most population- and clinic-based studies of smoking/psychiatric illness comorbidity have excluded attention-deicit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This may be because ADHD is oten considered a disorder of childhood and is thus not included as a psychiatric condition category when studying samples of adults. However, in the few studies in which the disorder has been examined, ADHD shows comparable rates of comorbidity with cigarette smoking as other psychiatric disorders (approximately 40%) [7]. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that ADHD symptoms, even at levels below the threshold required to make a clinical diagnosis, are signiicantly associated with risk for smoking [8].

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "ADHD and smoking." Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults and Children. January 1, 2015. 327-342.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
327
End Page
342
DOI
10.1017/CBO9781139035491.027

Smoking abstinence and neurocognition: implications for cessation and relapse.

In this chapter, we review the last decade of research on the effects of smoking abstinence on various forms of neurocognition, including executive function (working memory, sustained attention, response inhibition), reward processing, and cue-reactivity. In our review we identify smoking abstinence-induced deficits in executive function mediated by effects on frontal circuitry, which in turn is known to be affected by modulation of cholinergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems. We also review evidence that smoking abstinence blunts reactivity to non-drug reinforcers-a finding that is consistent with results in the animal literature. Finally, our review of cue-reactivity indicates that smoking abstinence does not appear to amplify cue-provoked craving, although it may increase attentional bias to smoking-related cues. Inconsistencies across findings and potential contributing factors are discussed. In addition, we review the literature on the effects of nicotine and non-nicotine factors in neurocognition. Finally, we provide a multi-factor model and an agenda for future research on the effects of smoking abstinence on neurocognition. The model includes four distinct yet interacting factors, including: Negative Reinforcement, Drug-Reward Bias, Goal and Skill Interference, and Non-Cognitive Factors. Additional research is needed to further evaluate the scope and time-course of abstinence-induced changes in neurocognition, the mechanisms that underlie these changes and the specific role of these processes in drug reinforcement, lapse, and relapse.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Addicott, MA; Sweitzer, MM
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Addicott, MA, and Sweitzer, MM. "Smoking abstinence and neurocognition: implications for cessation and relapse." Current topics in behavioral neurosciences 23 (January 2015): 193-227.
PMID
25655892
Source
epmc
Published In
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Volume
23
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
193
End Page
227
DOI
10.1007/978-3-319-13665-3_8

Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior.

The adaptive trade-off between exploration and exploitation is a key component in models of reinforcement learning. Over the past decade, these models have been applied to the study of reward-seeking behavior. Drugs of addiction induce reward-seeking behavior and modify its underlying neurophysiological processes. These neurophysiological changes may underlie a behavioral shift from a flexible, exploratory mode to a focused, exploitative mode, which precedes the development of inflexible, habitual drug use. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between explore/exploit behavior and drug addiction by examining the neural correlates of this behavior in cigarette smokers. Participants (n=22) with a range of smoking behaviors completed a smoking dependence motives questionnaire and played a 6-armed bandit task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Exploratory behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior parietal and bilateral frontal cortices than exploitative behavior. Exploitative behavior produced greater activation in the bilateral superior and middle temporal gyri than exploratory behavior. fMRI data and orthogonalized smoking dependence motive scores were entered into multiple linear regression analyses. After controlling for nicotine tolerance, smoking automaticity positively correlated with activation in the same bilateral parietal regions preferentially activated by exploratory choices. These preliminary results link smoking dependence motives to variation in the neural processes that mediate exploratory decision making.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Pearson, JM; Froeliger, B; Platt, ML; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Pearson, JM, Froeliger, B, Platt, ML, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking automaticity and tolerance moderate brain activation during explore-exploit behavior." Psychiatry research 224.3 (December 2014): 254-261.
PMID
25453166
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychiatry Research
Volume
224
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
254
End Page
261
DOI
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.10.014

Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling.

Smoking cessation results in withdrawal symptoms such as craving and negative mood that may contribute to lapse and relapse. Little is known regarding whether these symptoms are associated with the nicotine or non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke. Using arterial spin labeling, we measured resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 29 adult smokers across four conditions: (1) nicotine patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, (2) nicotine patch+abstinence from smoking, (3) placebo patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo patch+abstinence from smoking. We found that changes in self-reported craving positively correlated with changes in CBF from the denicotinized cigarette smoking conditions to the abstinent conditions. These correlations were found in several regions throughout the brain. Self-reported craving also increased from the nicotine to the placebo conditions, but had a minimal relationship with changes in CBF. The results of this study suggest that the non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke significantly impact withdrawal symptoms and associated brain areas, independently of the effects of nicotine. As such, the effects of non-nicotine factors are important to consider in the design and development of smoking cessation interventions and tobacco regulation.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Froeliger, B; Kozink, RV; Van Wert, DM; Westman, EC; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Froeliger, B, Kozink, RV, Van Wert, DM, Westman, EC, Rose, JE, and McClernon, FJ. "Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling." Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 39.12 (November 2014): 2750-2759.
PMID
24820539
Source
epmc
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
39
Issue
12
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2750
End Page
2759
DOI
10.1038/npp.2014.108

Effects of varenicline and cognitive bias modification on neural response to smoking-related cues: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

Smoking-related cues can trigger drug-seeking behaviors, and computer-based interventions that reduce cognitive biases towards such cues may be efficacious and cost-effective cessation aids. In order to optimize such interventions, there needs to be better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of cognitive bias modification (CBM). Here we present a protocol for an investigation of the neural effects of CBM and varenicline in non-quitting daily smokers.We will recruit 72 daily smokers who report smoking at least 10 manufactured cigarettes or 15 roll-ups per day and who smoke within one hour of waking. Participants will attend two sessions approximately one week apart. At the first session participants will be screened for eligibility and randomized to receive either varenicline or a placebo over a seven-day period. On the final drug-taking day (day seven) participants will attend a second session and be further randomized to one of three CBM conditions (training towards smoking cues, training away from smoking cues, or control training). Participants will then undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during which they will view smoking-related pictorial cues. Primary outcome measures are changes in cognitive bias as measured by the visual dot-probe task, and neural responses to smoking-related cues. Secondary outcome measures will be cognitive bias as measured by a transfer task (modified Stroop test of smoking-related cognitive bias) and subjective mood and cigarette craving.This study will add to the relatively small literature examining the effects of CBM in addictions. It will address novel questions regarding the neural effects of CBM. It will also investigate whether varenicline treatment alters neural response to smoking-related cues. These findings will inform future research that can develop behavioral treatments that target relapse prevention.Registered with Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN65690030. Registered on 30 January 2014.

Authors
Attwood, AS; Williams, T; Adams, S; McClernon, FJ; Munafò, MR
MLA Citation
Attwood, AS, Williams, T, Adams, S, McClernon, FJ, and Munafò, MR. "Effects of varenicline and cognitive bias modification on neural response to smoking-related cues: study protocol for a randomized controlled study." Trials 15 (October 7, 2014): 391-.
PMID
25294104
Source
epmc
Published In
Trials
Volume
15
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
391
DOI
10.1186/1745-6215-15-391

Examining the effects of initial smoking abstinence on response to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in a human laboratory model.

RATIONALE: Research is needed on initial smoking abstinence and relapse risk. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the effects of different durations of initial abstinence on sensitivity to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in the context of a larger battery of outcome measures. METHODS: Smokers were randomly assigned to receive payment contingent on smoking abstinence across all 15 study days (15C) or just the final 2 days (2C). Smoking status and subject ratings were assessed daily. Participants completed fMRI sessions at baseline and day 14 during which they completed craving ratings after exposure to smoking-related and neutral stimuli and performed a response inhibition task. On day 15, participants completed a smoking preference session involving 20 exclusive choices between smoking and money. RESULTS: The payment contingencies were effective in producing greater smoking abstinence in the 15C vs. 2C conditions. Ratings of withdrawal decreased, while ratings of ease and confidence in abstaining increased in the 15C vs. 2C conditions across the 15-day study. 15C participants were less likely to choose the smoking option in the preference session. 15C participants reported greater reductions in craving compared to the 2C participants in the presence of smoking-related and neutral stimuli (i.e., decreases in generalized craving), but no differences were noted in cue reactivity per se or in response inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Results systematically replicate prior observations that a period 2 weeks of initial abstinence decreases the relative reinforcing effects of smoking and improves other outcomes associated with relapse risk compared to the initial day or two of a cessation effort, and extends them by underscoring the importance of generalized rather than cue-induced craving in relation to relapse risk during the initial weeks of smoking cessation.

Authors
Bradstreet, MP; Higgins, ST; McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Skelly, JM; Washio, Y; Lopez, AA; Parry, MA
MLA Citation
Bradstreet, MP, Higgins, ST, McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, Skelly, JM, Washio, Y, Lopez, AA, and Parry, MA. "Examining the effects of initial smoking abstinence on response to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in a human laboratory model." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231.10 (May 2014): 2145-2158.
PMID
24337077
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
231
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2145
End Page
2158
DOI
10.1007/s00213-013-3360-x

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS AND ILLICIT DRUG USE IN ADD HEALTH SAMPLE

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, C-T; Kollins, S; McClernon, JF; Bazemore, S
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, C-T, Kollins, S, McClernon, JF, and Bazemore, S. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER SYMPTOMS AND ILLICIT DRUG USE IN ADD HEALTH SAMPLE." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 47 (April 2014): S46-S46.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
47
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
S46
End Page
S46

A pilot study of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX/SPD489) to facilitate smoking cessation in nicotine-dependent adults with ADHD.

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) as an adjunct to nicotine replacement therapy in adult smokers with ADHD who were undergoing a quit attempt. METHODS: Thirty-two regular adult smokers with ADHD were randomized to receive LDX (n = 17) or placebo (n = 15) in addition to nicotine patch concurrent with a quit attempt. RESULTS: There were no differences between smokers assigned to LDX versus placebo in any smoking outcomes. Participants treated with LDX demonstrated significant reductions in self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptoms. LDX was well tolerated in smokers attempting to quit. DISCUSSION: In general, LDX does not facilitate smoking cessation in adults with ADHD more than does placebo, though both groups significantly reduced smoking. LDX demonstrated efficacy for reducing ADHD symptoms in adult smokers engaging in a quit attempt.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Itchon-Ramos, N; Chrisman, AK; Dew, R; O'Brien, B; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Itchon-Ramos, N, Chrisman, AK, Dew, R, O'Brien, B, and McClernon, FJ. "A pilot study of lis-dexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX/SPD489) to facilitate smoking cessation in nicotine-dependent adults with ADHD." J Atten Disord 18.2 (February 2014): 158-168.
PMID
22508760
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Attention Disorders
Volume
18
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
158
End Page
168
DOI
10.1177/1087054712440320

Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and mesolimbic responses to rewards.

There has been significant progress in identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk genes. One approach to understanding genetic influences on ASD symptom expression is to evaluate relations between variants of ASD candidate genes and neural endophenotypes in unaffected samples. Allelic variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene confer small but significant risk for ASDs for which the underlying mechanisms may involve associations between variability in oxytocin signaling pathways and neural response to rewards. The purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the influence of allelic variability in the OXTR gene on neural responses to monetary rewards in healthy adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).The moderating effects of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1042778, rs2268493 and rs237887) of the OXTR gene on mesolimbic responses to rewards were evaluated using a monetary incentive delay fMRI task.T homozygotes of the rs2268493 SNP demonstrated relatively decreased activation in mesolimbic reward circuitry (including the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, insula, thalamus and prefrontal cortical regions) during the anticipation of rewards but not during the outcome phase of the task. Allelic variation of the rs1042778 and rs237887 SNPs did not moderate mesolimbic activation during either reward anticipation or outcomes.This preliminary study suggests that the OXTR SNP rs2268493, which has been previously identified as an ASD risk gene, moderates mesolimbic responses during reward anticipation. Given previous findings of decreased mesolimbic activation during reward anticipation in ASD, the present results suggest that OXTR may confer ASD risk via influences on the neural systems that support reward anticipation.

Authors
Damiano, CR; Aloi, J; Dunlap, K; Burrus, CJ; Mosner, MG; Kozink, RV; McLaurin, RE; Mullette-Gillman, OA; Carter, RM; Huettel, SA; McClernon, FJ; Ashley-Koch, A; Dichter, GS
MLA Citation
Damiano, CR, Aloi, J, Dunlap, K, Burrus, CJ, Mosner, MG, Kozink, RV, McLaurin, RE, Mullette-Gillman, OA, Carter, RM, Huettel, SA, McClernon, FJ, Ashley-Koch, A, and Dichter, GS. "Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and mesolimbic responses to rewards." Molecular autism 5.1 (January 31, 2014): 7-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/12955
PMID
24485285
Source
epmc
Published In
Molecular Autism
Volume
5
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
7
DOI
10.1186/2040-2392-5-7

Examining the effects of initial smoking abstinence on response to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in a human laboratory model

Rationale: Research is needed on initial smoking abstinence and relapse risk. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effects of different durations of initial abstinence on sensitivity to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in the context of a larger battery of outcome measures. Methods: Smokers were randomly assigned to receive payment contingent on smoking abstinence across all 15 study days (15C) or just the final 2 days (2C). Smoking status and subject ratings were assessed daily. Participants completed fMRI sessions at baseline and day 14 during which they completed craving ratings after exposure to smoking-related and neutral stimuli and performed a response inhibition task. On day 15, participants completed a smoking preference session involving 20 exclusive choices between smoking and money. Results: The payment contingencies were effective in producing greater smoking abstinence in the 15C vs. 2C conditions. Ratings of withdrawal decreased, while ratings of ease and confidence in abstaining increased in the 15C vs. 2C conditions across the 15-day study. 15C participants were less likely to choose the smoking option in the preference session. 15C participants reported greater reductions in craving compared to the 2C participants in the presence of smoking-related and neutral stimuli (i.e., decreases in generalized craving), but no differences were noted in cue reactivity per se or in response inhibition. Conclusions: Results systematically replicate prior observations that a period 2 weeks of initial abstinence decreases the relative reinforcing effects of smoking and improves other outcomes associated with relapse risk compared to the initial day or two of a cessation effort, and extends them by underscoring the importance of generalized rather than cue-induced craving in relation to relapse risk during the initial weeks of smoking cessation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Authors
Bradstreet, MP; Higgins, ST; McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Skelly, JM; Washio, Y; Lopez, AA; Parry, MA
MLA Citation
Bradstreet, MP, Higgins, ST, McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, Skelly, JM, Washio, Y, Lopez, AA, and Parry, MA. "Examining the effects of initial smoking abstinence on response to smoking-related stimuli and response inhibition in a human laboratory model." Psychopharmacology 231.10 (January 1, 2014): 2145-2158.
Source
scopus
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
231
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2145
End Page
2158
DOI
10.1007/s00213-013-3360-x

Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study.

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior.The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data.We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Schick, RS; Hallyburton, M; Dennis, MF; Kollins, SH; Beckham, JC; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Schick, RS, Hallyburton, M, Dennis, MF, Kollins, SH, Beckham, JC, and McClernon, FJ. "Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study." Journal of dual diagnosis 10.1 (January 2014): 19-29.
PMID
24883050
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Volume
10
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
19
End Page
29
DOI
10.1080/15504263.2013.866841

Smoking motivation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives.

INTRODUCTION: Smokers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ from smokers without ADHD across a range of smoking outcomes (e.g., higher prevalence rates of smoking, faster progression to regular smoking, and greater difficulty quitting). Moreover, ADHD as a disorder has been characterized by deficits in fundamental motivational processes. To date, few studies have examined how motivation for smoking might differ between nicotine-dependent individuals with and without ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess whether specific smoking motivation factors differentiate smokers with and without ADHD as measured by an empirically derived self-report measure of smoking motivations. METHODS: Smokers with (n = 61) and without (n = 89) ADHD participated in a range of laboratory and clinical studies that included the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). RESULTS: A series of one-way analysis of covariances statistically controlling for age and race indicated that smokers with ADHD scored higher on the following WISDM subscales than their non-ADHD peers: automaticity, loss of control, cognitive enhancement, cue exposure, and negative reinforcement. Smokers in the non-ADHD group yielded higher scores on the social- environmental goads WISDM subscale. No group by gender interactions emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smokers with ADHD report different motives for smoking than smokers without ADHD. Clarifying the role of these motivational factors has implications for smoking prevention and treatment.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; McIntyre, EM; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, McIntyre, EM, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Smoking motivation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using the Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives." Nicotine Tob Res 16.1 (January 2014): 120-125.
PMID
24078759
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
16
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
120
End Page
125
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntt144

Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling

© 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.Smoking cessation results in withdrawal symptoms such as craving and negative mood that may contribute to lapse and relapse. Little is known regarding whether these symptoms are associated with the nicotine or non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke. Using arterial spin labeling, we measured resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 29 adult smokers across four conditions: (1) nicotine patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, (2) nicotine patch+abstinence from smoking, (3) placebo patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo patch+abstinence from smoking. We found that changes in self-reported craving positively correlated with changes in CBF from the denicotinized cigarette smoking conditions to the abstinent conditions. These correlations were found in several regions throughout the brain. Self-reported craving also increased from the nicotine to the placebo conditions, but had a minimal relationship with changes in CBF. The results of this study suggest that the non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke significantly impact withdrawal symptoms and associated brain areas, independently of the effects of nicotine. As such, the effects of non-nicotine factors are important to consider in the design and development of smoking cessation interventions and tobacco regulation.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Froeliger, B; Kozink, RV; Wert, DMV; Westman, EC; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Froeliger, B, Kozink, RV, Wert, DMV, Westman, EC, Rose, JE, and McClernon, FJ. "Nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors differentially modulate craving, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow as measured with arterial spin labeling." Neuropsychopharmacology 39.12 (2014): 2750-2759.
Source
scival
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
39
Issue
12
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2750
End Page
2759
DOI
10.1038/npp.2014.108

Effects of smoking on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

Rationale: Cigarette smokers smoke in part because nicotine helps regulate attention. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is a measure of early attentional gating that is reduced in abstinent smokers and in groups with attention regulation difficulties. Attention difficulties are found in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess whether smoking and abstinence differentially affect the startle response and PPI in smokers with and without PTSD. Methods: Startle response and PPI (prepulses at 60, 120, or 240 ms) were measured in smokers with (N = 39) and without (N = 61) PTSD, while smoking and again while abstinent. Results: Participants with PTSD produced both larger magnitude and faster latency startle responses than controls. Across groups, PPI was greater when smoking than when abstinent. The PTSD and control group exhibited different patterns of PPI across prepulse intervals when smoking and when abstinent. Older age was associated with reduced PPI, but only when abstinent from smoking. Conclusions: The effects of PTSD on startle magnitude and of smoking on PPI replicate earlier studies. The different pattern of PPI exhibited in PTSD and control groups across prepulse intervals, while smoking and abstinent suggests that previous research on smoking and PPI has been limited by not including longer prepulse intervals, and that nicotine may affect the time course as well as increasing the level of PPI. The reduced PPI among older participants during abstinence suggests that nicotine may play a role in maintaining attention in older smokers, which may motivate continued smoking in older individuals. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Authors
Vrana, SR; Calhoun, PS; McClernon, FJ; Dennis, MF; Lee, ST; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Vrana, SR, Calhoun, PS, McClernon, FJ, Dennis, MF, Lee, ST, and Beckham, JC. "Effects of smoking on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Psychopharmacology 230.3 (December 1, 2013): 477-485.
Source
scopus
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
230
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
477
End Page
485
DOI
10.1007/s00213-013-3181-y

Associations between smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in U.S. Iraq-and Afghanistan-era veterans: Bulletin of the society of psychologists in addictive behaviors: Bulletin of the society of psychologists in substance abuse

The risk of smoking increases with specific psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder); but the risk has also been shown to increase as a function of the number of psychiatric illnesses with which a person is diagnosed. The current study examined this association and other correlates of smoking-psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of U.S. Iraq-and Afghanistan-era veterans who have served since September 11, 2001. The sample consisted of 1,691 veterans (Mage = 37.5 years, 20.2% women, 53.2% minority). Veterans completed measures of smoking history, nicotine dependence, and smoking expectancies; they also underwent a structured diagnostic interview to establish any current and/or lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Consistent with previous studies, the number of comorbid diagnoses was significantly associated with both heavy (>20 cigarettes/day) and light-to-moderate (≤20 cigarette/day) smoking. Moreover, among current smokers, significant correlations between self-reported dependence and number of diagnoses were observed. Examination of self-reported smoking expectancies revealed that a greater number of diagnoses were associated with greater expectancies of negative affect reduction, stimulation and state enhancement, taste and sensorimotor manipulation, social facilitation, craving and addiction, and boredom reduction. The present findings confirm the association between the number of comorbid diagnoses reported in previous studies, and extends those findings by identifying smoking expectancies differences among smokers with comorbid diagnoses. © 2013 APA.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Hertzberg, JS; Dedert, EA; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Hertzberg, JS, Dedert, EA, and Beckham, JC. "Associations between smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in U.S. Iraq-and Afghanistan-era veterans: Bulletin of the society of psychologists in addictive behaviors: Bulletin of the society of psychologists in substance abuse." Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 27.4 (December 1, 2013): 1182-1188.
Source
scopus
Published In
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Volume
27
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1182
End Page
1188
DOI
10.1037/a0032014

Associations between smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans.

The risk of smoking increases with specific psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder); but the risk has also been shown to increase as a function of the number of psychiatric illnesses with which a person is diagnosed. The current study examined this association and other correlates of smoking-psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans who have served since September 11, 2001. The sample consisted of 1,691 veterans (Mage = 37.5 years, 20.2% women, 53.2% minority). Veterans completed measures of smoking history, nicotine dependence, and smoking expectancies; they also underwent a structured diagnostic interview to establish any current and/or lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Consistent with previous studies, the number of comorbid diagnoses was significantly associated with both heavy (>20 cigarettes/day) and light-to-moderate (≤20 cigarette/day) smoking. Moreover, among current smokers, significant correlations between self-reported dependence and number of diagnoses were observed. Examination of self-reported smoking expectancies revealed that a greater number of diagnoses were associated with greater expectancies of negative affect reduction, stimulation and state enhancement, taste and sensorimotor manipulation, social facilitation, craving and addiction, and boredom reduction. The present findings confirm the association between the number of comorbid diagnoses reported in previous studies, and extends those findings by identifying smoking expectancies differences among smokers with comorbid diagnoses.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Hertzberg, JS; Dedert, EA; VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center Registry Workgroup, ; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Hertzberg, JS, Dedert, EA, VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center Registry Workgroup, , and Beckham, JC. "Associations between smoking and psychiatric comorbidity in U.S. Iraq- and Afghanistan-era veterans." Psychol Addict Behav 27.4 (December 2013): 1182-1188.
PMID
23713569
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Volume
27
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1182
End Page
1188
DOI
10.1037/a0032014

Effects of smoking on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

RATIONALE: Cigarette smokers smoke in part because nicotine helps regulate attention. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex is a measure of early attentional gating that is reduced in abstinent smokers and in groups with attention regulation difficulties. Attention difficulties are found in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess whether smoking and abstinence differentially affect the startle response and PPI in smokers with and without PTSD. METHODS: Startle response and PPI (prepulses at 60, 120, or 240 ms) were measured in smokers with (N = 39) and without (N = 61) PTSD, while smoking and again while abstinent. RESULTS: Participants with PTSD produced both larger magnitude and faster latency startle responses than controls. Across groups, PPI was greater when smoking than when abstinent. The PTSD and control group exhibited different patterns of PPI across prepulse intervals when smoking and when abstinent. Older age was associated with reduced PPI, but only when abstinent from smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of PTSD on startle magnitude and of smoking on PPI replicate earlier studies. The different pattern of PPI exhibited in PTSD and control groups across prepulse intervals, while smoking and abstinent suggests that previous research on smoking and PPI has been limited by not including longer prepulse intervals, and that nicotine may affect the time course as well as increasing the level of PPI. The reduced PPI among older participants during abstinence suggests that nicotine may play a role in maintaining attention in older smokers, which may motivate continued smoking in older individuals.

Authors
Vrana, SR; Calhoun, PS; McClernon, FJ; Dennis, MF; Lee, ST; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Vrana, SR, Calhoun, PS, McClernon, FJ, Dennis, MF, Lee, ST, and Beckham, JC. "Effects of smoking on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 230.3 (December 2013): 477-485.
PMID
23828156
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
230
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
477
End Page
485
DOI
10.1007/s00213-013-3181-y

Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emerging adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of childhood economic strains on substance use in young adulthood and to assess the mediating roles of self-control as well as positive parenting during adolescence in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The study included data from participants (n = 1,285) in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Child Development Supplement, and Transition to Adult. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the associations among risk factors during childhood and adolescence that predicted substance use in early adulthood. RESULTS: Conditions of economic strains, especially poverty, during childhood were associated with an increased likelihood of regular smoking in adulthood, which was partially mediated by poorer self-control during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Self-control is negatively affected by economic strains and serves as a mediator between poverty and risk of regular smoking. Additional research is needed to better understand how economic strains effect the development of self-control.

Authors
Lee, C-T; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Prybol, K; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Prybol, K, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Childhood economic strains in predicting substance use in emerging adulthood: mediation effects of youth self-control and parenting practices." J Pediatr Psychol 38.10 (November 2013): 1130-1143.
PMID
23899658
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Volume
38
Issue
10
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1130
End Page
1143
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jst056

Nicotinic receptor gene variants interact with attention deficient hyperactive disorder symptoms to predict smoking trajectories from early adolescence to adulthood.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CHRNB3 (rs13280604) and CHRNA6 (rs892413) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in predicting smoking patterns from early adolescence to adulthood. METHOD: A longitudinal cohort of 1137 unrelated youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided responses to four surveys from Waves I to IV, and a genetic sample in Wave III. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify smoking patterns and to assess the effects of the two SNPs and ADHD symptoms on cigarette use over time. RESULTS: There were significant main effects of ADHD symptoms and CHRNA6 variants in predicting the number of cigarettes smoked and the pattern of use over time, respectively. There were no main effects of the CHRNB3 variants. However, a significant CHRNB3 variant×ADHD symptom interaction was observed, such that individuals with elevated ADHD symptoms and a particular CHRNB3 variant were at increased risk of cigarette use over time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a SNP in a nicotinic receptor gene may interact with ADHD symptoms to link with increased cigarette use across adolescence and young adulthood. Unique associations between specific variants and patterns of ADHD symptoms were identified which may be useful for targeting prevention efforts to individuals at greatest risk for cigarette smoking.

Authors
Lee, C-T; Fuemmeler, BF; McClernon, FJ; Ashley-Koch, A; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Lee, C-T, Fuemmeler, BF, McClernon, FJ, Ashley-Koch, A, and Kollins, SH. "Nicotinic receptor gene variants interact with attention deficient hyperactive disorder symptoms to predict smoking trajectories from early adolescence to adulthood." Addict Behav 38.11 (November 2013): 2683-2689.
PMID
23899432
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
38
Issue
11
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
2683
End Page
2689
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.06.013

I am your smartphone, and I know you are about to smoke: the application of mobile sensing and computing approaches to smoking research and treatment.

Much is known about the immediate and predictive antecedents of smoking lapse, which include situations (e.g., presence of other smokers), activities (e.g., alcohol consumption), and contexts (e.g., outside). This commentary suggests smartphone-based systems could be used to infer these predictive antecedents in real time and provide the smoker with just-in-time intervention. The smartphone of today is equipped with an array of sensors, including GPS, cameras, light sensors, barometers, accelerometers, and so forth, that provide information regarding physical location, human movement, ambient sounds, and visual imagery. We propose that libraries of algorithms to infer these antecedents can be developed and then incorporated into diverse mobile research and personalized treatment applications. While a number of challenges to the development and implementation of such applications are recognized, our field benefits from a database of known antecedents to a problem behavior, and further research and development in this exciting area are warranted.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Roy Choudhury, R
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Roy Choudhury, R. "I am your smartphone, and I know you are about to smoke: the application of mobile sensing and computing approaches to smoking research and treatment." Nicotine Tob Res 15.10 (October 2013): 1651-1654.
PMID
23703731
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
15
Issue
10
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1651
End Page
1654
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntt054

Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at rates higher than the general population and questions have been raised about how stimulant drugs-the frontline pharmacological treatment for ADHD-influence smoking risk and behavior in those with ADHD. In the present study adult regular smokers with (n = 16) and without (n = 17) ADHD participated in 3 experimental sessions in which they completed a Progressive Ratio (PR) task to measure the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking and money after oral administration of placebo and 2 active doses of methylphenidate (10 mg and 40 mg). We also measured attention and inhibitory control via a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Methylphenidate had no effect on smoking-reinforced responding, attention, or inhibitory control in either group. Attention and inhibitory control were associated with smoking-reinforced responding, but unsystematically and only in the non-ADHD group. Several design features, such as the value of the monetary response option, the PR schedule, and the potential effects of smoking on attention and inhibitory control, could have contributed to the negative findings and are discussed as such. Although inconsistent with some previous human laboratory studies of stimulant drugs and smoking, results are consistent with recent trials of stimulant drugs as adjuncts for smoking cessation in adult smokers with ADHD. In general, methylphenidate at mild and moderate doses did not influence the relative reinforcing effects of cigarette smoking in adults with and without ADHD.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Schoenfelder, E; English, JS; McClernon, FJ; Dew, RE; Lane, SD
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Schoenfelder, E, English, JS, McClernon, FJ, Dew, RE, and Lane, SD. "Methylphenidate does not influence smoking-reinforced responding or attentional performance in adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 21.5 (October 2013): 375-384.
PMID
24099358
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
21
Issue
5
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
375
End Page
384
DOI
10.1037/a0033851

Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample.

BACKGROUND: Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. METHODS: Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. RESULTS: Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories.

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, C-T; Ranby, KW; Clark, T; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, C-T, Ranby, KW, Clark, T, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Kollins, SH. "Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample." Drug Alcohol Depend 132.1-2 (September 1, 2013): 301-308.
PMID
23499056
Source
pubmed
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
132
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
301
End Page
308
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.021

THE EFFECT OF SMOKING ON THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AND PREPULSE INHIBITION PREDICTS A SUCCESSFUL QUIT ATTEMPT IN SMOKERS WITH AND WITHOUT POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Authors
Vrana, SR; Calhoun, PS; McClernon, FJ; Dennis, MF; Lee, ST; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Vrana, SR, Calhoun, PS, McClernon, FJ, Dennis, MF, Lee, ST, and Beckham, JC. "THE EFFECT OF SMOKING ON THE ACOUSTIC STARTLE RESPONSE AND PREPULSE INHIBITION PREDICTS A SUCCESSFUL QUIT ATTEMPT IN SMOKERS WITH AND WITHOUT POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER." September 2013.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
50
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
S32
End Page
S32

The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that have been associated with mood measures as well as smoking status, and nicotine is associated with increased DHEA and DHEAS levels. Given the difficulties with mood experienced by smokers with PTSD, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between negative affect and anxiety sensitivity with DHEA and DHEAS levels. Ninety-six smokers with and without PTSD provided blood samples for neurosteroid analyses and completed self-report measures of anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary ratings of negative affect. As expected, PTSD smokers reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity (F(1,94) = 20.67, partial η2 = 0.18, P < 0.0001) and negative affect (F(1,91) = 7.98, partial η2 = 0.08, P = 0.006). After accounting for age and sex, DHEAS was significantly inversely associated with both anxiety sensitivity (F(3,92) = 6.97, partial η2 = 0.07, P = 0.01) and negative affect (F(3,87) = 10.52, partial η2 = 0.11, P = 0.002) across groups. Effect sizes indicated that these effects are moderate to high. No significant interactions of diagnosis and DHEA(S) levels with mood measures were detected. Given that nicotine is known to elevate DHEA(S) levels, these results suggest that DHEAS may serve as a biomarker of the association between mood and nicotine among smokers. Implications for the results include (1) the use of DHEAS measurement across time and across quit attempts and (2) the potential for careful use of DHEA supplementation to facilitate abstinence during smoking cessation.

Authors
Van Voorhees, EE; Dennis, MF; McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Buse, NA; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Van Voorhees, EE, Dennis, MF, McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Buse, NA, and Beckham, JC. "The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." J Clin Psychopharmacol 33.4 (August 2013): 556-560.
PMID
23771199
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
33
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
556
End Page
560
DOI
10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182968962

Biomarkers for smoking cessation.

One way to enhance therapeutic development is through the identification and development of evaluative tools such as biomarkers. This review focuses on putative diagnostic, pharmacodynamic, and predictive biomarkers for smoking cessation. These types of biomarkers may be used to more accurately diagnose a disease, personalize treatment, identify novel targets for drug discovery, and enhance the efficiency of drug development. Promising biomarkers are presented across a range of approaches including metabolism, genetics, and neuroimaging. A preclinical viewpoint is also offered, as are analytical considerations and a regulatory perspective summarizing a pathway toward biomarker qualification.

Authors
Bough, KJ; Lerman, C; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ; Kenny, PJ; Tyndale, RF; David, SP; Stein, EA; Uhl, GR; Conti, DV; Green, C; Amur, S
MLA Citation
Bough, KJ, Lerman, C, Rose, JE, McClernon, FJ, Kenny, PJ, Tyndale, RF, David, SP, Stein, EA, Uhl, GR, Conti, DV, Green, C, and Amur, S. "Biomarkers for smoking cessation." Clin Pharmacol Ther 93.6 (June 2013): 526-538. (Review)
PMID
23588313
Source
pubmed
Published In
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Nature)
Volume
93
Issue
6
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
526
End Page
538
DOI
10.1038/clpt.2013.57

Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. METHODS: Thirty-three (n = 16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. RESULTS: Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking-reinforced responding are associated with changes in inhibitory control and negative affect regardless of ADHD status, a finding that may lead to novel prevention and treatment programs.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Roley, ME; O'Brien, B; Blair, J; Lane, SD; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Roley, ME, O'Brien, B, Blair, J, Lane, SD, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 227.1 (May 2013): 19-30.
PMID
23247366
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
227
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
19
End Page
30
DOI
10.1007/s00213-012-2937-0

Smoking and the bandit: a preliminary study of smoker and nonsmoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multiarmed bandit task.

Advantageous decision-making is an adaptive trade-off between exploring alternatives and exploiting the most rewarding option. This trade-off may be related to maladaptive decision-making associated with nicotine dependence; however, explore/exploit behavior has not been previously investigated in the context of addiction. The explore/exploit trade-off is captured by the multiarmed bandit task, in which different arms of a slot machine are chosen to discover the relative payoffs. The goal of this study was to preliminarily investigate whether smokers differ from nonsmokers in their degree of exploratory behavior. Smokers (n = 18) and nonsmokers (n = 17) completed a 6-armed bandit task as well as self-report measures of behavior and personality traits. Smokers were found to exhibit less exploratory behavior (i.e., made fewer switches between slot machine arms) than nonsmokers within the first 300 trials of the bandit task. The overall proportion of exploratory choices negatively correlated with self-reported measures of delay aversion and nonplanning impulsivity. These preliminary results suggest that smokers make fewer initial exploratory choices on the bandit task. The bandit task is a promising measure that could provide valuable insights into how nicotine use and dependence is associated with explore/exploit decision-making.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Pearson, JM; Wilson, J; Platt, ML; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Pearson, JM, Wilson, J, Platt, ML, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking and the bandit: a preliminary study of smoker and nonsmoker differences in exploratory behavior measured with a multiarmed bandit task." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 21.1 (February 2013): 66-73.
PMID
23245198
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
21
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
66
End Page
73
DOI
10.1037/a0030843

Frontoparietal attentional network activation differs between smokers and nonsmokers during affective cognition.

Smoking withdrawal-induced disruption of affect and cognition is associated with dysregulated prefrontal brain function, although little is known regarding the neural foci of smoker-nonsmoker differences during affective cognition. Thus, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify smoker-nonsmoker differences in affective cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (17 smokers, 17 nonsmokers) underwent fMRI during an affective Stroop task (aST). The aST includes emotional cue-reactivity trials, and response selection trials that contain either neutral or negative emotional distractors. Smokers had less activation during negative cue-reactivity trials in regions subserving emotional awareness (i.e., posterior cingulate), inhibitory control (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus) and conflict resolution (i.e., anterior cingulate); during response-selection trials with negative emotional distractors, smokers had greater activation in a frontoparietal attentional network (i.e., middle frontal and supramarginal gyri). Exploratory analyses revealed that task accuracy was positively correlated with anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus response on fMRI. These findings suggests that chronic nicotine use may reduce inhibitory control and conflict resolution of emotional distraction, and result in recruiting additional attentional resources during emotional interference on cognition.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, LA; Kozink, RV; Wang, L; Garland, EL; Addicott, MA; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, LA, Kozink, RV, Wang, L, Garland, EL, Addicott, MA, and McClernon, FJ. "Frontoparietal attentional network activation differs between smokers and nonsmokers during affective cognition." Psychiatry Res 211.1 (January 30, 2013): 57-63.
PMID
23154092
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychiatry Research
Volume
211
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
57
End Page
63
DOI
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.05.002

Frontoparietal attentional network activation differs between smokers and nonsmokers during affective cognition

Smoking withdrawal-induced disruption of affect and cognition is associated with dysregulated prefrontal brain function, although little is known regarding the neural foci of smoker-nonsmoker differences during affective cognition. Thus, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify smoker-nonsmoker differences in affective cognition. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (17 smokers, 17 nonsmokers) underwent fMRI during an affective Stroop task (aST). The aST includes emotional cue-reactivity trials, and response selection trials that contain either neutral or negative emotional distractors. Smokers had less activation during negative cue-reactivity trials in regions subserving emotional awareness (i.e., posterior cingulate), inhibitory control (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus) and conflict resolution (i.e., anterior cingulate); during response-selection trials with negative emotional distractors, smokers had greater activation in a frontoparietal attentional network (i.e., middle frontal and supramarginal gyri). Exploratory analyses revealed that task accuracy was positively correlated with anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus response on fMRI. These findings suggests that chronic nicotine use may reduce inhibitory control and conflict resolution of emotional distraction, and result in recruiting additional attentional resources during emotional interference on cognition. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, LA; Kozink, RV; Wang, L; Garland, EL; Addicott, MA; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, LA, Kozink, RV, Wang, L, Garland, EL, Addicott, MA, and McClernon, FJ. "Frontoparietal attentional network activation differs between smokers and nonsmokers during affective cognition." Psychiatry Research - Neuroimaging 211.1 (2013): 57-63.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging
Volume
211
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
57
End Page
63
DOI
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.05.002

Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Rationale: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk. Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of 24-h smoking abstinence in adult smokers with and without ADHD on the following outcomes: smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognitive function. Methods: Thirty-three (n = 16 with ADHD, 17 without ADHD) adult smokers (more than or equal to ten cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Each participant completed two experimental sessions: one following smoking as usual and one following biochemically verified 24-h smoking abstinence. Smoking-reinforced responding measured via a progressive ratio task, smoking withdrawal measured via questionnaire, and cognition measured via a continuous performance test (CPT) were assessed at each session. Results: Smoking abstinence robustly increased responding for cigarette puffs in both groups, and ADHD smokers responded more for puffs regardless of condition. Males in both groups worked more for cigarette puffs and made more commission errors on the CPT than females, regardless of condition. Smoking abstinence also increased ratings of withdrawal symptoms in both groups and smokers with ADHD, regardless of condition, reported greater symptoms of arousal, habit withdrawal, and somatic complaints. Across groups, smoking abstinence decreased inhibitory control and increased reaction time variability on the CPT. Abstinence-induced changes in inhibitory control and negative affect significantly predicted smoking-reinforced responding across groups. Conclusions: Smokers with ADHD reported higher levels of withdrawal symptoms and worked more for cigarette puffs, regardless of condition, which could help explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Abstinence-induced changes in smoking-reinforced responding are associated with changes in inhibitory control and negative affect regardless of ADHD status, a finding that may lead to novel prevention and treatment programs. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Authors
Kollins, SH; English, JS; Roley, ME; O'Brien, B; Blair, J; Lane, SD; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, English, JS, Roley, ME, O'Brien, B, Blair, J, Lane, SD, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of smoking abstinence on smoking-reinforced responding, withdrawal, and cognition in adults with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Psychopharmacology 227.1 (2013): 19-30.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
227
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
19
End Page
30
DOI
10.1007/s00213-012-2937-0

Biomarkers for smoking cessation

One way to enhance therapeutic development is through the identification and development of evaluative tools such as biomarkers. This review focuses on putative diagnostic, pharmacodynamic, and predictive biomarkers for smoking cessation. These types of biomarkers may be used to more accurately diagnose a disease, personalize treatment, identify novel targets for drug discovery, and enhance the efficiency of drug development. Promising biomarkers are presented across a range of approaches including metabolism, genetics, and neuroimaging. A preclinical viewpoint is also offered, as are analytical considerations and a regulatory perspective summarizing a pathway toward biomarker qualification.

Authors
Bough, KJ; Lerman, C; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ; Kenny, PJ; Tyndale, RF; David, SP; Stein, EA; Uhl, GR; Conti, DV; Green, C; Amur, S
MLA Citation
Bough, KJ, Lerman, C, Rose, JE, McClernon, FJ, Kenny, PJ, Tyndale, RF, David, SP, Stein, EA, Uhl, GR, Conti, DV, Green, C, and Amur, S. "Biomarkers for smoking cessation." Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 93.6 (2013): 526-538.
Source
scival
Published In
Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Nature)
Volume
93
Issue
6
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
526
End Page
538
DOI
10.1038/clpt.2013.57

The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased smoking initiation, maintenance, and relapse. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) are neurosteroids that have been associated with mood measures as well as smoking status, and nicotine is associated with increased DHEA and DHEAS levels. Given the difficulties with mood experienced by smokers with PTSD, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between negative affect and anxiety sensitivity with DHEA and DHEAS levels. Ninety-six smokers with and without PTSD provided blood samples for neurosteroid analyses and completed self-report measures of anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary ratings of negative affect. As expected, PTSD smokers reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity (F1,94 = 20.67, partial η = 0.18, P < 0.0001) and negative affect (F1,91 = 7.98, partial η = 0.08, P = 0.006). After accounting for age and sex, DHEAS was significantly inversely associated with both anxiety sensitivity (F3,92 = 6.97, partial η = 0.07, P = 0.01) and negative affect (F3,87 = 10.52, partial η = 0.11, P = 0.002) across groups. Effect sizes indicated that these effects are moderate to high. No significant interactions of diagnosis and DHEA(S) levels with mood measures were detected. Given that nicotine is known to elevate DHEA(S) levels, these results suggest that DHEAS may serve as a biomarker of the association between mood and nicotine among smokers. Implications for the results include (1) the use of DHEAS measurement across time and across quit attempts and (2) the potential for careful use of DHEA supplementation to facilitate abstinence during smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Authors
Voorhees, EEV; Dennis, MF; McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Buse, NA; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Voorhees, EEV, Dennis, MF, McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Buse, NA, and Beckham, JC. "The association of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with anxiety sensitivity and electronic diary negative affect among smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 33.4 (2013): 556-560.
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
33
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
556
End Page
560
DOI
10.1097/JCP.0b013e3182968962

Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample

Background: Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Methods: Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Results: Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Conclusions: Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, CT; Ranby, KW; Clark, T; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, CT, Ranby, KW, Clark, T, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Kollins, SH. "Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 132.1-2 (2013): 301-308.
Source
scival
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
132
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
301
End Page
308
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.021

If you see something, swipe towards it: crowdsourced event localization using smartphones.

Authors
Ouyang, WR; Srivastava, A; Prabahar, P; Choudhury, RR; Addicott, M; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Ouyang, WR, Srivastava, A, Prabahar, P, Choudhury, RR, Addicott, M, and McClernon, FJ. "If you see something, swipe towards it: crowdsourced event localization using smartphones." ACM, 2013.
Source
dblp
Published In
UbiComp
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
23
End Page
32
DOI
10.1145/2493432.2493455

Neural mechanisms of subclinical depressive symptoms in women: a pilot functional brain imaging study.

BACKGROUND: Studies of individuals who do not meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) but with subclinical levels of depressive symptoms may aid in the identification of neurofunctional abnormalities that possibly precede and predict the development of MDD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate relations between subclinical levels of depressive symptoms and neural activation patterns during tasks previously shown to differentiate individuals with and without MDD. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess neural activations during active emotion regulation, a resting state scan, and reward processing. Participants were twelve females with a range of depressive symptoms who did not meet criteria for MDD. RESULTS: Increased depressive symptom severity predicted (1) decreased left midfrontal gyrus activation during reappraisal of sad stimuli; (2) increased right midfrontal gyrus activation during distraction from sad stimuli; (3) increased functional connectivity between a precuneus seed region and left orbitofrontal cortex during a resting state scan; and (4) increased paracingulate activation during non-win outcomes during a reward-processing task. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data shed light on relations between subclinical levels of depressive symptoms in the absence of a formal MDD diagnosis and neural activation patterns. Future studies will be needed to test the utility of these activation patterns for predicting MDD onset in at-risk samples.

Authors
Felder, JN; Smoski, MJ; Kozink, RV; Froeliger, B; McClernon, J; Bizzell, J; Petty, C; Dichter, GS
MLA Citation
Felder, JN, Smoski, MJ, Kozink, RV, Froeliger, B, McClernon, J, Bizzell, J, Petty, C, and Dichter, GS. "Neural mechanisms of subclinical depressive symptoms in women: a pilot functional brain imaging study. (Published online)" BMC Psychiatry 12 (September 21, 2012): 152-.
PMID
22998631
Source
pubmed
Published In
BMC Psychiatry
Volume
12
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
152
DOI
10.1186/1471-244X-12-152

Assessing the role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

INTRODUCTION: Smoking prevalence among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is elevated relative to non-PTSD smokers, and there is evidence to suggest that affect regulation may be a motivation for smoking among those with this disorder. Previous studies have also indicated that (a) PTSD is frequently comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (b) individuals with ADHD smoke at significantly higher rates than the general population, (c) subclinical ADHD symptoms are a risk factor for smoking, and (d) affect regulation is a motivation for smoking in ADHD. The goal of this study was to assess the degree to which ADHD symptoms were uniquely associated with smoking-related affective functioning (SRAF) variables above and beyond the variance already explained by PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Smokers with (n = 55) and without PTSD (n = 68) completed measures assessing PTSD symptoms, ADHD symptoms, and SRAF. RESULTS: The PTSD group endorsed significantly more severe levels of DSM-IV inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. A series of hierarchical regressions among the entire sample indicated that, after accounting for PTSD symptoms, ADHD symptoms were associated with lower positive affect, higher negative affect, higher emotion dysregulation, higher anxiety sensitivity, and higher urges to smoke to increase positive affect. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings suggest that ADHD symptoms may increase affective dysregulation difficulties already faced by smokers, particularly those with PTSD, which may, in turn, confer increased risk for smoking relapse in those with higher levels of symptomatology of both disorders.

Authors
Mitchell, JT; Van Voorhees, EE; Dennis, MF; McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS; Kollins, SH; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Mitchell, JT, Van Voorhees, EE, Dennis, MF, McClernon, FJ, Calhoun, PS, Kollins, SH, and Beckham, JC. "Assessing the role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Nicotine Tob Res 14.8 (August 2012): 986-992.
PMID
22180583
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
8
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
986
End Page
992
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr245

Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: an integrative model.

Both females and individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been found to be at increased risk for a range of smoking outcomes, and recent empirical findings have suggested that women with ADHD may be particularly vulnerable to nicotine dependence. On a neurobiological level, the dopamine reward processing system may be implicated in the potentially unique interaction of nicotine with sex and with ADHD status. Specifically, nicotine appears to mitigate core ADHD symptoms through interaction with the dopamine reward processing system, and ovarian hormones have been found to interact with nicotine within the dopamine reward processing system to affect neurotransmitter release and functioning. This article synthesizes data from research examining smoking in women and in individuals with ADHD to build an integrative model through which unique risk for cigarette smoking in women with ADHD can be systematically explored. Based upon this model, the following hypotheses are proposed at the intersection of each of the three variables of sex, ADHD, and smoking: (1) individuals with ADHD have altered functioning of the dopamine reward system, which diminishes their ability to efficiently form conditioned associations based on environmental contingencies; these deficits are partially ameliorated by nicotine; (2) nicotine interacts with estrogen and the dopamine reward system to increase the positive and negative reinforcement value of smoking in female smokers; (3) in adult females with ADHD, ovarian hormones interact with the dopamine reward system to exacerbate ADHD-related deficits in the capacity to form conditioned associations; and (4) during different phases of the menstrual cycle, nicotine and ovarian hormones may interact differentially with the dopamine reward processing system to affect the type and value of reinforcement smoking provides for women with ADHD. Understanding the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying cigarette addiction in specific populations will be critical to developing effectively tailored smoking prevention and cessation programs for these groups. Overall, the goal of this paper is to examine the interaction of sex, smoking, and ADHD status within the context of the dopamine reward processing system not only to elucidate potential mechanisms specific to female smokers with ADHD, but also to stimulate consideration of how the examination of such individual differences can inform our understanding of smoking more broadly.

Authors
Van Voorhees, EE; Mitchell, JT; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Van Voorhees, EE, Mitchell, JT, McClernon, FJ, Beckham, JC, and Kollins, SH. "Sex, ADHD symptoms, and smoking outcomes: an integrative model." Med Hypotheses 78.5 (May 2012): 585-593. (Review)
PMID
22341778
Source
pubmed
Published In
Medical Hypotheses
Volume
78
Issue
5
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
585
End Page
593
DOI
10.1016/j.mehy.2012.01.034

Smoking abstinence and depressive symptoms modulate the executive control system during emotional information processing.

Smoking abstinence disrupts affective and cognitive processes. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the effects of smoking abstinence on emotional information processing. Smokers (n = 17) and non-smokers (n = 18) underwent fMRI while performing an emotional distractor oddball task in which rare targets were presented following negative and neutral task-irrelevant distractors. Smokers completed two sessions: once following 24-hour abstinence and once while satiated. The abstinent versus satiated states were compared by evaluating responses to distractor images and to targets following each distractor valence within frontal executive and limbic brain regions. Regression analyses were done to investigate whether self-reported negative affect influences brain response to images and targets. Exploratory regression analyses examined relations between baseline depressive symptoms and smoking state on brain function. Smoking state affected response to target detection in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). During satiety, activation was greater in response to targets following negative versus neutral distractors; following abstinence, the reverse was observed. Withdrawal-related negative affect was associated with right insula activation to negative images. Finally, depression symptoms were associated with abstinence-induced hypoactive response to negative emotional distractors and task-relevant targets following negative distractors in frontal brain regions. Neural processes related to novelty detection/attention in the right IFG may be disrupted by smoking abstinence and negative stimuli. Reactivity to emotional stimuli and the interfering effects on cognition are moderated by the magnitude of smoking state-dependent negative affect and baseline depressive symptoms.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, LA; Kozink, RV; Wang, L; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, LA, Kozink, RV, Wang, L, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking abstinence and depressive symptoms modulate the executive control system during emotional information processing." Addict Biol 17.3 (May 2012): 668-679.
PMID
22081878
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
17
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
668
End Page
679
DOI
10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00410.x

Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task.

BACKGROUND: Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion-cognition interactions. METHODS: Smokers (n = 17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p < 0.05 cluster corrected. RESULTS: Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level-dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. CONCLUSION: Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, L; Wang, L; Kozink, RV; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, L, Wang, L, Kozink, RV, and McClernon, FJ. "Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220.4 (April 2012): 707-718.
PMID
21989805
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
220
Issue
4
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
707
End Page
718
DOI
10.1007/s00213-011-2522-y

COMMUNITY AND INDIVIDUAL LEVEL SOCIAL CORRELATES OF SMOKING TRAJECTORIES FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD

Authors
Fuemmeler, B; Lee, C-T; Ranby, KW; Stroo, M; Yang, C; Clark, K; Boynton, MH; Clark, T; McClernon, J; Kollins, S
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, B, Lee, C-T, Ranby, KW, Stroo, M, Yang, C, Clark, K, Boynton, MH, Clark, T, McClernon, J, and Kollins, S. "COMMUNITY AND INDIVIDUAL LEVEL SOCIAL CORRELATES OF SMOKING TRAJECTORIES FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD." ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE 43 (April 2012): S210-S210.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Annals of Behavioral Medicine
Volume
43
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
S210
End Page
S210

Smoking withdrawal in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

INTRODUCTION: Previous research on smoking withdrawal in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been limited by the use of retrospective and observational methods and has lacked repeated assessments on the first day of abstinence and evaluation of the conditioned effects of smoking. METHODS: Smokers with (n = 17; 59% female) and without (n = 30; 17% female) PTSD completed 3 randomly ordered experimental sessions using a 2 (group: PTSD vs. non-PTSD) × 3 (smoking condition: usual brand vs. nicotine free vs. no smoking) design. Before the smoking manipulation, participants completed self-report measures of smoking urges and withdrawal, followed by withdrawal assessment after the smoking manipulation. RESULTS: Compared with smokers without PTSD, smokers with PTSD exhibited higher craving (χ₁² = 16.60, p < .001) and habit withdrawal (χ₁² = 10.38, p = .001) following overnight abstinence. PTSD smokers also exhibited worsening negative affect throughout the morning when not smoking a cigarette (χ₁² = 11.30, p = .004). After smoking, smokers with PTSD reported diminished relief from craving (χ₁² = 6.49, p = .011), negative affect (χ₁² = 4.51, p = .034), arousal (χ₁² = 6.46, p = .011), and habit withdrawal (χ₁² = 7.22, p = .007), relative to smokers without PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this preliminary investigation suggested that after overnight abstinence, PTSD smokers experienced worse withdrawal symptoms and greater urges to smoke for both positive and negative reinforcement. Research on smoking withdrawal early in the course of smoking abstinence in PTSD could inform interventions targeting abstinence early in the quit attempt.

Authors
Dedert, EA; Calhoun, PS; Harper, LA; Dutton, CE; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Dedert, EA, Calhoun, PS, Harper, LA, Dutton, CE, McClernon, FJ, and Beckham, JC. "Smoking withdrawal in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Nicotine Tob Res 14.3 (March 2012): 372-376.
PMID
22025546
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
372
End Page
376
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr142

A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults.

INTRODUCTION: Initial reactions to cigarettes predict later regular smoking. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been shown to increase smoking risk and may moderate the relationship between genotype and smoking. We conducted an exploratory study to assess whether ADHD symptoms interact with genetic variation to predict self-reported initial reactions to smoking. METHODS: Participants were a subsample of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. Linear regression was used to examine relationships among self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and self-reported initial reactions to cigarettes (index scores reflecting pleasant and unpleasant reactions). RESULTS: Polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene, SLC6A4 gene, and among males, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting pleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. Polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting unpleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. No main effect for any of these polymorphisms was observed nor were any interactions with DRD4 and DAT genes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that genotypes associated with monoamine neurotransmission interact with ADHD symptoms to influence initial reactions to cigarette smoking. Given that an initial pleasant reaction to cigarettes increases risk for lifetime smoking, these results add to a growing body of literature that suggests that ADHD symptoms increase risk for smoking and should be accounted for in genetic studies of smoking.

Authors
Bidwell, LC; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Williams, RB; Ashley-Koch, AE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Williams, RB, Ashley-Koch, AE, and Kollins, SH. "A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults." Nicotine Tob Res 14.2 (February 2012): 229-233.
PMID
21778150
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
14
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
229
End Page
233
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr125

Remitted major depression is characterized by reward network hyperactivation during reward anticipation and hypoactivation during reward outcomes.

BACKGROUND: Although functional brain imaging has established that individuals with unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction during reward processing, no research to date has examined the chronometry of neural responses to rewards in euthymic individuals with a history of MDD. METHOD: A monetary incentive delay task was used during fMRI scanning to assess neural responses in frontostriatal reward regions during reward anticipation and outcomes in 19 participants with remitted major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 19 matched control participants. RESULTS: During the anticipation phase of the task, the rMDD group was characterized by relatively greater activation in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus, in right midfrontal gyrus, and in the right cerebellum. During the outcome phase of the task, the rMDD group was characterized by relatively decreased activation in bilateral orbital frontal cortex, right frontal pole, left insular cortex, and left thalamus. Exploratory analyses indicated that activation within a right frontal pole cluster that differentiated groups during reward anticipation predicted the number of lifetime depressive episodes within the rMDD group. LIMITATIONS: Replication with larger samples is needed. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest a double dissociation between reward network reactivity and temporal phase of the reward response in rMDD, such that rMDD is generally characterized by reward network hyperactivation during reward anticipation and reward network hypoactivation during reward outcomes. More broadly, these data suggest that aberrant frontostriatal response to rewards may potentially represent a trait marker for MDD, though future research is needed to evaluate the prospective utility of this functional neural endophenotype as a marker of MDD risk.

Authors
Dichter, GS; Kozink, RV; McClernon, FJ; Smoski, MJ
MLA Citation
Dichter, GS, Kozink, RV, McClernon, FJ, and Smoski, MJ. "Remitted major depression is characterized by reward network hyperactivation during reward anticipation and hypoactivation during reward outcomes." J Affect Disord 136.3 (February 2012): 1126-1134.
PMID
22036801
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Affective Disorders
Volume
136
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1126
End Page
1134
DOI
10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.048

Smoking withdrawal is associated with increases in brain activation during decision making and reward anticipation: a preliminary study.

RATIONALE: Acute nicotine abstinence is associated with disruption of executive function and reward processes; however, the neurobiological basis of these effects has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: The effects of nicotine abstinence on brain function during reward-based probabilistic decision making were preliminarily investigated by scanning adult smokers (n = 13) following 24 h of smoking abstinence and in a smoking-satiated condition. During fMRI scanning, participants completed the wheel of fortune task (Ernst et al. in Neuropsychologia 42:1585-1597, 2004), a decision-making task with probabilistic monetary outcomes. Brain activation was modeled during selection of options, anticipation of outcomes, and outcome feedback. RESULTS: During choice selection, reaction times were slower, and there was greater neural activation in the postcentral gyrus, insula, and frontal and parietal cortices in the abstinent condition compared to the satiated condition. During reward anticipation, greater activation was observed in the frontal pole, insula, and paracingulate cortex in the abstinent condition compared to the satiated condition. Greater activation was also shown in the precentral gyrus and putamen in the satiated condition compared to the abstinent condition. During the outcome phase, rewards (compared to no rewards) resulted in significant activation in the paracingulate cortex in the satiated condition compared to the abstinent condition. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this preliminary study suggest that smoking withdrawal results in greater recruitment of insular, frontal, and parietal cortical areas during probabilistic decision making.

Authors
Addicott, MA; Baranger, DAA; Kozink, RV; Smoski, MJ; Dichter, GS; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Baranger, DAA, Kozink, RV, Smoski, MJ, Dichter, GS, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking withdrawal is associated with increases in brain activation during decision making and reward anticipation: a preliminary study." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 219.2 (January 2012): 563-573.
PMID
21766170
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
219
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
563
End Page
573
DOI
10.1007/s00213-011-2404-3

Effects of unexpected changes in visual scenes on the human acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition.

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the process wherein startle responses to salient stimuli (e.g., startling sound pulses) are attenuated by the presentation of another stimulus (e.g., a brief pre-pulse) immediately before the startling stimulus. Accordingly, deficits in PPI reflect atypical sensorimotor gating that is linked to neurobehavioral systems underlying responsivity to emotionally evocative cues. Little is known about the effects of changes in visual contextual information in PPI among humans. In this study, the effects of introducing unexpected changes in the visual scenes presented on a computer monitor on the human auditory startle response and PPI were assessed in young adults. Based on our animal data showing that unexpected transitions from a dark to a light environment reduce the startle response and PPI in rats after the illumination transition, it was hypothesized that novel changes in visual scenes would produce similar effects in humans. Results show that PPI decreased when elements were added to or removed from visual scenes, and that this effect declined after repeated presentations of the modified scene, supporting the interpretation that the PPI reduction was due to novel information being processed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that novel visual stimuli can impair sensorimotor gating of auditory stimuli in humans.

Authors
Larrauri, JA; Rosenthal, MZ; Levin, ED; McClernon, FJ; Schmajuk, NA
MLA Citation
Larrauri, JA, Rosenthal, MZ, Levin, ED, McClernon, FJ, and Schmajuk, NA. "Effects of unexpected changes in visual scenes on the human acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition." Behav Processes 89.1 (January 2012): 1-7.
PMID
22001728
Source
pubmed
Published In
Behavioural Processes
Volume
89
Issue
1
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1
End Page
7
DOI
10.1016/j.beproc.2011.09.011

Meditation-State Functional Connectivity (msFC): Strengthening of the Dorsal Attention Network and Beyond.

Meditation practice alters intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the default mode network (DMN). However, little is known regarding the effects of meditation on other resting-state networks. The aim of current study was to investigate the effects of meditation experience and meditation-state functional connectivity (msFC) on multiple resting-state networks (RSNs). Meditation practitioners (MPs) performed two 5-minute scans, one during rest, one while meditating. A meditation naïve control group (CG) underwent one resting-state scan. Exploratory regression analyses of the relations between years of meditation practice and rsFC and msFC were conducted. During resting-state, MP as compared to CG exhibited greater rsFC within the Dorsal Attention Network (DAN). Among MP, meditation, as compared to rest, strengthened FC between the DAN and DMN and Salience network whereas it decreased FC between the DAN, dorsal medial PFC, and insula. Regression analyses revealed positive correlations between the number of years of meditation experience and msFC between DAN, thalamus, and anterior parietal sulcus, whereas negative correlations between DAN, lateral and superior parietal, and insula. These findings suggest that the practice of meditation strengthens FC within the DAN as well as strengthens the coupling between distributed networks that are involved in attention, self-referential processes, and affective response.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Garland, EL; Kozink, RV; Modlin, LA; Chen, N-K; McClernon, FJ; Greeson, JM; Sobin, P
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Garland, EL, Kozink, RV, Modlin, LA, Chen, N-K, McClernon, FJ, Greeson, JM, and Sobin, P. "Meditation-State Functional Connectivity (msFC): Strengthening of the Dorsal Attention Network and Beyond." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 (2012): 680407-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11995
PMID
22536289
Source
pubmed
Published In
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume
2012
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
680407
DOI
10.1155/2012/680407

Understanding the phenotypic structure of adult retrospective ADHD symptoms during childhood in the United States.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and the phenotypic structure comprising inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms has been the focus of a growing body of recent research. Methodological studies are needed to better characterize phenotypes to advance research as well as clinical practice. A large U.S. population-based sample of young adults (N = 14,307, aged 17-28 years, 52.8% female) retrospectively reported their experiences of childhood ADHD symptoms. Factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture modeling of ADHD symptoms were compared to determine which underlying structure best fit the data. Fit statistics as well as substantive criteria compared models within and across model subtypes. Analyses supported a two-factor two-class structure for both male and female subjects. The two latent factors represented inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom dimensions. The two latent classes divided people into a smaller affected class and a larger unaffected class. Individuals who reported having been diagnosed with ADHD were more likely to be in the affected class (OR male subjects = 4.03, 95% CI [2.65, 6.13]; OR female subjects = 5.65, 95% CI [3.15, 10.10]). This work aids in the understanding of ADHD symptomatology within the population; a majority of people experience very low symptom severity, whereas a minority of people experience high symptom severity. Within this high symptom group, however, variability in symptom experiences exists. Empirical models can be helpful in clarifying ADHD phenotypic structure that has the potential to advance research on the etiology and consequences of ADHD symptoms.

Authors
Ranby, KW; Boynton, MH; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Yang, C; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Ranby, KW, Boynton, MH, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, Yang, C, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Understanding the phenotypic structure of adult retrospective ADHD symptoms during childhood in the United States." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 41.3 (2012): 261-274.
PMID
22394329
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Volume
41
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
261
End Page
274
DOI
10.1080/15374416.2012.654465

An examination of differences in variables maintaining smoking behavior in adult smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at higher rates and have greater difficulty quitting than their non-diagnosed peers. This study examined differences between smokers with and without ADHD on a range of smoking-related variables. Twenty-two subjects with ADHD and 22 controls completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms, smoking motivation, sensory experience of smoking, and positive and negative affect. Compared to control smokers, smokers with ADHD reported greater craving and negative affect; perceived smoking as providing greater enhancement of concentration and alertness, as more calming, and as providing a greater decrease in irritability; found cigarette puffs to be more enjoyable and satisfying; and rated smoking as providing greater positive and negative reinforcement and greater cognitive enhancement. Women with ADHD reported the greatest effects of smoking on improving concentration and reducing irritability. Findings support the hypothesis that smokers with ADHD may experience smoking differently than smokers without the disorder, and that they may identify different motivations for smoking.

Authors
Voorhees, EV; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, B; English, J; Holdaway, A; Hallyburton, M; Dew, R; Kollins, S
MLA Citation
Voorhees, EV, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, B, English, J, Holdaway, A, Hallyburton, M, Dew, R, and Kollins, S. "An examination of differences in variables maintaining smoking behavior in adult smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder." Addiction Research and Theory 20.1 (2012): 72-81.
Source
scival
Published In
Addiction Research & Theory (Informa)
Volume
20
Issue
1
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
72
End Page
81
DOI
10.3109/16066359.2011.564692

Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: a pilot study.

Mindfulness meditation involves attending to emotions without cognitive fixation of emotional experience. Over time, this practice is held to promote alterations in trait affectivity and attentional control with resultant effects on well-being and cognition. However, relatively little is known regarding the neural substrates of meditation effects on emotion and cognition. The present study investigated the neurocognitive correlates of emotion interference on cognition in Yoga practitioners and a matched control group (CG) underwent fMRI while performing an event-related affective Stroop task. The task includes image viewing trials and Stroop trials bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors. During image viewing trials, Yoga practitioners exhibited less reactivity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to negative as compared to neutral images; whereas the CG had the opposite pattern. A main effect of valence (negative > neutral) was observed in limbic regions (e.g., amygdala), of which the magnitude was inversely related to dlPFC activation. Exploratory analyses revealed that the magnitude of amygdala activation predicted decreased self-reported positive affect in the CG, but not among Yoga practitioners. During Stroop trials, Yoga practitioners had greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) during Stroop trials when negative, compared to neutral, emotional distractor were presented; the CG exhibited the opposite pattern. Taken together, these data suggest that though Yoga practitioners exhibit limbic reactivity to negative emotional stimuli, such reactivity does not have downstream effects on later mood state. This uncoupling of viewing negative emotional images and affect among Yoga practitioners may be occasioned by their selective implementation of frontal executive-dependent strategies to reduce emotional interference during competing cognitive demands and not during emotional processing per se.

Authors
Froeliger, BE; Garland, EL; Modlin, LA; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, BE, Garland, EL, Modlin, LA, and McClernon, FJ. "Neurocognitive correlates of the effects of yoga meditation practice on emotion and cognition: a pilot study. (Published online)" Front Integr Neurosci 6 (2012): 48-.
PMID
22855674
Source
pubmed
Published In
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Volume
6
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
48
DOI
10.3389/fnint.2012.00048

Effects of nicotine on emotional reactivity in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers: Results of a pilot fMRI study

There is evidence that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may smoke in part to regulate negative affect. This pilot fMRI study examined the effects of nicotine on emotional information processing in smokers with and without PTSD. Across groups, nicotine increased brain activation in response to fearful/angry faces (compared to neutral faces) in ventral caudate. Patch x Group interactions were observed in brain regions involved in emotional and facial feature processing. These preliminary findings suggest that nicotine differentially modulates negative information processing in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers. Copyright © 2012 Brett Froeliger et al.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Beckham, JC; Dennis, MF; Kozink, RV; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Beckham, JC, Dennis, MF, Kozink, RV, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of nicotine on emotional reactivity in PTSD and non-PTSD smokers: Results of a pilot fMRI study." Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 2012 (2012).
PMID
22719754
Source
scival
Published In
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume
2012
Publish Date
2012
DOI
10.1155/2012/265724

Erratum: Smoking withdrawal is associated with increases in brain activation during decision making and reward anticipation: A preliminary study

Authors
Addicott, MA; Baranger, DAA; Kozink, RV; Smoski, MJ; Dichter, GS; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Addicott, MA, Baranger, DAA, Kozink, RV, Smoski, MJ, Dichter, GS, and McClernon, FJ. "Erratum: Smoking withdrawal is associated with increases in brain activation during decision making and reward anticipation: A preliminary study." Psychopharmacology 219.2 (2012): 685-686.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
219
Issue
2
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
685
End Page
686
DOI
10.1007/s00213-011-2531-x

Yoga meditation practitioners exhibit greater gray matter volume and fewer reported cognitive failures: results of a preliminary voxel-based morphometric analysis.

Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas), breathing exercises (pranayama), and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV) between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP) and a matched control group (CG). The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Garland, EL; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Garland, EL, and McClernon, FJ. "Yoga meditation practitioners exhibit greater gray matter volume and fewer reported cognitive failures: results of a preliminary voxel-based morphometric analysis." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 (2012): 821307-.
PMID
23304217
Source
pubmed
Published In
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume
2012
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
821307
DOI
10.1155/2012/821307

Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

Background Among nicotine-dependent smokers, smoking abstinence disrupts multiple cognitive and affective processes including conflict resolution and emotional information processing (EIP). However, the neurobiological basis of abstinence effects on resolving emotional interference on cognition remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate smoking abstinence effects on emotion-cognition interactions. Methods Smokers (n=17) underwent fMRI while performing an affective Stroop task (aST) over two sessions: once following 24-h abstinence and once following smoking as usual. The aST includes trials that serially present incongruent or congruent numerical grids bracketed by neutral or negative emotional distractors and view-only emotional image trials. Statistical analyses were conducted using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 cluster corrected. Results Smoking abstinence increased Stroop blood-oxygenation-level- dependent response in the right middle frontal and rostral anterior cingulate gyri. Moreover, withdrawal-induced negative affect was associated with less activation in frontoparietal regions during negative emotional information processing; whereas, during Stroop trials, negative affect predicted greater activation in frontal regions during negative, but not neutral emotional distractor trials. Conclusion Hyperactivation in the frontal executive control network during smoking abstinence may represent a need to recruit additional executive resources to meet task demands. Moreover, abstinence-induced negative affect may disrupt cognitive control neural circuitry during EIP and place additional demands on frontal executive neural resources during cognitive demands when presented with emotionally distracting stimuli. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, L; Wang, L; Kozink, RV; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, L, Wang, L, Kozink, RV, and McClernon, FJ. "Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task." Psychopharmacology 220.4 (2012): 707-718.
Source
scival
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
220
Issue
4
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
707
End Page
718
DOI
10.1007/s00213-011-2522-y

Genotype and ADHD symptoms interact to predict adolescents' early smoking experiences in an epidemiological sample

Authors
Bidwell, LC; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Williams, RB; Ashley-Koch, AE; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Williams, RB, Ashley-Koch, AE, and Kollins, SH. "Genotype and ADHD symptoms interact to predict adolescents' early smoking experiences in an epidemiological sample." November 2011.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Behavior Genetics
Volume
41
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
893
End Page
893

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes.

BACKGROUND: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown strong correlations between cue-elicited craving for cigarettes and activation of the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a noninvasive means to reversibly affect brain cortical activity, which can be applied to testing hypotheses about the causal role of SFG in modulating craving. METHODS: Fifteen volunteer smokers were recruited to investigate the effects of rTMS on subjective responses to smoking versus neutral cues and to controlled presentations of cigarette smoke. On different days, participants were exposed to three conditions: 1) high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; 2) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the SFG; and 3) low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS directed at the motor cortex (control condition). RESULTS: Craving ratings in response to smoking versus neutral cues were differentially affected by the 10-Hz versus 1-Hz SFG condition. Craving after smoking cue presentations was elevated in the 10-Hz SFG condition, whereas craving after neutral cue presentations was reduced. Upon smoking in the 10-Hz SFG condition, ratings of immediate craving reduction as well as the intensity of interoceptive airway sensations were also attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the view that the SFG plays a role in modulating craving reactivity; moreover, the results suggest that the SFG plays a role in both excitatory and inhibitory influences on craving, consistent with prior research demonstrating the role of the prefrontal cortex in the elicitation as well as inhibition of drug-seeking behaviors.

Authors
Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ; Froeliger, B; Behm, FM; Preud'homme, X; Krystal, AD
MLA Citation
Rose, JE, McClernon, FJ, Froeliger, B, Behm, FM, Preud'homme, X, and Krystal, AD. "Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the superior frontal gyrus modulates craving for cigarettes." Biol Psychiatry 70.8 (October 15, 2011): 794-799.
PMID
21762878
Source
pubmed
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
70
Issue
8
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
794
End Page
799
DOI
10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.05.031

Smoking withdrawal symptoms are more severe among smokers with ADHD and independent of ADHD symptom change: results from a 12-day contingency-managed abstinence trial.

INTRODUCTION: Smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have greater difficulty quitting than those without ADHD, but preliminary data (McClernon, Kollins, Lutz, Fitzgerald, Murray, Redman, et al., 2008) suggest equivalent severity of withdrawal symptoms following brief abstinence. The objective of this study was to characterize the differential effects of intermediate term smoking abstinence on self-reported withdrawal and ADHD symptoms in adult smokers with and without ADHD. METHODS: Forty adult (50% female), nontreatment seeking moderate-to-heavy smokers with and without ADHD were enrolled in a 12-day quit study in which monetary incentives were provided for maintaining biologically verified abstinence. Self-reported withdrawal, mood, and ADHD symptoms were measured pre- and post-quitting. RESULTS: ADHD and controls did not vary on smoking or demographic variables. Significant Group × Session interactions were observed across a broad range of withdrawal symptoms and were generally characterized by greater withdrawal severity among ADHD smokers, particularly during the first 5 days of abstinence. In addition, Group × Sex × Session interactions were observed for craving, somatic symptoms, negative affect, and habit withdrawal; these interactions were driven by greater withdrawal severity among females with ADHD. Group × Session interactions were not observed for ADHD symptom scales. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that smokers with ADHD, and ADHD females in particular, experience greater withdrawal severity during early abstinence-independent of effects on ADHD symptoms. Whereas additional research is needed to pinpoint mechanisms, our findings suggest that smoking cessation interventions targeted at smokers with ADHD should address their more severe withdrawal symptoms following quitting.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Van Voorhees, EE; English, J; Hallyburton, M; Holdaway, A; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Van Voorhees, EE, English, J, Hallyburton, M, Holdaway, A, and Kollins, SH. "Smoking withdrawal symptoms are more severe among smokers with ADHD and independent of ADHD symptom change: results from a 12-day contingency-managed abstinence trial." Nicotine Tob Res 13.9 (September 2011): 784-792.
PMID
21571687
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
13
Issue
9
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
784
End Page
792
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntr073

Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with multiple cognition-related phenotypic features in both children and adults. This review aims to clarify the role of cognition in ADHD and how prevailing treatments, which are often highly effective at reducing the clinical symptoms of the disorder, fare in modulating ADHD-related cognitive processes. First, we consider how the broad construct of cognition can be conceptualized in the context of ADHD. Second, we review the available evidence for how a range of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have fared with respect to enhancing cognition in individuals affected by this pervasive disorder. Findings from the literature suggest that the effects across a broad range of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on the characteristic symptoms of ADHD can be distinguished from their effects on cognitive impairments. As such the direct clinical relevance of cognition enhancing effects of different interventions is somewhat limited. Recommendations for future research are discussed, including the identification of cognition-related endophenotypes, the refinement of the ADHD clinical phenotype, and studying the difference between acute and chronic treatment regimens.

Authors
Bidwell, LC; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Bidwell, LC, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Cognitive enhancers for the treatment of ADHD." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 99.2 (August 2011): 262-274. (Review)
PMID
21596055
Source
pubmed
Published In
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior
Volume
99
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
262
End Page
274
DOI
10.1016/j.pbb.2011.05.002

Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and obesity and hypertension in early adulthood: a population-based study.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, obesity and hypertension in young adults in a large population-based cohort. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 15,197 respondents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2009 in the United States. Multinomial logistic and logistic models examined the odds of overweight, obesity and hypertension in adulthood in relation to retrospectively reported ADHD symptoms. Latent curve modeling was used to assess the association between symptoms and naturally occurring changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to adulthood. RESULTS: Linear association was identified between the number of inattentive (IN) and hyperactive/impulsive (HI) symptoms and waist circumference, BMI, diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure (all P-values for trend <0.05). Controlling for demographic variables, physical activity, alcohol use, smoking and depressive symptoms, those with three or more HI or IN symptoms had the highest odds of obesity (HI 3+, odds ratio (OR)=1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-2.83; IN 3+, OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.44) compared with those with no HI or IN symptoms. HI symptoms at the 3+ level were significantly associated with a higher OR of hypertension (HI 3+, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01-1.51; HI continuous, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.00-1.09), but associations were nonsignificant when models were adjusted for BMI. Latent growth modeling results indicated that compared with those reporting no HI or IN symptoms, those reporting 3 or more symptoms had higher initial levels of BMI during adolescence. Only HI symptoms were associated with change in BMI. CONCLUSION: Self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with adult BMI and change in BMI from adolescence to adulthood, providing further evidence of a link between ADHD symptoms and obesity.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Østbye, T; Yang, C; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Østbye, T, Yang, C, McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and obesity and hypertension in early adulthood: a population-based study." Int J Obes (Lond) 35.6 (June 2011): 852-862.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/5916
PMID
20975727
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Obesity
Volume
35
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
852
End Page
862
DOI
10.1038/ijo.2010.214

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the Superior Frontal Gyrus Modulates Craving for Cigarettes

Authors
Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ; Froeliger, B; Behm, FM; Preud'homme, X; Krystal, AD
MLA Citation
Rose, JE, McClernon, FJ, Froeliger, B, Behm, FM, Preud'homme, X, and Krystal, AD. "Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of the Superior Frontal Gyrus Modulates Craving for Cigarettes." May 1, 2011.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
69
Issue
9
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
277S
End Page
278S

The effect of nicotine and trauma context on acoustic startle in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

RATIONALE: Exaggerated startle response is a prominent feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although results examining differences in the acoustic startle response (ASR) between those with and without PTSD are mixed. One variable that may affect ASR among persons with PTSD is smoking. Individuals with PTSD are more likely to smoke and have greater difficulty quitting smoking. While smokers with PTSD report that smoking provides significant relief of negative affect and PTSD symptoms, the effects of smoking or nicotine deprivation on startle reactivity among smokers with PTSD are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of the current study were to (1) examine baseline acoustic startle response (ASR) in smokers with and without PTSD under conditions of overnight abstinence, (2) evaluate the effect of smoking on ASR, and (3) evaluate the contextual effects of trauma versus neutral script presentations. METHODS: ASR was measured among 48 smokers with and without PTSD in the context of a 2 (group: PTSD vs. non-PTSD) x 2 (context: trauma vs. neutral) x 3 (smoking condition: usual brand cigarette vs. denicotinized cigarette vs. no smoking) design. RESULTS: Effects of modest size indicated that (1) PTSD participants demonstrated higher ASR (2) compared to non-PTSD participants, PTSD participants reported greater negative affect following a trauma-related script, and (3) following a trauma-related script and smoking a usual brand cigarette, PTSD participants demonstrated higher ASR. CONCLUSIONS: Although many smokers with PTSD report that smoking reduces PTSD symptoms, results suggest that smoking may actually potentiate or maintain an exaggerated startle response.

Authors
Calhoun, PS; Wagner, HR; McClernon, FJ; Lee, S; Dennis, MF; Vrana, SR; Clancy, CP; Collie, CF; Johnson, YC; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Calhoun, PS, Wagner, HR, McClernon, FJ, Lee, S, Dennis, MF, Vrana, SR, Clancy, CP, Collie, CF, Johnson, YC, and Beckham, JC. "The effect of nicotine and trauma context on acoustic startle in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 215.2 (May 2011): 379-389.
PMID
21188354
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
215
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
379
End Page
389
DOI
10.1007/s00213-010-2144-9

Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task

Authors
Froeliger, B; Modlin, L; Wang, L; Kozink, RV; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Modlin, L, Wang, L, Kozink, RV, and McClernon, FJ. "Nicotine withdrawal modulates frontal brain function during an affective Stroop task." Psychopharmacology (2011): 1-12.
Source
scopus
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1
End Page
12

Smoking withdrawal modulates right inferior frontal cortex but not presupplementary motor area activation during inhibitory control.

Smokers exhibit decrements in inhibitory control (IC) during withdrawal. The objective of this study was to investigate the neural basis of these effects in critical substrates of IC--right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA). Smokers were scanned following smoking as usual and after 24-h smoking abstinence. During scanning they completed a Go/No-Go task that required inhibiting responses to infrequent STOP trials. Event-related brain activation in response to successfully inhibited STOP trials was evaluated in two regions of interest: rIFC (10 mm sphere, x=40, y=30, z=26) and pre-SMA (10 mm sphere, x=2, y=18, z=40). Smoking abstinence robustly increased errors of commission on STOP trials (37.1 vs 24.8% in the satiated condition, p<0.001) while having no effects on GO trial accuracy or reaction time (RT). In rIFC, smoking abstinence was associated with a significantly increased event-related BOLD signal (p=0.026). Pre-SMA was unaffected by smoking condition. The results of this preliminary study suggest that successful IC during withdrawal is associated with increased processing demands on a cortical center associated with attention to inhibitory signals.

Authors
Kozink, RV; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kozink, RV, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking withdrawal modulates right inferior frontal cortex but not presupplementary motor area activation during inhibitory control." Neuropsychopharmacology 35.13 (December 2010): 2600-2606.
PMID
20861830
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume
35
Issue
13
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
2600
End Page
2606
DOI
10.1038/npp.2010.154

Silver acetate interactions with nicotine and non-nicotine smoke components.

Oral topical silver-containing formulations were marketed in the 1970s and 1980s as smoking deterrents, based on the finding that when using such formulations, an unpleasant taste occurs upon smoking. This approach has not been widely adopted, however, in part because of a lack of efficacy data. The advent of new pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation renews the possibility that such a taste aversion approach may be a useful adjunct to smoking cessation treatment. This study explored the basic mechanistic question of whether topical oral silver acetate solution interacts with nicotine as opposed to non-nicotine smoke constituents. We recruited 20 smoking volunteers to rate nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarettes, as well as the Nicotrol nicotine vapor inhaler and sham (air) puffs. In two sessions, subjects rated the sensory and hedonic qualities of puffs after rinsing their mouths with either silver acetate solution or deionized water (placebo). Silver acetate relative to placebo solution substantially reduced liking and satisfaction ratings for the usual brand and denicotinized cigarettes; in contrast, for the nicotine inhaler these ratings were unaffected by the silver-based treatment. These results support the conclusion that silver acetate not only renders the taste of cigarette smoke less appealing, but also that the compound appears to interact selectively with non-nicotine smoke constituents. Moreover, these data suggest silver acetate would be compatible with buccal nicotine delivery systems (e.g., nicotine lozenge or gum). Combined use of taste aversion with nicotine replacement therapy could provide the smoker with additional assistance to resist relapse. Further exploration is warranted of the use of silver-based preparations as a short-term adjunct to smoking cessation treatment.

Authors
Rose, JE; Behm, FM; Murugesan, T; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Rose, JE, Behm, FM, Murugesan, T, and McClernon, FJ. "Silver acetate interactions with nicotine and non-nicotine smoke components." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18.6 (December 2010): 462-469.
PMID
21186921
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
18
Issue
6
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
462
End Page
469
DOI
10.1037/a0021966

Smoking withdrawal shifts the spatiotemporal dynamics of neurocognition.

Smoking withdrawal is associated with significant deficits in the ability to initiate and maintain attention for extended periods of time (i.e. sustained attention; SA). However, the effects of smoking abstinence on the temporal dynamics of neurocognition during SA have not been evaluated. Twenty adult smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans following smoking as usual and after 24-hours abstinence. During scanning they completed a SA task with two levels of task difficulty, designed to measure both sustained (i.e. over the duration of the task) and transient (i.e. event-related) activation. Smoking abstinence significantly decreased task accuracy regardless of task difficulty. Compared to smoking as usual, abstinence resulted in decreased sustained activation in right inferior and middle frontal gyri but increased transient activation across dispersed cortical areas including precuneus and right superior frontal gyrus. Greater task difficulty was associated with even greater transient activation during abstinence in mostly right hemisphere regions including right inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest smoking withdrawal shifts the temporal and spatial dynamics of neurocognition from sustained, right prefrontal activation reflecting proactive cognitive control (Braver, Gray & Burgess 2009) to more dispersed and transient activation reflecting reactive control.

Authors
Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Rose, JE; Froeliger, B; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, Rose, JE, Froeliger, B, and McClernon, FJ. "Smoking withdrawal shifts the spatiotemporal dynamics of neurocognition." Addict Biol 15.4 (October 2010): 480-490.
PMID
21040240
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
15
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
480
End Page
490
DOI
10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00252.x

Bringing the real world into the laboratory: personal smoking and nonsmoking environments.

Pictorial representations of specific environments related to smoking can evoke robust craving to smoke, even in the absence of any proximal cues to smoke (e.g., cigarettes, lighters). To evaluate the salience of smoking environment cues, we developed a novel procedure for bringing smokers' real world smoking and nonsmoking environments into the laboratory to compare them with standard (i.e., not personalized) environments within a cue-reactivity paradigm. Seventy-two smokers used digital cameras to take pictures of the environments in which they do and do not smoke. They then completed a cue-reactivity session during which they viewed and rated pictures of smoking and nonsmoking environments, half personal and half standard, all devoid of proximal smoking cues. As hypothesized, personal environments led to a significantly larger smoking-nonsmoking difference in craving, compared with the standard environments. Personalization also enhanced stimuli vividness, relevance, positive affect, and excitement, as well as heart rate changes from baseline. Implications of these findings for exposure-based research and treatment for addiction, as well as other psychological disorders, are discussed.

Authors
Conklin, CA; Perkins, KA; Robin, N; McClernon, FJ; Salkeld, RP
MLA Citation
Conklin, CA, Perkins, KA, Robin, N, McClernon, FJ, and Salkeld, RP. "Bringing the real world into the laboratory: personal smoking and nonsmoking environments." Drug Alcohol Depend 111.1-2 (September 1, 2010): 58-63.
PMID
20510552
Source
pubmed
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
111
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
58
End Page
63
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.017

Hippocampal and striatal gray matter volume are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome: results of an exploratory voxel-based morphometric analysis.

RATIONALE: Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain structure including reduced gray matter (GM) volume and/or density in areas including frontal and cingulate cortices, thalamus, and insula. However, associations between brain structure and smoking cessation treatment outcomes have not been reported. OBJECTIVES: In the present analysis we sought to identify associations between regional GM volume--as measured by voxel-based morphometry (VBM)--and a smoking cessation treatment outcome (point prevalence abstinence at 4 weeks). METHODS: Adult smokers underwent high-resolution anatomical MRI scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. VBM was conducted in SPM5 using the DARTEL algorithm and relapser vs. quitter groups were compared using independent sample t tests (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Analyses controlled for potentially confounding factors including years smoked, cigarettes per day, total intracranial volume (TIV), and sex. RESULTS: Of 18 smokers, 8 achieved a 4-week point prevalence abstinence, confirmed by CO level (

Authors
Froeliger, B; Kozink, RV; Rose, JE; Behm, FM; Salley, AN; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Kozink, RV, Rose, JE, Behm, FM, Salley, AN, and McClernon, FJ. "Hippocampal and striatal gray matter volume are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome: results of an exploratory voxel-based morphometric analysis." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 210.4 (July 2010): 577-583.
PMID
20424827
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
210
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
577
End Page
583
DOI
10.1007/s00213-010-1862-3

Monetary incentives promote smoking abstinence in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke at rates significantly higher than the general population and have more difficulty quitting than nondiagnosed individuals. Currently, there are no evidence-based approaches for reducing smoking specifically in individuals with ADHD. Adult regular smokers with or without ADHD participated in a study of extended smoking withdrawal where monetary incentives were used to promote abstinence. Participants were paid according to an escalating schedule for maintaining abstinence measured as self-report of no smoking and an expired air carbon monoxide (CO) level of

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Van Voorhees, EE
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Van Voorhees, EE. "Monetary incentives promote smoking abstinence in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 18.3 (June 2010): 221-228.
PMID
20545386
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
18
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
221
End Page
228
DOI
10.1037/a0019565

Translational Development of Novel Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Psychostimulant Dependence

Authors
Szabo, ST; Patkar, A; Magnum, B; Beyer, WF; McClernon, J; Burnett, BK; Gorelick, DH; Lee, TH
MLA Citation
Szabo, ST, Patkar, A, Magnum, B, Beyer, WF, McClernon, J, Burnett, BK, Gorelick, DH, and Lee, TH. "Translational Development of Novel Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Psychostimulant Dependence." May 1, 2010.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
67
Issue
9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
88S
End Page
88S

Reversal of Consolidated Behavioral Sensitization and Associated Neurochemical Changes by Local Infusion of PKC Zeta (zeta) Inhibitory Pseudosubstrate (ZIP) Peptide in Nucleus Accumbens Core

Authors
Szabo, ST; Bhatia, K; Oh, J; Wetsel, WC; McClernon, J; Patkar, A; Mangum, B; Beyer, W; Lee, TH
MLA Citation
Szabo, ST, Bhatia, K, Oh, J, Wetsel, WC, McClernon, J, Patkar, A, Mangum, B, Beyer, W, and Lee, TH. "Reversal of Consolidated Behavioral Sensitization and Associated Neurochemical Changes by Local Infusion of PKC Zeta (zeta) Inhibitory Pseudosubstrate (ZIP) Peptide in Nucleus Accumbens Core." May 1, 2010.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Biological Psychiatry
Volume
67
Issue
9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
269S
End Page
270S

Smoking and Stress

A two-factor model of smoking accounts for the relation between smoking and stress: (1) smokers with stress-related personality and psychopathological traits smoke in order to alleviate stressful cognitive and affective states and (2) smoking alleviates withdrawal-induced stress. We review the genetic, psychological, and biological bases for this relation. © 2007 Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Gilbert, DG. "Smoking and Stress." Encyclopedia of Stress (2010): 515-520.
Source
scival
Published In
Encyclopedia of Stress
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
515
End Page
520
DOI
10.1016/B978-012373947-6.00350-0

Does Macronutrient Content Matter? Results of a Preliminary fMRI Study of Visual Food Cue Reactivity

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Lutz, A; Kozink, R; Froeliger, B; Martin, CK; Fuemmeler, BF; Westman, EC
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Lutz, A, Kozink, R, Froeliger, B, Martin, CK, Fuemmeler, BF, and Westman, EC. "Does Macronutrient Content Matter? Results of a Preliminary fMRI Study of Visual Food Cue Reactivity." November 2009.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
17
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
S174
End Page
S175

Effects of nicotine on novelty detection and memory recognition performance: double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of smokers and nonsmokers.

RATIONALE: Dependent smokers exhibit deficits in attentional and memory processes when smoking abstinent as compared to when satiated. While nicotine replacement therapy improves attention during abstinence, it is unclear whether this is due to the alleviation of withdrawal-related deficits or inherent beneficial effects of nicotine. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of these studies was to test whether nicotine exerts a beneficial effect on novelty detection and whether such effects occur in nonsmokers as well as habitual smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In two parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, 24 smokers (study 1) and 24 nonsmokers (study 2) were tested in two counterbalanced sessions: once while wearing a nicotine patch (smokers = 14 mg; nonsmokers = 7 mg) and once while wearing a placebo patch. On each day, participants performed three content-specific oddball tasks (perceptual, semantic, and emotional) that required them to press a button whenever they saw a novel target (20% of stimuli) embedded in a stream of common nontarget stimuli (80% of stimuli). Recognition memory for targets was subsequently tested. Reports of mood, smoking withdrawal, patch side effects, and blind success were collected in each session. RESULTS: Among smokers, compared to placebo, nicotine decreased target reaction time during all oddball tasks. Among nonsmokers, nicotine increased target detection accuracy and subsequent memory recognition. Nicotine's enhancement on each respective measure was not task-content specific in either sample. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that acute nicotine administration may exert direct beneficial effects on novelty detection and subsequent memory recognition in both smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, these effects are not content-specific.

Authors
Froeliger, B; Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Froeliger, B, Gilbert, DG, and McClernon, FJ. "Effects of nicotine on novelty detection and memory recognition performance: double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of smokers and nonsmokers." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205.4 (September 2009): 625-633.
PMID
19488741
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
205
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
625
End Page
633
DOI
10.1007/s00213-009-1571-y

Adverse childhood events are associated with obesity and disordered eating: results from a U.S. population-based survey of young adults.

The authors investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and obesity in young adulthood (M age = 22) in a large, U.S. representative sample (N = 15,197). Controlling for demographics and depression, men with a history of childhood sexual abuse were at increased risk of overweight and obesity. No association between childhood abuse and obesity or overweight was observed for women in this sample. Higher percentages of skipping meals to lose weight and problematic eating were observed among women with a history of physical abuse. This is the first study to note an association between childhood abuse with obesity and problematic weight management behaviors in a sample of young adults.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Dedert, E; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Dedert, E, McClernon, FJ, and Beckham, JC. "Adverse childhood events are associated with obesity and disordered eating: results from a U.S. population-based survey of young adults." J Trauma Stress 22.4 (August 2009): 329-333.
PMID
19588510
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Traumatic Stress
Volume
22
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
329
End Page
333
DOI
10.1002/jts.20421

Effects of postnatal parental smoking on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and oppositional symptoms.

To assess the effects of postnatal parental smoking on subsequent parent and teacher ratings of DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and oppositional behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and their siblings. Children between 5 and 12 years of age with ADHD and their siblings were included. DSM-IV ADHD symptom subscales (Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive), and oppositionality subscale scores from Conners' Rating Scales were predicted on the basis of parental smoking status in the first 7 years after birth using Generalized Estimating Equations controlling for a range of relevant covariates. Postnatal parental smoking was associated with both parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms and oppositional behavior. After controlling for a number of covariates, several of these relationships were still significant. The risk of maternal smoking for the development of ADHD symptoms does not end during pregnancy. Research on the mechanisms underlying the observed associations is needed.

Authors
Kollins, SH; Garrett, ME; McClernon, FJ; Lachiewicz, AM; Morrissey-Kane, E; FitzGerald, D; Collins, AL; Anastopoulos, AD; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, Garrett, ME, McClernon, FJ, Lachiewicz, AM, Morrissey-Kane, E, FitzGerald, D, Collins, AL, Anastopoulos, AD, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Effects of postnatal parental smoking on parent and teacher ratings of ADHD and oppositional symptoms." J Nerv Ment Dis 197.6 (June 2009): 442-449.
PMID
19525745
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Volume
197
Issue
6
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
442
End Page
449
DOI
10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181a61d9e

24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum.

RATIONALE: Exposure to smoking-related cues can trigger relapse in smokers attempting to maintain abstinence. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 24-h smoking abstinence on brain responses to smoking-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult smokers underwent fMRI scanning following smoking as usual (satiated condition) and following 24-h abstinence (abstinent condition). During scanning, they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues. RESULTS: Following abstinence, greater activation was found in response to smoking cues compared to control cues in parietal (BA 7/31), frontal (BA 8/9), occipital (BA 19), and central (BA 4) cortical regions and in dorsal striatum (putamen) and thalamus. In contrast, no smoking cue greater than control cue activations were observed following smoking as usual. Direct comparisons between conditions (satiated vs. abstinent) showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following abstinence. In addition, positive correlations between pre-scan craving in the abstinent condition and smoking cue activation were observed in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) including superior frontal gyrus (BA 6/10), anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32), and supplementary motor area (BA 6). CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that smoking abstinence significantly potentiates neural responses to smoking-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, and action planning. Moreover, greater abstinence-induced craving was significantly correlated with increased smoking cue activation in dmPFC areas involved in action planning and decision making. These findings suggest that drug abstinence can increase the salience of conditioned cues, which is consistent with incentive-motivation models of addiction.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, and Rose, JE. "24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 204.1 (May 2009): 25-35.
PMID
19107465
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
204
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
25
End Page
35
DOI
10.1007/s00213-008-1436-9

Interactions between genotype and depressive symptoms on obesity.

Depression and Genetic variation in serotonin and monoamine transmission have both been associated with body mass index (BMI), but their interaction effects are not well understood. We examined the interaction between depressive symptoms and functional polymorphisms of serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) on categories of BMI. Participants were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate interactions between candidate genes and depression on risk of obesity (BMI > or = 30) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25). Males with an MAOA active allele with high depressive symptoms were at decreased risk of obesity (OR 0.22; 95% CI 0.06-0.78) and overweight + obesity (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.26-0.89). No similar effect was observed among females. These findings highlight that the obesity-depression relationship may vary as a function of gender and genetic polymorphism, and suggest the need for further study.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Agurs-Collins, T; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Garrett, ME; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Agurs-Collins, T, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Garrett, ME, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Interactions between genotype and depressive symptoms on obesity." Behav Genet 39.3 (May 2009): 296-305.
PMID
19337825
Source
pubmed
Published In
Behavior Genetics
Volume
39
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
296
End Page
305
DOI
10.1007/s10519-009-9266-z

Neuroimaging of Nicotine Dependence: Key Findings and Application to the Study of Smoking-Mental Illness Comorbidity.

Modern neuroimaging techniques offer the opportunity to non-invasively study neuroanatomical and neurofunctional correlates of nicotine dependence and its treatment. In the present review, the most widely used neuroimaging techniques-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional MRI (fMRI)-are briefly described and their strengths and limitations discussed. The use of these techniques has resulted in new insights into the neuropharmacology of tobacco addiction. Studies comparing smokers and nonsmokers have shown that smokers have less grey matter density in frontal brain regions and greater concentrations of nicotinic receptors. Research on the effects of smoking a cigarette confirms that smoking leads to the release of dopamine in brain reward areas and to nicotinic receptor binding. Studies of smoking abstinence have identified functional brain correlates of increased reactivity to smoking-related cues, and worsening of concentration. To date, neuroimaging studies of nicotine dependence among individuals with mental illness have focused almost exclusively on schizophrenia. A conceptual/methodological framework for studying dual diagnosis using neuroimaging measures is provided with the aim of spurring additional research in this area.

Authors
McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ. "Neuroimaging of Nicotine Dependence: Key Findings and Application to the Study of Smoking-Mental Illness Comorbidity." J Dual Diagn 5.2 (April 1, 2009): 168-178.
PMID
19756221
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Volume
5
Issue
2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
168
End Page
178
DOI
10.1080/15504260902869204

Association between smoking and retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a large sample of new mothers.

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the association between retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms experienced during childhood and five cigarette smoking-related outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: A large sample (N = 1,117) of new mothers participating in an ongoing longitudinal study completed retrospective reports of their childhood ADHD symptomatology, as well as concurrent and retrospective reports of their smoking behavior. Linear regression models tested the association between ADHD symptomatology and smoking outcomes. RESULTS: Childhood ADHD symptomatology was predictive of the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently and during pregnancy, as well as the age at onset of smoking. We found nonlinear associations between hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in pregnancy, as well as between inattentive symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked per day currently. Women who retrospectively reported intermediate levels of ADHD symptoms during their childhood reported smoking more cigarettes per day than women who reported low or high levels of ADHD symptoms during childhood. We also found multiplicative relationship between inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, such that inattentive symptoms were predictive of an earlier age at smoking onset only when hyperactive-impulsive symptoms were low; moreover, the magnitude of this association was stronger for Black relative to White women. DISCUSSION: These findings demonstrate the importance of considering differential effects of ADHD symptoms and smoking outcomes as a function of sex and race. They also represent a potentially indirect means through which women who have even a moderate childhood history of ADHD symptomatology may create a set of circumstances that compromise the health and well-being of their own children.

Authors
Willoughby, MT; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Family Life Investigative Group,
MLA Citation
Willoughby, MT, Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Family Life Investigative Group, . "Association between smoking and retrospectively reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a large sample of new mothers." Nicotine Tob Res 11.3 (March 2009): 313-322.
PMID
19307443
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
11
Issue
3
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
313
End Page
322
DOI
10.1093/ntr/ntp001

Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: an ex-Gaussian analysis.

Smoking abstinence differentially affects cognitive functioning in smokers with ADHD, compared to non-ADHD smokers. Alternative approaches for analyzing reaction time data from these tasks may further elucidate important group differences. Adults smoking > or = 15 cigarettes with (n=12) or without (n=14) a diagnosis of ADHD completed a continuous performance task (CPT) during two sessions under two separate laboratory conditions--a 'Satiated' condition wherein participants smoked up to and during the session; and an 'Abstinent' condition, in which participants were abstinent overnight and during the session. Reaction time (RT) distributions from the CPT were modeled to fit an ex-Gaussian distribution. The indicator of central tendency for RT from the normal component of the RT distribution (mu) showed a main effect of Group (ADHD < Control) and a Group x Session interaction (ADHD group RTs decreased when abstinent). RT standard deviation for the normal component of the distribution (sigma) showed no effects. The ex-Gaussian parameter tau, which describes the mean and standard deviation of the non-normal component of the distribution, showed significant effects of session (Abstinent > Satiated), Group x Session interaction (ADHD increased significantly under Abstinent condition compared to Control), and a trend toward a main effect of Group (ADHD > Control). Alternative approaches to analyzing RT data provide a more detailed description of the effects of smoking abstinence in ADHD and non-ADHD smokers and results differ from analyses using more traditional approaches. These findings have implications for understanding the neuropsychopharmacology of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal.

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Epstein, JN
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Epstein, JN. "Effects of smoking abstinence on reaction time variability in smokers with and without ADHD: an ex-Gaussian analysis." Drug Alcohol Depend 100.1-2 (February 1, 2009): 169-172.
PMID
19041198
Source
pubmed
Published In
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Volume
100
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
169
End Page
172
DOI
10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.09.019

ADHD and smoking: from genes to brain to behavior.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tobacco smoking are among the most common and costly psychiatric and behavioral problems. The rates of co-occurrence of these two common problems are larger than expected by chance. Despite progress in identifying the neural and genetic substrates of each, the mechanisms underlying the high rates of comorbidity between ADHD and smoking remain largely unknown. We propose that ADHD and smoking involve dysregulation of dopaminergic and nicotinic-acetylcholinergic circuits and that these aberrations are likely to arise, at least in part, from genetic variations. This review describes an integrative model of the ADHD-smoking comorbidity, with an emphasis on shared neuropharmacological mechanisms. We first describe the prevalence of smoking among ADHD patients. We then describe how ADHD influences stages of smoking behavior (e.g., initiation, maintenance, and relapse). We review common potential genetic substrates of ADHD and smoking, focusing on genes that regulate monoaminergic neurotransmission. We review the behavioral and neuropharmacological bases of smoking and ADHD, focusing on the modulatory roles of nicotine on attention and behavioral control. Finally, we discuss the implications of this model for prevention and clinical outcomes.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Kollins, SH. "ADHD and smoking: from genes to brain to behavior." Ann N Y Acad Sci 1141 (October 2008): 131-147. (Review)
PMID
18991955
Source
pubmed
Published In
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume
1141
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
131
End Page
147
DOI
10.1196/annals.1441.016

Individual differences in nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and sex predict transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues.

Exposure to smoking cues increases craving for cigarettes and can precipitate relapse. Whereas brain imaging studies have identified a distinct network of brain regions subserving the processing of smoking cues, little is known about the influence of individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms on brain cue reactivity. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate relations between individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms and event-related blood oxygen level-dependent responses to visual smoking cues in a sample of 30 smokers. Predictors were self-report nicotine dependence (Fagerström test of nicotine dependence, FTND), prescan withdrawal symptoms (craving and negative affect), and sex. The unique variance of each predictor was examined after controlling for each of the others. Positive associations were observed between FTND and reactivity to cues in right anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) whereas negative associations were observed between prescan craving and reactivity in ventral striatum. Higher negative affect or being male was associated with greater reactivity in left hippocampus and left OFC. Women exhibited greater cue reactivity than men in regions including the cuneus and left superior temporal gyrus. Individual difference factors and withdrawal symptoms were uniquely associated with brain reactivity to smoking cues in regions subserving reward, affect, attention, motivation, and memory. These findings provide further evidence that reactivity to conditioned drug cues is multiply determined and suggest that smoking cessation treatments designed to reduce cue reactivity focus on each of these variables.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, and Rose, JE. "Individual differences in nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and sex predict transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues." Neuropsychopharmacology 33.9 (August 2008): 2148-2157.
PMID
17987060
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
33
Issue
9
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
2148
End Page
2157
DOI
10.1038/sj.npp.1301618

Ad lib smoking in post-traumatic stress disorder: an electronic diary study.

Using ambulatory methods for 1 week of monitoring, this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 22 smokers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 23 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 1,759 smoking and 1,088 nonsmoking situations by group status controlling for multiple covariates. PTSD smokers reported higher stress and PTSD symptoms across daily activities. For all smokers, higher nicotine dependence, craving, food and caffeine consumption, and being outside were related to smoking. PTSD smokers were more likely to smoke when experiencing PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Following smoking, smokers with PTSD reported a significant reduction in negative affect. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers, and underscore that in smokers with PTSD, PTSD symptom variables as well as stress and anxiety are significantly associated with ad lib smoking.

Authors
Beckham, JC; Wiley, MT; Miller, SC; Dennis, MF; Wilson, SM; McClernon, FJ; Calhoun, PS
MLA Citation
Beckham, JC, Wiley, MT, Miller, SC, Dennis, MF, Wilson, SM, McClernon, FJ, and Calhoun, PS. "Ad lib smoking in post-traumatic stress disorder: an electronic diary study." Nicotine Tob Res 10.7 (July 2008): 1149-1157.
PMID
18629724
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
10
Issue
7
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1149
End Page
1157
DOI
10.1080/14622200802123302

Proximal versus distal cues to smoke: the effects of environments on smokers' cue-reactivity.

Smokers are highly reactive to smoking-related cues that are directly linked, or most proximal, to actual smoking behavior (e.g., lit cigarettes). However, over the course of smoking, proximal cues may not be the only stimuli to become strongly associated with smoking. Distal cues, such as the environments in which smoking occurs (e.g., bar) might also gain associative properties and come to evoke robust reactivity from smokers. To test this, a pilot study was first conducted to develop standard pictorial stimuli of smoking and nonsmoking environments, all of which were completely devoid of proximal smoking cues. A comparison set of smoking and nonsmoking proximal cues was then created. Using the 12 total pictorial cues developed, 62 adult smokers participated in a cue-reactivity study during which they viewed and rated pictorial smoking and nonsmoking environment and proximal cues. Results demonstrate that, similar to proximal cues, environments associated with smoking can alone function as stimuli capable of evoking strong subjective reactivity from smokers. This work supports a broader conceptualization of drug-related cues in cue-based research and treatment development that includes proximal and distal cues as distinct categories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

Authors
Conklin, CA; Robin, N; Perkins, KA; Salkeld, RP; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Conklin, CA, Robin, N, Perkins, KA, Salkeld, RP, and McClernon, FJ. "Proximal versus distal cues to smoke: the effects of environments on smokers' cue-reactivity." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16.3 (June 2008): 207-214.
PMID
18540780
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
16
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
207
End Page
214
DOI
10.1037/1064-1297.16.3.207

Association between trauma exposure and smoking in a population-based sample of young adults.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relation between smoking and trauma exposure in a population-based, longitudinal sample. Contrary to current smoking trends in the general population, recent findings indicate continued high smoking rates in trauma-exposed samples. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 15,197 adolescents was followed from 1995 (mean age, 15.6 years) to 2002 (mean age, 22 years) as part of three waves of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We examined the relation between self-reported trauma exposure and smoking behaviors (lifetime regular, current regular), nicotine dependence based on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND), number of cigarettes smoked per day, and age of onset of regular smoking. RESULTS: Controlling for demographics and depressive symptoms, exposure to traumatic events yielded a significant increase in the odds of lifetime regular smoking. Nicotine dependence and cigarettes smoked per day was also significantly related to exposure to childhood physical and sexual abuse. Decreased age of regular smoking onset was seen for those reporting childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traumatic life events during childhood and young adulthood increases the risk of smoking, highlighting the need to prevent and treat tobacco use in this vulnerable population.

Authors
Roberts, ME; Fuemmeler, BF; McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC
MLA Citation
Roberts, ME, Fuemmeler, BF, McClernon, FJ, and Beckham, JC. "Association between trauma exposure and smoking in a population-based sample of young adults." J Adolesc Health 42.3 (March 2008): 266-274.
PMID
18295135
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Adolescent Health
Volume
42
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
266
End Page
274
DOI
10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.029

Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study.

RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke at higher rates than the general population; however, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of overnight abstinence on withdrawal symptoms and cognitive performance in adult smokers with and without ADHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals smoking > or = 15 cigarettes per day were recruited from the community and underwent an evaluation to establish a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 12) or not (n = 14). Withdrawal symptoms, mood, craving, cognitive performance, and smoking cue reactivity were measured during two laboratory sessions-in a 'Satiated' condition participants smoked up to and during the session while in an 'Abstinent' condition, participants were required to be smoking abstinent overnight and remain abstinent during the session. RESULTS: The effects of abstinence on ADHD and non-ADHD smokers did not differ for withdrawal symptom severity, mood, craving or cue reactivity. Significant Group x Condition interactions were observed for measures of attention and response inhibition on the Conners' CPT. For reaction time (RT) variability and errors of commission, the ADHD group exhibited greater decrements in performance after overnight abstinence compared to the non-ADHD group. The effects of abstinence on other cognitive measures (e.g., rapid visual information processing task, cued Go/No-Go task) did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study is the first to systematically evaluate the effects of acute smoking abstinence in adult smokers diagnosed with ADHD. Individuals with the disorder may smoke at higher rates due to greater worsening of attention and response inhibition after abstinence.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Lutz, AM; Fitzgerald, DP; Murray, DW; Redman, C; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Lutz, AM, Fitzgerald, DP, Murray, DW, Redman, C, and Rose, JE. "Effects of smoking abstinence on adult smokers with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a preliminary study." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 197.1 (March 2008): 95-105.
PMID
18038223
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
197
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
95
End Page
105
DOI
10.1007/s00213-007-1009-3

Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories.

OBJECTIVE: This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Interactions with gender and race/ethnicity were also examined. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset of 1,584 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between genotypes and obesity (BMI > 29.9) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25) with normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) as a referent. Linear regression models were used to examine change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between SLC6A4 5HTTLPR and categories of BMI, and between MAOA promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) among men and categories of BMI. Stratified analyses revealed that the association between these two genes and excess BMI was significant for men overall and for white and Hispanic men specifically. Linear regression models indicated a significant effect of SLC6A4 5HTTLPR on change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. DISCUSSION: Our findings lend further support to the involvement of genes implicated in dopamine and serotonin regulation on energy balance.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Agurs-Collins, TD; McClernon, FJ; Kollins, SH; Kail, ME; Bergen, AW; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Agurs-Collins, TD, McClernon, FJ, Kollins, SH, Kail, ME, Bergen, AW, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories." Obesity (Silver Spring) 16.2 (February 2008): 348-355.
PMID
18239643
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
16
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
348
End Page
355
DOI
10.1038/oby.2007.65

Interactions between genotype and retrospective ADHD symptoms predict lifetime smoking risk in a sample of young adults.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with an increased risk of smoking, and genetic studies have identified similar candidate genes associated with both ADHD and smoking phenotypes. This paper addresses the question of whether ADHD symptoms interact with candidate gene variation to predict smoking risk. Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset from Add Health of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine relationships between self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and lifetime history of regular smoking. Polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in contributing to risk for smoking. Trends were observed for interactions between the DRD4 gene and, among males, the MAOA gene and ADHD symptoms to predict smoking risk. No main effect for any of these polymorphisms was observed. We observed neither main effects nor interactions with CYP2A6, DAT, and SLC6A4 genes. These findings suggest that genotypes associated with catecholamine neurotransmission interact with ADHD symptoms to contribute to smoking risk.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF; Kollins, SH; Kail, ME; Ashley-Koch, AE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, Kail, ME, and Ashley-Koch, AE. "Interactions between genotype and retrospective ADHD symptoms predict lifetime smoking risk in a sample of young adults." Nicotine Tob Res 10.1 (January 2008): 117-127.
PMID
18188752
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
10
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
117
End Page
127
DOI
10.1080/14622200701704913

The effects of cigarette smoking on script-driven imagery in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

The study investigated the effects of smoking a nicotinized or denicotinized cigarette on craving, affect and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms while recalling neutral, stressful and traumatic events in smokers with and without PTSD. Smokers completed laboratory sessions during which they were presented with audiotapes of personalized scripts followed by smoking a cigarette. The effect of the script and cigarette conditions on dependent variables was evaluated. There was a main effect of script type across groups for smoking craving, negative affect and PTSD symptoms, with increased symptoms in trauma and stressful conditions. Responses were significantly higher in PTSD smokers. Smoking either cigarette type resulted in decreased craving, negative affect and PTSD symptoms in both groups. A second script presentation following smoking elicited similar responses, suggesting the ameliorative effect of having smoked a cigarette was short-lived. These results support that context and non-pharmacologic effects of smoking are important variables in smoking craving and mood, particularly in smokers with PTSD.

Authors
Beckham, JC; Dennis, MF; McClernon, FJ; Mozley, SL; Collie, CF; Vrana, SR
MLA Citation
Beckham, JC, Dennis, MF, McClernon, FJ, Mozley, SL, Collie, CF, and Vrana, SR. "The effects of cigarette smoking on script-driven imagery in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder." Addict Behav 32.12 (December 2007): 2900-2915.
PMID
17544226
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
32
Issue
12
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
2900
End Page
2915
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.04.026

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predict nicotine dependence and progression to regular smoking from adolescence to young adulthood.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between retrospectively reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and progression to smoking and the association with nicotine dependence. METHODS: Study sample consisted of a nationally representative cohort of U.S. adolescents (n = 13,494). Logistic regression was used to examine ADHD symptoms from both the inattentive (IN) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) domains and smoking trajectories. Linear regression was used to examine nicotine dependence. RESULTS: HI symptoms were associated with progression from nonsmoking to regular smoking (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.21), and with progression from experimentation to regular smoking (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.08-1.26). IN and HI symptoms were associated with nicotine dependence among current smokers (IN: beta = 0.17, SE = 0.03, p < 0.0001; HI: beta = 0.10, SE = 0.04., p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These results have important implications for the development of prevention and treatment modalities.

Authors
Fuemmeler, BF; Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Fuemmeler, BF, Kollins, SH, and McClernon, FJ. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms predict nicotine dependence and progression to regular smoking from adolescence to young adulthood." J Pediatr Psychol 32.10 (November 2007): 1203-1213.
PMID
17602186
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Volume
32
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1203
End Page
1213
DOI
10.1093/jpepsy/jsm051

DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues.

RATIONALE: A dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism has been related to reactivity to smoking cues among smokers, but the effect of this genetic variation on brain responses to smoking cues has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the relationship between carrying the DRD4 VNTR 7-repeat allele and transient functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to smoking cues among adult dependent cigarette smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Smokers (n = 15) underwent fMRI scanning after 2-h abstinence. During scanning, they viewed visual smoking and control cues. A blood sample was assayed for the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism, and participants were categorized based on whether they carried one or two copies of the 7-repeat allele (DRD4 L, n = 7) or not (DRD4 S, n = 8). RESULTS: Contrasts in brain cue-reactivity (smoking minus control cues) between DRD4 groups were conducted using SPM2. Smoking cues as compared to control cues elicited transient brain responses in right superior frontal gyrus (BA 8/9/10/32), left anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32), and right cuneus (BA 19). Exposure to smoking cues resulted in greater activation of right superior frontal gyrus (BA 10) and right insula in DRD4 L compared to DRD4 S individuals. By contrast, exposure to smoking cues among DRD4 S individuals resulted in no significant increases in activation compared to DRD4 L individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These brain imaging results suggest that DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is related to transient brain responses to smoking cues in regions subserving executive and somatosensory processes.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Hutchison, KE; Rose, JE; Kozink, RV
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Hutchison, KE, Rose, JE, and Kozink, RV. "DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194.4 (November 2007): 433-441.
PMID
17611740
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
194
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
433
End Page
441
DOI
10.1007/s00213-007-0860-6

Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility.

Trait impulsivity and response inhibition have been shown to be related to smoking behavior. One measure of response inhibition - antisaccade performance, or the ability to inhibit looking at a novel stimulus - has been shown to be worsened by smoking abstinence, improved by nicotine administration and predictive of smoking cessation outcomes. However, relations between antisaccade performance and measures of trait impulsivity have not been extensively evaluated in smokers. In the present study, twelve dependent smokers (n=12) completed an eye tracking task following smoking as usual and overnight abstinence; and they completed baseline measures of trait impulsivity, smoking history and provided biological samples. As expected, overnight abstinence significantly increased antisaccade errors (p<0.002) while having no effect on prosaccade performance. Abstinence-induced increases in antisaccade errors were positively correlated with baseline plasma cotinine and Sensation Seeking Scale Boredom Susceptibility, and negatively correlated with IQ. These results suggest that smoking abstinence significantly increases errors of response inhibition and that the magnitude of this increase is related to trait impulsivity and nicotine intake variables.

Authors
Pettiford, J; Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Kollins, SH; Rose, JE; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Pettiford, J, Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, Kollins, SH, Rose, JE, and McClernon, FJ. "Increases in impulsivity following smoking abstinence are related to baseline nicotine intake and boredom susceptibility." Addict Behav 32.10 (October 2007): 2351-2357.
PMID
17399907
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
32
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
2351
End Page
2357
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.02.004

Selectively reduced responses to smoking cues in amygdala following extinction-based smoking cessation: results of a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Preliminary studies suggest an extinction-based smoking cessation treatment using reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes decreases self-report craving for cigarettes prior to quitting and may be an effective smoking cessation treatment. The aims of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extinction-based smoking cessation treatment on brain responses to smoking cues using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen (n = 16) dependent smokers were scanned using BOLD fMRI at baseline, following 2-4 weeks of smoking RNC cigarettes while wearing a 21-mg nicotine patch, and 2-4 weeks following quitting smoking. During scanning, participants viewed smoking-related pictures (e.g. lit cigarette) and pictures of people engaged in everyday activities (e.g. using a stapler). Event-related BOLD responses to smoking and control cues were analyzed in regions of interest (ROIs) known to subserve reward, attention, motivation and emotion. The extinction-based treatment simultaneously attenuated responses to smoking cues in amygdala while potentiating responses to control cues. Exploratory analysis indicated that this pattern was also observed in the thalamus of future abstinent but not relapsing smokers. The results of this preliminary study suggest that an extinction-based treatment for smoking cessation alters brain responses to smoking and control cues in amygdala--a region previously associated with drug cue reactivity and extinction.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Hiott, FB; Liu, J; Salley, AN; Behm, FM; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Hiott, FB, Liu, J, Salley, AN, Behm, FM, and Rose, JE. "Selectively reduced responses to smoking cues in amygdala following extinction-based smoking cessation: results of a preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging study." Addict Biol 12.3-4 (September 2007): 503-512.
PMID
17573781
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
12
Issue
3-4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
503
End Page
512
DOI
10.1111/j.1369-1600.2007.00075.x

Automatic affective responses to smoking cues.

The authors examined automatic emotional reactions to smoking cues among 35 smokers and 25 nonsmokers (32 women and 28 men), using a novel implicit measure, the Affect Misattribution Procedure. Associative-learning theories of addiction suggest that smokers develop positive responses to cues linked to the rewarding effects of nicotine. Prior research, however, has yielded mixed evidence for whether smokers have favorable or unfavorable automatic responses to smoking cues. These findings may depend on the methods used to measure implicit responses. Using the Affect Misattribution Procedure, the authors found that nonsmokers responded to smoking cues with clear negative affect, whereas smokers' responses depended on individual differences in current smoking withdrawal. Smokers having withdrawal symptoms and those most motivated to smoke showed favorable emotional responses to smoking cues, but those with no withdrawal or low motivation to smoke showed negative responses. These results help integrate previous studies finding that smokers have negative automatic responses to cigarettes with those studies finding that smokers' responses were relatively positive. The results are important for theories that emphasize the role of cue conditioning in maintaining addiction because these theories assume, consistent with the current findings, that smoking cues can take on positive reward value.

Authors
Payne, BK; McClernon, FJ; Dobbins, IG
MLA Citation
Payne, BK, McClernon, FJ, and Dobbins, IG. "Automatic affective responses to smoking cues." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 15.4 (August 2007): 400-409.
PMID
17696687
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
15
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
400
End Page
409
DOI
10.1037/1064-1297.15.4.400

The effects of foods, beverages, and other factors on cigarette palatability.

While smokers commonly report that various foods and beverages worsen or enhance the taste of cigarettes, the prevalence and diversity of these phenomena have not been studied. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 209 smokers asking for reports of foods or beverages that worsen or enhance the taste of cigarettes. Commonly reported categories that worsen the taste of cigarettes were fruits/vegetables, noncaffeinated beverages, and dairy products. Commonly reported categories that enhance the taste of cigarettes were caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and meat products. Regression analyses indicated that increased sensitivity to both taste worsening and enhancing were associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes. These findings suggest smoking menthol cigarettes reduces both negative and positive effects of food and beverage consumption on smoking satisfaction - thus "evening out" the smoking experience. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Westman, EC; Rose, JE; Lutz, AM
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Westman, EC, Rose, JE, and Lutz, AM. "The effects of foods, beverages, and other factors on cigarette palatability." Nicotine Tob Res 9.4 (April 2007): 505-510.
PMID
17454706
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
505
End Page
510
DOI
10.1080/14622200701243177

Brain indices of nicotine's effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets.

Aversive and smoking-related stimuli are related to smoking urges and relapse and can be potent distractors of selective attention. It has been suggested that the beneficial effect of nicotine replacement therapy may be mediated partly by the ability of nicotine to reduce distraction by such stimuli and thereby to facilitate attention to task-relevant stimuli. The present study tested the hypothesis that nicotine reduces distraction by aversive and smoking-related stimuli as indexed by the parietal P3b brain response to a task-relevant target digit. We assessed the effect of nicotine on distraction by emotionally negative, positive, neutral, and smoking-related pictures immediately preceding target digits during a rapid visual information processing task in 16 smokers in a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. The study included two experimental sessions. After overnight smoking deprivation (12+ hr), active nicotine patches were applied to participants during one of the sessions and placebo patches were applied during the other session. Nicotine enhanced P3b responses associated with target digits immediately subsequent to negative emotional pictures bilaterally and subsequent to smoking-related pictures only in the right hemisphere. No effects of nicotine were observed for P3bs subsequent to positive and neutral distractor pictures. Another measure of attention, contingent negative variation amplitude in anticipation of the target digits also was increased by nicotine, especially in the left hemisphere and at posterior sites. Together, these findings suggest that nicotine reduces the distraction by emotionally negative and smoking-related stimuli and promotes attention to task-related stimuli by modulating somewhat lateralized and task-specific neural networks.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; Sugai, C; Zuo, Y; Rabinovich, NE; McClernon, FJ; Froeliger, B
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, Sugai, C, Zuo, Y, Rabinovich, NE, McClernon, FJ, and Froeliger, B. "Brain indices of nicotine's effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets." Nicotine Tob Res 9.3 (March 2007): 351-363.
PMID
17365767
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
351
End Page
363
DOI
10.1080/14622200701188810

The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of weight loss diets on mood, food cravings, and other self-reported symptoms. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Mood and other symptoms were evaluated by participant self-report using the Atkins Health Indicator Test (AHIT) in individuals undergoing weight loss following either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) or a low-fat diet (LFD). Participants were 119 overweight community volunteers randomized to an LCKD or an LFD. An additional 51 participants who had completed an earlier trial contributed data for the psychometric analyses but were not included in the prospective analyses. Self-reported symptom levels on seven scales factor-analytically derived from the AHIT (negative affect, fatigue, somatic symptoms, physical effects of hunger, insomnia, hunger, and stomach problems) were acquired during 12 visits. RESULTS: After adjusting for the change in BMI over the course of the trial, participants experienced significant improvements in most symptoms regardless of diet. Diet group x visit interactions were observed for negative affect [F(9,803) = 2.30, p = 0.015] and hunger [F(9,803) = 3.62, p < 0.0002]. Examination of means indicated that the LCKD group reported less negative affect and hunger, compared with the LFD group. DISCUSSION: Regardless of diet, participants experienced significant improvement in a broad range of symptoms. Symptoms of negative affect and hunger improved to a greater degree in patients following an LCKD compared with those following an LFD. Whether these symptom changes explain the greater short-term weight loss generally experienced by LCKD followers deserves further research.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Yancy, WS; Eberstein, JA; Atkins, RC; Westman, EC
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Yancy, WS, Eberstein, JA, Atkins, RC, and Westman, EC. "The effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet and a low-fat diet on mood, hunger, and other self-reported symptoms." Obesity (Silver Spring) 15.1 (January 2007): 182-187.
PMID
17228046
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Volume
15
Issue
1
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
182
End Page
187
DOI
10.1038/oby.2007.516

Effects of 24 hour smoking abstinence on sustained and event-related brain activity during continuous working memory: Preliminary results of an fMRI study

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, and Rose, JE. "Effects of 24 hour smoking abstinence on sustained and event-related brain activity during continuous working memory: Preliminary results of an fMRI study." December 2006.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
31
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
S138
End Page
S138

Transdermal nicotine attenuates depression symptoms in nonsmokers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

RATIONALE: Despite established links between nicotine dependence and depression, little research has examined the effects of nicotine on depression symptoms. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the acute and chronic effects of transdermal nicotine in nonsmokers with baseline depression symptoms during a 4-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Nonsmokers with scores >or=10 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) were recruited from the community. Mood and cognitive performance were measured at baseline (day 0) and at 1, 8, 21, and 28 days. Participants were randomly assigned to wear a placebo or nicotine patch for 4 weeks (3.5 mg/day during weeks 1 and 4; 7 mg/day during weeks 2 and 3). The final sample consisted of 11 nonsmokers with a mean baseline CES-D score of 27.36 (SD=10.53). RESULTS: Salivary nicotine levels indicated the majority of participants were compliant with treatment. Acute nicotine did not alter mood. After adjusting for baseline values, chronic nicotine resulted in a significant decline in CES-D scores at day 8 (3.5 mg/day), but returned to placebo levels by the last visit. This return to baseline levels was coincident with a decrease in nicotine administration from 7 to 3.5 mg/day. A similar trend for improved response inhibition as measured by the Conners Continuous Performance Task was also observed. Reported side effects were infrequent and minimal. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a role for nicotinic receptor systems in the pathophysiology of depression and that nicotinic compounds should be evaluated for treating depression symptoms.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Hiott, FB; Westman, EC; Rose, JE; Levin, ED
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Hiott, FB, Westman, EC, Rose, JE, and Levin, ED. "Transdermal nicotine attenuates depression symptoms in nonsmokers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189.1 (November 2006): 125-133.
PMID
16977477
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
189
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
125
End Page
133
DOI
10.1007/s00213-006-0516-y

Enhanced cue-elicited brain activation in African American compared with Caucasian smokers: an fMRI study.

Current evidence indicates that, although African Americans (AA) are more likely to attempt to quit smoking than Caucasians (CC) in any given year, success rates are lower for AA. However, factors contributing to these differences are not well known. In order to explore potential factors, this study assessed differences in attention to smoking cues between ethnic groups. Participants underwent morning functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while viewing images of AA models and CC models who were either smoking (smoking cues) or engaging in everyday activities (neutral cues), interspersed with a fixation baseline period. The study was conducted at the Hoglund Brain Imaging Center of the University of Kansas Medical Center in Kansas City, KS. We studied 17 smokers (eight AA, nine CC) after 12-hour abstinence and 17 non-smokers (eight AA, nine CC) matched by age, gender, years of education, and handedness. The AA and CC smoking groups were also matched for number of cigarettes smoked per day. All results are P < 0.01, corrected for whole brain. There was a strong ethnicity by condition interaction among smokers in several a priori regions of interest. AA smokers showed a greater increase in response to smoking (versus neutral cues) than CC smokers in the medial prefrontal cortex, right lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In smoking versus baseline contrasts, additional areas of greater activation were found in AA, including the right amygdala and left caudate nucleus. No significant differences in cue-elicited brain activation were found between AA and CC non-smokers. These preliminary findings demonstrate variation in brain activation in response to smoking cues between AA and CC smokers in structures known to be associated with nicotine addiction. Differences in neural response may reflect fundamental differences in attention to smoking cues, which may in turn contribute to differences in effectiveness of nicotine dependence treatments among ethnic populations.

Authors
Okuyemi, KS; Powell, JN; Savage, CR; Hall, SB; Nollen, N; Holsen, LM; McClernon, FJ; Ahluwalia, JS
MLA Citation
Okuyemi, KS, Powell, JN, Savage, CR, Hall, SB, Nollen, N, Holsen, LM, McClernon, FJ, and Ahluwalia, JS. "Enhanced cue-elicited brain activation in African American compared with Caucasian smokers: an fMRI study." Addict Biol 11.1 (March 2006): 97-106.
PMID
16759342
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
11
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
97
End Page
106
DOI
10.1111/j.1369-1600.2006.00007.x

Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization.

RATIONALE: Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies in humans and experimental animals to improve cognitive function. Nicotinic treatments are being developed as therapeutic treatments for cognitive dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: Critical for the development of nicotinic therapeutics is an understanding of the neurobehavioral bases for nicotinic involvement in cognitive function. METHODS: Specific and diverse cognitive functions affected by nicotinic treatments are reviewed, including attention, learning, and memory. The neural substrates for these behavioral actions involve the identification of the critical pharmacologic receptor targets, in particular brain locations, and how those incipient targets integrate with broader neural systems involved with cognitive function. RESULTS: Nicotine and nicotinic agonists can improve working memory function, learning, and attention. Both alpha4beta2 and alpha7 nicotinic receptors appear to be critical for memory function. The hippocampus and the amygdala in particular have been found to be important for memory, with decreased nicotinic activity in these areas impairing memory. Nicotine and nicotinic analogs have shown promise for inducing cognitive improvement. Positive therapeutic effects have been seen in initial studies with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease, age-associated memory impairment, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Discovery of the behavioral, pharmacological, and anatomic specificity of nicotinic effects on learning, memory, and attention not only aids the understanding of nicotinic involvement in the basis of cognitive function, but also helps in the development of novel nicotinic treatments for cognitive dysfunction. Nicotinic treatments directed at specific receptor subtypes and nicotinic cotreatments with drugs affecting interacting transmitter systems may provide cognitive benefits most relevant to different syndromes of cognitive impairment such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Further research is necessary in order to determine the efficacy and safety of nicotinic treatments of these cognitive disorders.

Authors
Levin, ED; McClernon, FJ; Rezvani, AH
MLA Citation
Levin, ED, McClernon, FJ, and Rezvani, AH. "Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 184.3-4 (March 2006): 523-539. (Review)
PMID
16220335
Source
pubmed
Published In
Psychopharmacology
Volume
184
Issue
3-4
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
523
End Page
539
DOI
10.1007/s00213-005-0164-7

Enhanced cue-elicited brain activation in African American compared with Caucasian smokers: an fMRI study

Authors
Okuyemi, KS; Powell, JN; Savage, CR; Hall, SB; Nollen, N; Holsen, LM; McClernon, FJ; Ahluwalia, JS
MLA Citation
Okuyemi, KS, Powell, JN, Savage, CR, Hall, SB, Nollen, N, Holsen, LM, McClernon, FJ, and Ahluwalia, JS. "Enhanced cue-elicited brain activation in African American compared with Caucasian smokers: an fMRI study." ADDICTION BIOLOGY 11.1 (March 2006): 97-106.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Addiction Biology
Volume
11
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
97
End Page
106
DOI
10.1111/j.1355-6215.2006.00007.x

Effects of 24 hour smoking abstinence on sustained attention: Preliminary results of an fMRI study

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Kozink, RV; Lutz, AM; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Kozink, RV, Lutz, AM, and Rose, JE. "Effects of 24 hour smoking abstinence on sustained attention: Preliminary results of an fMRI study." 2006.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
43
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
S5
End Page
S5

Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate with event-related FMRI responses to smoking cues.

Drug cues have been shown to activate brain regions involved in attention, motivation, and reward in addicted users. However, as studies have typically measured responses in only one state (ie drug abstinence), it is unclear whether observed activations represent amplification by abstinence or stable responses. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate the stability of event-related responses to visual drug cues in dependent smokers (n=13) using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging measures. Imaging was conducted following smoking as usual and following overnight abstinence, and self-reported craving measures were obtained before, during, and after scanning. Analysis of hemodynamic response (HDR) amplitudes in each of 13 regions of interest revealed larger responses to smoking compared to control cues in ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (vACG) and superior frontal gyrus. Responses to smoking cues in these and all other regions revealed no effects of abstinence/satiety, thus supporting the notion that cue-elicited brain responses are relatively stable. However, while the abstinence manipulation did not alter group-level responses to smoking cues, at the individual level, abstinence-induced changes in craving (abstinence minus satiety) were positively correlated with changes in HDR amplitude to smoking cues in frontal regions including left inferior frontal gyrus, left vACG, and bilateral middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest that brain responses to smoking cues, while relatively stable at the group level following short-term abstinence, may be modulated by individual differences in craving in response to abstinence-particularly in regions subserving attention and motivation.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Hiott, FB; Huettel, SA; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Hiott, FB, Huettel, SA, and Rose, JE. "Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate with event-related FMRI responses to smoking cues." Neuropsychopharmacology 30.10 (October 2005): 1940-1947.
PMID
15920499
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuropsychopharmacology (Nature)
Volume
30
Issue
10
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1940
End Page
1947
DOI
10.1038/sj.npp.1300780

Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults.

CONTEXT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with increased risk of smoking, and some studies have suggested that inattentive symptoms specifically may underlie this risk. Few studies, however, have examined ADHD symptoms in nonclinical samples to determine the extent to which the number of symptoms-independent of the full diagnosis-confer risk for smoking-related outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between smoking-related variables and the number of retrospectively reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study population consists of 15 197 eligible participants from wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to examine the relation between self-reported ADHD symptoms and the lifetime likelihood of being a regular smoker, defined by having smoked at least 1 cigarette a day for 30 days. For individuals reporting regular smoking, we also examined the extent to which ADHD symptoms predicted age at onset of regular smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. RESULTS: A linear relation was identified between the number of self-reported inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and smoking outcome measures (P<.001 for each symptom domain). Controlling for demographic and conduct disorder symptoms, each reported inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom significantly increased the likelihood of ever regular smoking (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.14 and OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.19, respectively). For those reporting lifetime regular smoking, reported symptoms decreased the estimated age at onset and increased the number of cigarettes smoked. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with adult smoking outcome variables in this nationally representative sample, providing further evidence of a likely link between ADHD symptoms and risk for tobacco use.

Authors
Kollins, SH; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, BF
MLA Citation
Kollins, SH, McClernon, FJ, and Fuemmeler, BF. "Association between smoking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a population-based sample of young adults." Arch Gen Psychiatry 62.10 (October 2005): 1142-1147.
PMID
16203959
Source
pubmed
Published In
Archives of General Psychiatry
Volume
62
Issue
10
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1142
End Page
1147
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.62.10.1142

Abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving are correlated with changes in brain responses to smoking cues: An event-related fMRI study

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Hiott, FB; Heuttel, SA; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Hiott, FB, Heuttel, SA, and Rose, JE. "Abstinence-induced changes in self-reported craving are correlated with changes in brain responses to smoking cues: An event-related fMRI study." NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH 7.4 (August 2005): 685-685.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
7
Issue
4
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
685
End Page
685

Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers.

The nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine, has been shown to reduce cue-elicited cocaine craving and to aid in smoking cessation. In a within-subjects design, 16 dependent smokers received mecamylamine (10 mg) or placebo capsules on two different days. Subjects imagined smoking urge and non-urge scenarios after smoking their usual brand vs. denicotinized cigarettes. Smoking usual-brand cigarettes produced greater positive effects and mecamylamine blocked heart rate (HR) boost and cigarette sensory impact. Mecamylamine also resulted in greater craving and less calmness, regardless of cigarette smoked. Urge script imagination in the mecamylamine+denicotinized condition resulted in calmness similar to usual-brand conditions and higher than the placebo+denicotinized condition. A similar trend was observed for negative affect. These results suggest that mecamylamine can moderate smoking cue-induced emotional responses in smokers.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Rose, JE. "Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers." Addict Behav 30.4 (May 2005): 741-753.
PMID
15833578
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
30
Issue
4
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
741
End Page
753
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.08.020

The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors.

Smoking topography was measured in trauma survivors with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recalling trauma-related and neutral experiences. Analysis of covariance was performed on puff topography and mood measures using nicotine dependence scores and current major depressive disorder as covariates. Puff volumes were higher in the PTSD group than in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD group exhibited stable puff onset intervals while the non-PTSD group exhibited significantly shorter intervals following trauma recall. These findings support a "ceiling effect" hypothesis in which individuals with PTSD perpetually smoke in such a way as to maximize nicotine delivery, possibly reducing the potentially reinforcing effects of increased smoke delivery in negative affect-inducing situations.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC; Mozley, SL; Feldman, ME; Vrana, SR; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Beckham, JC, Mozley, SL, Feldman, ME, Vrana, SR, and Rose, JE. "The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors." Addict Behav 30.2 (February 2005): 247-257.
PMID
15621396
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
30
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
247
End Page
257
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.05.013

Erratum: "Human functional neuroimaging in nicotine and tobacco research" (Nicotine & Tobacco Research vol. 6 (6) (941-959))

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Gilbert, DG. "Erratum: "Human functional neuroimaging in nicotine and tobacco research" (Nicotine & Tobacco Research vol. 6 (6) (941-959))." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 7.2 (2005): 307--.
Source
scival
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume
7
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
307-
DOI
10.1080/14622200500077867

Human functional neuroimaging in nicotine and tobacco research: basics, background, and beyond.

Modern functional neuroimaging techniques allow nicotine and tobacco researchers to investigate the neurobiological basis of addiction in humans. We introduce the methods and measures of the following neuroimaging techniques: Electroencephalography and event-related cortical potentials, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We outline strengths and limitations across modalities and describe new and emerging technologies. We provide summaries of recent neuroimaging findings in the field of nicotine and tobacco research for neurochemistry, smoking and nicotine administration, craving and cue-reactivity, cognitive and affective information processing, and tobacco withdrawal. We address limitations of studies to date and identify opportunities for future research.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Gilbert, DG. "Human functional neuroimaging in nicotine and tobacco research: basics, background, and beyond." Nicotine Tob Res 6.6 (December 2004): 941-959. (Review)
PMID
15801569
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
6
Issue
6
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
941
End Page
959

Effects of nicotine on brain responses to emotional pictures.

Given that nicotine reduces negative affect, one would expect nicotine to have different effects on brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli than it does on responses to emotionally neutral or positive stimuli. However, no studies have assessed this possibility. The present study assessed the effects of nicotine patch versus placebo patch on brain event-related potential (ERP) responses to emotion-inducing negative, positive, and neutral color pictures in 16 smokers in a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. The study included four experimental sessions. After overnight smoking deprivation (12 hr or more), active nicotine patches were applied to participants during one of the first two sessions and during one of the last two sessions. Placebo patches were applied during the other two sessions. Nicotine reduced frontal ERP processing voltage negativity (from 144-488 ms poststimulus onset) evoked by viewing emotionally negative pictures to a greater extent than it did when emotionally neutral pictures were viewed, whereas it had no effect on processing negativity evoked by positive pictures. Nicotine also enhanced P390 amplitudes evoked by emotionally negative pictures more than it did when emotionally neutral and positive pictures were viewed. Across picture types, nicotine (relative to placebo) reduced N300 amplitude (more at anterior and dorsal sites) and increased P390 amplitude. Overall, nicotine influenced ERPs to emotionally neutral and positive pictures less than it did to negative pictures.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; Sugai, C; Zuo, Y; Eau Claire, N; McClernon, FJ; Rabinovich, NE; Markus, T; Asgaard, G; Radtke, R
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, Sugai, C, Zuo, Y, Eau Claire, N, McClernon, FJ, Rabinovich, NE, Markus, T, Asgaard, G, and Radtke, R. "Effects of nicotine on brain responses to emotional pictures." Nicotine Tob Res 6.6 (December 2004): 985-996.
PMID
15801571
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research (OUP)
Volume
6
Issue
6
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
985
End Page
996

Cigarette smoking, ambulatory cardiovascular monitoring, and mood in Vietnam veterans with and without chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.

This study investigated the association among cigarette smoking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and ambulatory cardiovascular and mood monitoring in 117 male Vietnam combat veterans (61 with PTSD and 56 without PTSD). Positive smoking status was associated with higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR), as well as greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) variability. Compared to individuals without PTSD, PTSD patients had higher HR, anger/hostility ratings, and depression/anxiety ratings. Significant diagnosis by smoking status interactions were found indicating that compared to nonsmokers with PTSD, smokers with PTSD had higher DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and positive affect. Ad lib cigarette smoking during the previous 30 min did not have a significant effect on mood or cardiovascular parameters, except in non-PTSD smokers who reported lower depression/anxiety ratings after smoking. Findings suggest that the effect of smoking on cardiovascular parameters may be amplified in smokers in PTSD. Findings suggest that the interrelationships among cardiovascular parameters, cigarette smoking, and PTSD deserve more research attention.

Authors
Beckham, JC; Gehrman, PR; McClernon, FJ; Collie, CF; Feldman, ME
MLA Citation
Beckham, JC, Gehrman, PR, McClernon, FJ, Collie, CF, and Feldman, ME. "Cigarette smoking, ambulatory cardiovascular monitoring, and mood in Vietnam veterans with and without chronic posttraumatic stress disorder." Addict Behav 29.8 (November 2004): 1579-1593.
PMID
15451125
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
29
Issue
8
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
1579
End Page
1593
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.036

Mood-related symptoms in participants following a low-carbohydrate diet

Authors
Yancy, W; McClernon, J; Westman, E
MLA Citation
Yancy, W, McClernon, J, and Westman, E. "Mood-related symptoms in participants following a low-carbohydrate diet." October 2004.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Obesity research
Volume
12
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
A69
End Page
A70

The effects of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers.

This study was designed to assess the effect of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms. In two laboratory sessions, dependent smokers refrained from smoking for 4 h. During a deep breathing session, participants were instructed to take a series of deep breaths every 30 min. During a control session, participants sat quietly. Controlled deep breathing significantly reduced smoking withdrawal symptoms, including craving for cigarettes and negative affect (tense, irritable), while resulting in the maintenance of baseline arousal (wide awake, able to concentrate) levels. Furthermore, a history of heavy smoking was associated with greater increases in arousal during the deep breathing session. The results of this preliminary study suggest that controlled deep breathing may be useful for relieving symptoms of smoking withdrawal.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Westman, EC; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Westman, EC, and Rose, JE. "The effects of controlled deep breathing on smoking withdrawal symptoms in dependent smokers." Addict Behav 29.4 (June 2004): 765-772.
PMID
15135559
Source
pubmed
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
29
Issue
4
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
765
End Page
772
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.005

Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits

Changes in physiology and attentional performance associated with smoking abstinence were characterized in 67 female smokers during low-stress and high-stress conditions. Abstinence was associated with decreases in cognitive performance, heart rate, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activation but with no change in serum estradiol or progesterone. Effects of quitting showed no tendency to resolve across the 31 days of abstinence. EEG deactivation and heart rate slowing were greater during a math task (high stress) than during relaxation (low stress). Individuals high in trait depression or nicotine dependence or with at least one dopamine D2 receptor A1 allele experienced greater EEG deactivation following abstinence, especially in the right hemisphere during the stressful task. Thus, finings support the situation × trait adaptive response model of abstinence effects and emphasize the value of multiple dependent measures when characterizing abstinence responses. © 2004 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ; Rabinovich, NE; Sugai, C; Plath, LC; Asgaard, G; Zuo, Y; Huggenvik, J; Botros, N
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, McClernon, FJ, Rabinovich, NE, Sugai, C, Plath, LC, Asgaard, G, Zuo, Y, Huggenvik, J, and Botros, N. "Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD2 A1 allele, and depressive traits." Nicotine and Tobacco Research 6.2 (2004): 249-267.
PMID
15203798
Source
scival
Published In
Nicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume
6
Issue
2
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
249
End Page
267
DOI
10.1080/14622200410001676305

Effects of transdermal nicotine on lateralized identification and memory interference.

It has been proposed that nicotine may enhance performance on tasks requiring primarily left hemisphere (LH) resources while impairing right hemisphere (RH)-based performance. However, this hypothesis has not been directly tested using a lateralized cognitive task. The effects of transdermal nicotine administration on lateralized consonant identification and memory interference were examined in dependent smokers and never-smokers. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, smokers (n = 24) and never-smokers (n = 24) were assigned to receive a nicotine or placebo patch. Subjects completed a lateralized letter identification task that required them to identify strings of three consonants presented in the left or right visual field while keeping a word in memory. A distinct right-visual-field (RVF) advantage was observed for consonant identification, but this effect was unaltered by nicotine or smoking status. However, nicotine decreased word memory errors on trials where consonants were presented in the RVF and increased errors on LVF trials. Nicotine may enhance LH-based cognitive performance by increasing LH cognitive resources or by reducing the influence of RVF distracting stimuli. These findings are consistent with a model of the lateralized effects of nicotine on cognitive performance.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG; Radtke, R
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Gilbert, DG, and Radtke, R. "Effects of transdermal nicotine on lateralized identification and memory interference." Hum Psychopharmacol 18.5 (July 2003): 339-343.
PMID
12858319
Source
pubmed
Published In
Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
Volume
18
Issue
5
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
339
End Page
343
DOI
10.1002/hup.488

Mood disturbance fails to resolve across 31 days of cigarette abstinence in women.

Smoking abstinence responses were characterized in 96 female smokers. Participants completed subjective state measures twice per week for 5 weeks and were then randomly assigned to a group required to abstain for 31 days or a control group that continued to smoke. Financial incentives for biochemically verified abstinence resulted in an 81% completion rate. Abstinence-related increases in depression, tension, anger, irritability, and appetite showed little tendency to return to prequit levels and remained significantly elevated above smoke-group levels. In contrast to psychological components of anxiety, physical components decreased to smoke group levels by the 2nd week of abstinence. Trait depression and neuroticism predicted larger increased abstinence-associated negative affect. The Big Five personality dimensions predicted variance not associated with depressive traits.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ; Rabinovich, NE; Plath, LC; Masson, CL; Anderson, AE; Sly, KF
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, McClernon, FJ, Rabinovich, NE, Plath, LC, Masson, CL, Anderson, AE, and Sly, KF. "Mood disturbance fails to resolve across 31 days of cigarette abstinence in women." J Consult Clin Psychol 70.1 (February 2002): 142-152.
PMID
11860040
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Volume
70
Issue
1
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
142
End Page
152

Content and context: Additional sources of variability in affective picture processing ERPs?

Authors
McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ. "Content and context: Additional sources of variability in affective picture processing ERPs?." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 39 (2002): S57-S57.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
39
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
S57
End Page
S57

The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors

Smoking topography was measured in trauma survivors with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after recalling trauma-related and neutral experiences. Analysis of covariance was performed on puff topography and mood measures using nicotine dependence scores and current major depressive disorder as covariates. Puff volumes were higher in the PTSD group than in the non-PTSD group. The PTSD group exhibited stable puff onset intervals while the non-PTSD group exhibited significantly shorter intervals following trauma recall. These findings support a "ceiling effect" hypothesis in which individuals with PTSD perpetually smoke in such a way as to maximize nicotine delivery, possibly reducing the potentially reinforcing effects of increased smoke delivery in negative affect-inducing situations. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Beckham, JC; Mozley, SL; Feldman, ME; Vrana, SR; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, Beckham, JC, Mozley, SL, Feldman, ME, Vrana, SR, and Rose, JE. "The effects of trauma recall on smoking topography in posttraumatic stress disorder and non-posttraumatic stress disorder trauma survivors." Addictive Behaviors 26.2 (2001): 247-257.
Source
scival
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
26
Issue
2
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
247
End Page
257
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.05.013

Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers

The nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine, has been shown to reduce cue-elicited cocaine craving and to aid in smoking cessation. In a within-subjects design, 16 dependent smokers received mecamylamine (10 mg) or placebo capsules on two different days. Subjects imagined smoking urge and non-urge scenarios after smoking their usual brand vs. denicotinized cigarettes. Smoking usual-brand cigarettes produced greater positive effects and mecamylamine blocked heart rate (HR) boost and cigarette sensory impact. Mecamylamine also resulted in greater craving and less calmness, regardless of cigarette smoked. Urge script imagination in the mecamylamine+denicotinized condition resulted in calmness similar to usual-brand conditions and higher than the placebo+denicotinized condition. A similar trend was observed for negative affect. These results suggest that mecamylamine can moderate smoking cue-induced emotional responses in smokers. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Rose, JE
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Rose, JE. "Mecamylamine moderates cue-induced emotional responses in smokers." Addictive Behaviors 26.4 (2001): 741-753.
Source
scival
Published In
Addictive Behaviors
Volume
26
Issue
4
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
741
End Page
753
DOI
10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.08.020

Prepulse inhibition as a marker for genetically-mediated smoking risk

Authors
Drobes, DJ; McClernon, FJ; Fiero, PL; Saladin, ME; Malcolm, RJ
MLA Citation
Drobes, DJ, McClernon, FJ, Fiero, PL, Saladin, ME, and Malcolm, RJ. "Prepulse inhibition as a marker for genetically-mediated smoking risk." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 38 (2001): S37-S37.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
38
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
S37
End Page
S37

A smoke cloud of confusion.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, and McClernon, FJ. "A smoke cloud of confusion." Am Psychol 55.10 (October 2000): 1158-1159.
PMID
11080842
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Psychologist
Volume
55
Issue
10
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
1158
End Page
1159

Relationships between EEG power spectrum and the five-factor model of personality

Authors
McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, DG
MLA Citation
McClernon, FJ, and Gilbert, DG. "Relationships between EEG power spectrum and the five-factor model of personality." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 37 (August 2000): S68-S68.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
37
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
S68
End Page
S68

P300 attenuation fails to recover after 31 days of tobacco abstinence

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, and McClernon, FJ. "P300 attenuation fails to recover after 31 days of tobacco abstinence." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 37 (August 2000): S43-S43.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
37
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
S43
End Page
S43

EEG, physiology, and task-related mood fail to resolve across 31 days of smoking abstinence: relations to depressive traits, nicotine exposure, and dependence.

Changes in task-related mood and physiology associated with 31 days of smoking abstinence were assessed in smokers, 34 of whom were randomly assigned to a quit group and 22 to a continuing-to-smoke control group. A large financial incentive for smoking abstinence resulted in very low participant attrition. Individuals were tested during prequit baselines and at 3, 10, 17, and 31 days of abstinence. Abstinence was associated with decreases in heart rate and serum cortisol, a slowing of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, and task-dependent and trait-depression-dependent hemispheric EEG asymmetries. Differences between the quit group and the smoking group showed no tendency to resolve across the 31 days of abstinence. Trait depression and neuroticism correlated with increases in left-relative-to-right frontal EEG slow-wave (low alpha) activity at both 3 and 31 days of abstinence. In contrast, prequit nicotine intake and Fagerström Tolerance scores correlated with alpha asymmetry and with greater EEG slowing only at Day 3. Thus, the effects of smoking abstinence appear to last for at least several months.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ; Rabinovich, NE; Dibb, WD; Plath, LC; Hiyane, S; Jensen, RA; Meliska, CJ; Estes, SL; Gehlbach, BA
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, McClernon, FJ, Rabinovich, NE, Dibb, WD, Plath, LC, Hiyane, S, Jensen, RA, Meliska, CJ, Estes, SL, and Gehlbach, BA. "EEG, physiology, and task-related mood fail to resolve across 31 days of smoking abstinence: relations to depressive traits, nicotine exposure, and dependence." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7.4 (November 1999): 427-443.
PMID
10609977
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
7
Issue
4
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
427
End Page
443

Effects of monetary contingencies on smoking relapse: influences of trait depression, personality, and habitual nicotine intake.

Of 56 male smokers, 34 were randomly assigned (by 60% random odds) to quit smoking immediately, whereas the remaining 22 were assigned to quit after an additional 31 days. Compensation ($300) was contingent on abstinence for a minimum of 31 or 2 days (depending on random assignment) and completion of all experimental sessions. Contingencies for the immediate-quit group required 31 days of abstinence; those for the delayed-quit group required only 2 days of abstinence. Contingency duration (31 vs. 2 days) predicted days to relapse. All but 4 of the 31-day contingency participants maintained abstinence for at least 31 days, whereas only 3 of the 2-day contingency group abstained for 31+ days. However, 31-day contingencies did not result in longer postcontingency time to relapse. Higher trait neuroticism, depression, and psychopathic deviate scores predicted decreased time to relapse. Prequit cotinine concentrations and Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire scores failed to predict time to relapse.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; Crauthers, DM; Mooney, DK; McClernon, FJ; Jensen, RA
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, Crauthers, DM, Mooney, DK, McClernon, FJ, and Jensen, RA. "Effects of monetary contingencies on smoking relapse: influences of trait depression, personality, and habitual nicotine intake." Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 7.2 (May 1999): 174-181.
PMID
10340157
Source
pubmed
Published In
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Volume
7
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
174
End Page
181

Effects of smoking abstinence on mood and craving in men: Influences of negative-affect-related personality traits, habitual nicotine intake and repeated measurements

A two-factor model of individual differences in smoking abstinence response was assessed. The two factors were nicotine bioadaptation (nicotine exposure and self-reported tolerance/dependence) and self-medication for negative affect/psychopathology. Bioadaptation was expected to promote transient increases in smoking abstinence-related negative affect, while self-medication was expected to be related to relatively permanent increases in negative affect. Of 56 male smokers starting, 50 completed the study, 30 of whom were randomly assigned to an immediate cessation group and 20 to a continuing-to-smoke control group. Mood and craving were repeatedly measured with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Shiffman Withdrawal Questionnaire, administered twice per week during a three-week pre-quit baseline period and every 48 h during the 30-day abstinence phase. POMS negative moods decreased significantly across the six pre-quit baseline days even though there was no smoking cessation-related intervention during this time, a finding with implications for the question of whether quitters return to pre-quit levels of negative affect. Support for the two-factor model was provided by three of our findings. First, POMS Depression, Tension and Anger increased in the quit group after quitting and never returned to levels corresponding to the continuing-to-smoke controls even after 30 days of abstinence. Second, trait depression assessed prior to smoking abstinence correlated with abstinence-related increases in POMS state depressive affect score shortly after quitting and during the last eight days of the study. Third, pre-quit cotinine concentration correlated with increases in negative affect during the first 48 h of abstinence. The findings suggest that previous studies should be interpreted with caution because of their failure to take into account the repeated-measures effect and selective attrition. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ; Rabinovich, NE; Plath, LC; Jensen, RA; Meliska, CJ
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, McClernon, FJ, Rabinovich, NE, Plath, LC, Jensen, RA, and Meliska, CJ. "Effects of smoking abstinence on mood and craving in men: Influences of negative-affect-related personality traits, habitual nicotine intake and repeated measurements." Personality and Individual Differences 25.3 (1998): 399-423.
Source
scival
Published In
Personality and Individual Differences
Volume
25
Issue
3
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
399
End Page
423

The psychology of the smoker

Authors
Gilbert, DG; McClernon, FJ; Gilbert, BO
MLA Citation
Gilbert, DG, McClernon, FJ, and Gilbert, BO. "The psychology of the smoker." TOBACCO EPIDEMIC 28 (1997): 132-150.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
TOBACCO EPIDEMIC
Volume
28
Publish Date
1997
Start Page
132
End Page
150

Effects of smoking and telic/paratelic dominance on the contingent negative variation (CNV).

Concepts from reversal theory, a general theory of motivation, emotion and action, have recently been shown to be relevant to smoking behavior and smoking cessation. One relevant concept is that of telic and paratelic dominance. Individuals who are paratelic-dominant are playful, spontaneous, and prefer high arousal seeking. Those who are telic-dominant are serious, tend to plan ahead, and prefer low arousal. This led to the hypothesis that smoking might increase the amplitude of the contingent negative variation (CNV) in paratelic-dominant smokers more than in telic-dominant smokers. CNV was obtained using a Go/NoGo reaction time task with a 2 s S1-S2 interval and variable intertrial intervals. S1 indicated whether the subject was to respond to S2 or not. Errors were punished with a burst of white noise. Subjects performed the CNV task three times: after being deprived of smoking for at least 4 h; after sham smoking; and after smoking a cigarette of their own brand. Telic-dominant subjects differed from paratelic-dominant subjects in the relative amplitude of early (1 s) and late (2 s) components of the CNV. Smoking did not differentially affect the dominance groups unless gender was taken into account, and the most striking interactions between smoking and dominance groups were noted for the NoGo trials. As expected, smoking decreased the amplitude of the early component of the NoGo CNV for telic-dominant women, but increased it for paratelic-dominant women; no significant differences were found for the late component. In men, smoking increased the late CNV more for telics than for paratelics, while smoking did not differentially affect the early component.

Authors
Cook, MR; Gerkovich, MM; Hoffman, SJ; McClernon, FJ; O'Connell, KA
MLA Citation
Cook, MR, Gerkovich, MM, Hoffman, SJ, McClernon, FJ, and O'Connell, KA. "Effects of smoking and telic/paratelic dominance on the contingent negative variation (CNV)." Int J Psychophysiol 23.1-2 (August 1996): 101-110.
PMID
8880370
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Psychophysiology
Volume
23
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
1996
Start Page
101
End Page
110

EFFECTS OF RESPIRATORY MANEUVERS ON END-TIDAL CO2 AND THE EGG OF SMOKERS

Authors
MCCLERNON, FJ; COOK, MR; GERKOVICH, MM; HOFFMAN, SJ; BEATY, JC
MLA Citation
MCCLERNON, FJ, COOK, MR, GERKOVICH, MM, HOFFMAN, SJ, and BEATY, JC. "EFFECTS OF RESPIRATORY MANEUVERS ON END-TIDAL CO2 AND THE EGG OF SMOKERS." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 32 (August 1995): S52-S52.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
32
Publish Date
1995
Start Page
S52
End Page
S52

THE INTERACTION OF SMOKING EFFECTS AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES ON CARDIAC AND EMG ACTIVITY

Authors
GERKOVICH, MM; COOK, MR; HOFFMAN, SJ; MCCLERNON, FJ
MLA Citation
GERKOVICH, MM, COOK, MR, HOFFMAN, SJ, and MCCLERNON, FJ. "THE INTERACTION OF SMOKING EFFECTS AND INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES ON CARDIAC AND EMG ACTIVITY." PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY 32 (August 1995): S34-S34.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Psychophysiology
Volume
32
Publish Date
1995
Start Page
S34
End Page
S34

Smoking and EEG power spectra: effects of differences in arousal seeking.

Reversal theory, a general theory of motivation, emotion and action, has recently been shown to predict lapses in smoking cessation. Individuals are less likely to lapse if they are in the telic (serious-minded, arousal avoidant, goal-oriented) state than when they are in the paratelic (playful, arousal seeking, spontaneous) state. The literature indicates that people can smoke in such a way as to either increase or decrease central nervous system arousal; smoking in the telic and paratelic states might therefore differentially affect the resting electroencephalograph, as quantified by Fast Fourier Transform analysis. The basic hypothesis was supported. Theta power was decreased when subjects in the telic state smoked, while beta 2 power was increased when subjects in the paratelic state smoked; the latter finding was, however, true only for men. The results have important implications for research on changing health behaviors and for smoking cessation programs.

Authors
Cook, MR; Gerkovich, MM; Hoffman, SJ; McClernon, FJ; Cohen, HD; Oakleaf, KL; O'Connell, KA
MLA Citation
Cook, MR, Gerkovich, MM, Hoffman, SJ, McClernon, FJ, Cohen, HD, Oakleaf, KL, and O'Connell, KA. "Smoking and EEG power spectra: effects of differences in arousal seeking." Int J Psychophysiol 19.3 (April 1995): 247-256.
PMID
7558991
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Psychophysiology
Volume
19
Issue
3
Publish Date
1995
Start Page
247
End Page
256
Show More

Research Areas:

  • Executive Function
  • Functional Neuroimaging
  • Nicotine
  • Psychiatry--Research
  • Tobacco use