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Moorman, Patricia Gripka

Overview:

Dr. Moorman's research focuses on the epidemiology of women's health issues. Her work includes research on ovarian cancer, breast cancer and hysterectomy. Areas of particular interest include disparities in cancer risk factors and outcomes and the effects of hysterectomy on ovarian function.  As part of the Duke Evidence Synthesis group, she has also been involved in systematic reviews and meta-analyses related to ovarian cancer, breast cancer and infertility.

Positions:

Professor in Community and Family Medicine

Community and Family Medicine, Prevention Research
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.S.P.H. 1989

M.S.P.H. — University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Ph.D. 1993

Ph.D. — University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

News:

Grants:

Duke KURe Program

Administered By
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Urogynecology
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
August 01, 2013
End Date
July 31, 2018

The Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer in African American Women

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
University of Virginia - Charlottesville
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
March 01, 2015
End Date
April 30, 2017

Anti-Mullerian Hormone Analyses in PROOF Study Participants

Administered By
Community and Family Medicine
AwardedBy
Mayo Clinic
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
November 01, 2012
End Date
February 15, 2017

Rare Cancer Genetics Registry

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
Massachusetts General Hospital
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2014
End Date
June 30, 2016

Integrating Population and Basic Science in Cancer Research

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Faculty Member
Start Date
September 01, 2009
End Date
August 31, 2015

Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
June 01, 2010
End Date
February 28, 2015

Oral Contraceptive Use for the Primary Prevention of Ovarian Cancer

Administered By
Duke Clinical Research Institute
AwardedBy
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 10, 2010
End Date
September 30, 2012

The Molecular Epidemiology Of Ovarian Cancer

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 1998
End Date
June 30, 2012

Ovarian Failure Among Hysterectomized Women

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 30, 2003
End Date
August 31, 2010

Carolina and Georgia Genetics Network Center

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 1998
End Date
April 30, 2008

Partnerships to Eliminate Disparities in Cancer Outcomes

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
May 15, 2002
End Date
April 30, 2007

Carolina and Georgia Genetics Network Center

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 1998
End Date
July 31, 2004

Medication Use & Breast Cancer in a Biracial Population

Administered By
Duke Cancer Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2000
End Date
June 30, 2002
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Publications:

Lifetime number of ovulatory cycles and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

Incessant ovulation has been consistently linked to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Although reproductive characteristics differ substantially by race, the association between incessant ovulation and EOC has been evaluated only in populations of predominantly white women. In the present study, we examined the association between lifetime number of ovulatory cycles (LOCs) and EOC risk among African American (AA) women.We used data from 534 cases and 722 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study. LOCs were determined using the standard method, with modifications to include episodes of irregular or missed periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between LOCs and EOC risk overall and by age, while adjusting for appropriate confounders.The mean number of LOCs was 378.2 ± 105.8 for cases and 346.4 ± 117.3 for controls. Women in the highest tertile of LOCs had 59% higher odds of EOC compared to women in the lowest tertile (OR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.15-2.20). When examining this relationship by age, the positive association with EOC was stronger among women <50 years of age (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.15-5.94), followed by women aged 50-60 years (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.30-3.94). Yet, no association was present among women aged >60 years (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.45-1.40).In a population of AA women, we observed a positive association between LOCs and EOC risk, providing further support for the hypothesis that incessant ovulation contributes to the etiology of EOC.

Authors
Peres, LC; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, PD; Abbott, SE; Camacho, F; Wang, F; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Peres, LC, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, PD, Abbott, SE, Camacho, F, Wang, F, and Schildkraut, JM. "Lifetime number of ovulatory cycles and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African American women." Cancer causes & control : CCC (March 2, 2017).
PMID
28251458
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.1007/s10552-017-0853-7

Supplemental Selenium May Decrease Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women.

Background: To our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the associations of antioxidant intake with the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, who are known to have high mortality from the disease.Objective: We sought to evaluate these associations among 406 ovarian cancer cases and 632 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from AACES (African American Cancer Epidemiology Study), a population-based, case-control study in 11 geographical areas within the United States.Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including age, region, education, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopause, tubal ligation, family history, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, total energy, and physical activity.Results: Women with the highest intakes of supplemental selenium (>20 μg/d) had an ∼30% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with no supplemental intake (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97; P-trend = 0.035). This inverse association was stronger in current smokers (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.46; P-trend = 0.001). There was no association with dietary selenium. The associations with carotenoid intakes were weak and nonsignificant (P = 0.07-0.60). We observed no association with dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin C or vitamin E. There were no appreciable differences in results between serous and nonserous tumors.Conclusions: These findings provide the first insights, to our knowledge, into the potential association between antioxidants and ovarian cancer in African-American women, indicating potential inverse associations with supplemental selenium.

Authors
Terry, PD; Qin, B; Camacho, F; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Guertin, KA; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Schildkraut, JM; Bandera, EV
MLA Citation
Terry, PD, Qin, B, Camacho, F, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Guertin, KA, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Schildkraut, JM, and Bandera, EV. "Supplemental Selenium May Decrease Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women." The Journal of nutrition (February 15, 2017).
PMID
28202637
Source
epmc
Published In
The Journal of nutrition
Publish Date
2017
DOI
10.3945/jn.116.243279

Dietary inflammatory index and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women.

Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC); yet the contribution of inflammatory foods and nutrients to EOC risk has been understudied. We investigated the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a novel literature-derived tool to assess the inflammatory potential of one's diet, and EOC risk in African American (AA) women in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, the largest population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women to date. The energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) was computed per 1,000 kilocalories from dietary intake data collected through a food frequency questionnaire, which measured usual dietary intake in the year prior to diagnosis for cases or interview for controls. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression for the association between the E-DII and EOC risk. 493 cases and 662 controls were included in the analyses. We observed a 10% increase in EOC risk per a one-unit change in the E-DII (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). Similarly, women consuming the most pro-inflammatory diet had a statistically significant increased EOC risk in comparison to the most anti-inflammatory diet (ORQuartile4/Quartile1  = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.18-2.51). We also observed effect modification by age (p < 0.05), where a strong, significant association between the E-DII and EOC risk was observed among women older than 60 years, but no association was observed in women aged 60 years or younger. Our findings suggest that a more pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an increased EOC risk, especially among women older than 60 years.

Authors
Peres, LC; Bandera, EV; Qin, B; Guertin, KA; Shivappa, N; Hebert, JR; Abbott, SE; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Moorman, PG; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, PD; Camacho, F; Wang, F; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Peres, LC, Bandera, EV, Qin, B, Guertin, KA, Shivappa, N, Hebert, JR, Abbott, SE, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Moorman, PG, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, PD, Camacho, F, Wang, F, and Schildkraut, JM. "Dietary inflammatory index and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women." International journal of cancer 140.3 (February 2017): 535-543.
PMID
27727481
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Cancer
Volume
140
Issue
3
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
535
End Page
543
DOI
10.1002/ijc.30467

Physical and psychological health in rare cancer survivors

Authors
Horick, NK; Manful, A; Lowery, J; Domchek, S; Moorman, P; Griffin, C; Visvanathan, K; Isaacs, C; Kinney, AY; Finkelstein, DM
MLA Citation
Horick, NK, Manful, A, Lowery, J, Domchek, S, Moorman, P, Griffin, C, Visvanathan, K, Isaacs, C, Kinney, AY, and Finkelstein, DM. "Physical and psychological health in rare cancer survivors." Journal of Cancer Survivorship 11.1 (February 2017): 158-165.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of Cancer Survivorship
Volume
11
Issue
1
Publish Date
2017
Start Page
158
End Page
165
DOI
10.1007/s11764-016-0573-0

Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

Epidemiologic studies indicate increased ovarian cancer risk among women who use genital powder, but this has not been thoroughly investigated in African American (AA) women, a group with a high prevalence of use. We evaluate the relationship between use of genital powder and nongenital powder in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).Subjects are 584 cases and 745 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES), an ongoing, population-based case-control study of EOC in AA women in 11 geographic locations in the United States. AA controls were frequency matched to cases on residence and age. Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between genital and nongenital powder exposure and EOC risk, controlling for potential confounders.Powder use was common (62.8% of cases and 52.9% of controls). Genital powder was associated with an increased risk of EOC (OR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.86) and a dose-response relationship was found for duration of use and number of lifetime applications (P < 0.05). Nongenital use was also associated with EOC risk, particularly among nonserous EOC cases (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 1.39-3.74). An association between powder use and upper respiratory conditions suggests an enhanced inflammatory response may explain the association between body powder and EOC.In a study of AA women, body powder use was significantly associated with EOC risk.The results support that body powder is a modifiable risk factor for EOC among AA women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(10); 1411-7. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Trabert, p. 1369.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Abbott, SE; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, ML; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peres, LC; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Crankshaw, S; Camacho, F; Wang, F; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Abbott, SE, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, ML, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peres, LC, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Crankshaw, S, Camacho, F, Wang, F, and Moorman, PG. "Association between Body Powder Use and Ovarian Cancer: The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES)." Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 25.10 (October 2016): 1411-1417.
PMID
27197282
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
25
Issue
10
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1411
End Page
1417
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.epi-15-1281

Dairy, calcium, vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

No previous study has evaluated the associations of dairy products, lactose, calcium and vitamin D with the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, who are known to have high mortality from the disease, as well as to be at risk for calcium and vitamin D deficiency.We evaluated these associations among 490 ovarian cancer cases and 656 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a population-based case-control study in 11 geographical areas in the US. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).An increased ovarian cancer risk was observed for whole milk consumption and lactose intake (highest quartile vs lowest: OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.25-3.10;P-trend: 0.008). Calcium intake was associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.51, 95 CI%: 0.30-0.86; P-trend: 0.009), but vitamin D intake was not. Longer sun exposure in summer months was found to predict a lower risk (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.51-0.99; P-trend: 0.049).Our findings suggest that a high-calcium, low-lactose diet, and sun exposure in summer months may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

Authors
Qin, B; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Schildkraut, JM; Bandera, EV
MLA Citation
Qin, B, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Schildkraut, JM, and Bandera, EV. "Dairy, calcium, vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women." British journal of cancer 115.9 (October 2016): 1122-1130.
PMID
27632371
Source
epmc
Published In
British Journal of Cancer
Volume
115
Issue
9
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1122
End Page
1130
DOI
10.1038/bjc.2016.289

Reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

Reproductive characteristics, the most established ovarian cancer risk factors, differ markedly between African-American and white women. Studies in predominantly white populations suggest that associations between reproductive characteristics and ovarian cancer vary by timing of the events and menopause status. This analysis examined associations between number, duration, and timing of reproductive events and epithelial ovarian cancer among African-American women.Data from a multicenter case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-American women (641 cases/752 controls) were used to examine associations with oral contraceptive (OC) use and pregnancy characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with reproductive characteristics were calculated with logistic regression models.OC use (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), parity (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.6), and breastfeeding for >12 months (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5) were inversely associated with ovarian cancer. More recent pregnancies and OC use had stronger associations with ovarian cancer than pregnancies or OC use that occurred earlier in life, especially among premenopausal women.This study provides the first thorough documentation that pregnancy, breastfeeding, and OC use are inversely associated with ovarian cancer in African-American women, similar to what has been observed in white women. The associations with timing of the exposures suggest that these factors have both short- and long-term effects.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Crankshaw, S; Wang, F; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Crankshaw, S, Wang, F, and Schildkraut, JM. "Reproductive factors and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women." Annals of epidemiology 26.9 (September 2016): 654-662.
PMID
27528178
Source
epmc
Published In
Annals of Epidemiology
Volume
26
Issue
9
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
654
End Page
662
DOI
10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.07.004

In Reply.

Authors
Trabuco, EC; Moorman, PG; Cliby, WA
MLA Citation
Trabuco, EC, Moorman, PG, and Cliby, WA. "In Reply." Obstetrics and gynecology 128.3 (September 2016): 655-656.
PMID
27548538
Source
epmc
Published In
Obstetrics & Gynecology (Elsevier)
Volume
128
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
655
End Page
656
DOI
10.1097/aog.0000000000001607

Association of Ovary-Sparing Hysterectomy With Ovarian Reserve Reply

Authors
Trabuco, EC; Moorman, PG; Cliby, WA
MLA Citation
Trabuco, EC, Moorman, PG, and Cliby, WA. "Association of Ovary-Sparing Hysterectomy With Ovarian Reserve Reply." OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY 128.3 (September 2016): 655-656.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Obstetrics & Gynecology (Elsevier)
Volume
128
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
655
End Page
656

Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

We investigated the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer in African-American women. We used a population-based case-control study design that included case patients with incident ovarian cancer (n = 513) and age- and area-matched control participants (n = 721) from 10 states who were recruited into the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study from December 2010 through December 2014. Questionnaires were administered via telephone, and study participants responded to questions about several characteristics, including years of education, family annual income, and risk factors for ovarian cancer. After adjustment for established ovarian cancer risk factors, women with a college degree or more education had an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51, 0.99) when compared with those with a high school diploma or less (P for trend = 0.02); women with family annual incomes of $75,000 or more had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.16) when compared with those with incomes less than $10,000 (P for trend = 0.055). When these variables were dichotomized, compared with women with a high school diploma or less, women with more education had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.93), and compared with women with an income less than $25,000, women with higher incomes had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.12). These findings suggest that ovarian cancer risk may be inversely associated with socioeconomic status among African-American women and highlight the need for additional evidence to more thoroughly characterize the association between socioeconomic status and ovarian cancer.

Authors
Alberg, AJ; Moorman, PG; Crankshaw, S; Wang, F; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cartmell, KB; Cote, ML; Ford, ME; Funkhouser, E; Kelemen, LE; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Sterba, KR; Terry, P; Wallace, K; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Alberg, AJ, Moorman, PG, Crankshaw, S, Wang, F, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cartmell, KB, Cote, ML, Ford, ME, Funkhouser, E, Kelemen, LE, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Sterba, KR, Terry, P, Wallace, K, and Schildkraut, JM. "Socioeconomic Status in Relation to the Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women: A Population-Based Case-Control Study." American journal of epidemiology 184.4 (August 3, 2016): 274-283.
PMID
27492896
Source
epmc
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
184
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
274
End Page
283
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwv450

Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women

Authors
Bandera, EV; Qin, B; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Bandera, EV, Qin, B, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, and Schildkraut, JM. "Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women." INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER 139.3 (August 1, 2016): 593-600.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
International Journal of Cancer
Volume
139
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
593
End Page
600
DOI
10.1002/hc.30115

Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women.

Authors
Bandera, EV; Qin, B; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Bandera, EV, Qin, B, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, and Schildkraut, JM. "Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women." International journal of cancer 139.3 (August 2016): 593-600.
PMID
27038123
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Cancer
Volume
139
Issue
3
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
593
End Page
600
DOI
10.1002/ijc.30115

Abstract 3407: Gene expression subtypes of high grade serous ovarian cancer in African American women

Authors
Doherty, JA; Greene, CS; Rudd, JE; Tafe, LJ; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Moorman, PG; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Bentley, R; Berchuck, A; Marks, JR; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Doherty, JA, Greene, CS, Rudd, JE, Tafe, LJ, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Moorman, PG, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Bentley, R, Berchuck, A, Marks, JR, and Schildkraut, JM. "Abstract 3407: Gene expression subtypes of high grade serous ovarian cancer in African American women." July 15, 2016.
Source
crossref
Published In
Cancer Research
Volume
76
Issue
14 Supplement
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
3407
End Page
3407
DOI
10.1158/1538-7445.AM2016-3407

Abstract 1754: Body powder use and ovarian cancer: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study

Authors
Peres, LC; Abbott, SE; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, PD; Crankshaw, S; Camacho, F; Wang, F; Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Peres, LC, Abbott, SE, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, PD, Crankshaw, S, Camacho, F, Wang, F, Moorman, PG, and Schildkraut, JM. "Abstract 1754: Body powder use and ovarian cancer: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study." July 15, 2016.
Source
crossref
Published In
Cancer Research
Volume
76
Issue
14 Supplement
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1754
End Page
1754
DOI
10.1158/1538-7445.AM2016-1754

The Association Between Body Mass Index and Presenting Symptoms in African American Women with Ovarian Cancer.

Ovarian cancer, the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, typically comes to clinical attention due to nonspecific gastrointestinal or pelvic symptoms. African Americans with ovarian cancer have a greater mortality burden than whites and are also much more likely to be obese. The objective of this study is to explore whether the presentation and duration of symptoms differ by body mass index (BMI) in African Americans with ovarian cancer.We conducted a case-only analysis using data from a multicenter population-based study of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women. Information on risk factors and symptoms leading to diagnosis was obtained in a telephone interview. Frequency and duration of symptoms by BMI categories were compared using logistic regression and linear regression analyses.Of the 326 women, ∼60% was obese (BMI ≥30), with 30.8% having a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2). Ninety-four percent of women reported ≥1 symptom during the year before diagnosis. We observed differences in frequency of symptoms by BMI categories, with most being reported more frequently by the heaviest women. The reported duration of symptoms was longer in women with higher BMI, with statistically significant trend tests for 6 of the 10 symptoms evaluated.BMI appears to impact ovarian cancer symptomatology. Women with higher BMI report having symptoms for a longer period of time before diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Healthcare providers should be vigilant and consider ovarian cancer in the differential diagnosis for obese women presenting with abdominal and pelvic symptoms.

Authors
Erondu, CO; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, E; Schwartz, AG; Terry, PD; Wallace, K; Akushevich, L; Wang, F; Crankshaw, S; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Erondu, CO, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, E, Schwartz, AG, Terry, PD, Wallace, K, Akushevich, L, Wang, F, Crankshaw, S, Berchuck, A, Schildkraut, JM, and Moorman, PG. "The Association Between Body Mass Index and Presenting Symptoms in African American Women with Ovarian Cancer." Journal of women's health (2002) 25.6 (June 2016): 571-578.
PMID
26886855
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Women's Health
Volume
25
Issue
6
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
571
End Page
578
DOI
10.1089/jwh.2015.5359

Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

The literature on recreational physical activity (RPA) and ovarian cancer risk is inconclusive and most studies of RPA and ovarian cancer have been conducted in white populations. This study is the first to investigate the association between RPA and ovarian cancer in an exclusively African American (AA) population. We analyzed data from an ongoing U.S. population-based, case-control study of AA women, which included 393 women recently diagnosed with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (IEOC) and 611 controls. A baseline interview assessed RPA frequency, intensity, and duration. Each RPA intensity was assigned a metabolic equivalent of task (MET) value and MET-min/week were calculated. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between RPA and IEOC risk. Compared with sedentary women, predominantly mild intensity RPA was significantly inversely associated with IEOC risk for women reporting above median (>297) MET-min/week (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34, 0.78) and nonsignificantly for <297 MET-min/week (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.12). Predominantly moderate intensity RPA was associated with significantly increased risk for women reporting above median (>540) MET-min/week (OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.23). Predominantly strenuous intensity RPA was nonsignificantly associated with lower IEOC risk for women reporting above median (>1800) MET-min/week (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.57). The inverse associations for mild and strenuous intensity RPA were most pronounced in obese women (body mass index >30 kg/m(2) ). The findings that mild and strenuous RPA may reduce the risk of IEOC particularly among obese women are difficult to reconcile with the increased risk observed for moderate RPA. Further research is warranted to determine whether these findings are genuine and, if so, their mechanistic basis.

Authors
Abbott, SE; Bandera, EV; Qin, B; Peres, LC; Moorman, PG; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Schwartz, AG; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Cote, ML; Alberg, AJ; Terry, P; Bondy, M; Paddock, LE; Crankshaw, S; Wang, F; Camacho, F; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Abbott, SE, Bandera, EV, Qin, B, Peres, LC, Moorman, PG, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Schwartz, AG, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Cote, ML, Alberg, AJ, Terry, P, Bondy, M, Paddock, LE, Crankshaw, S, Wang, F, Camacho, F, and Schildkraut, JM. "Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer risk in African American women." Cancer medicine 5.6 (June 2016): 1319-1327.
PMID
26923432
Source
epmc
Published In
Cancer Medicine
Volume
5
Issue
6
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1319
End Page
1327
DOI
10.1002/cam4.677

Association of Ovary-Sparing Hysterectomy With Ovarian Reserve.

To evaluate the association of hysterectomy on ovarian function by comparing antimüllerian hormone, a marker of ovarian reserve, before and after hysterectomy.The Prospective Research on Ovarian Function study prospectively followed 1) premenopausal women undergoing ovary-sparing hysterectomy for benign indications, and 2) a referent cohort with similar age distributions and intact reproductive organs; they reported that women undergoing hysterectomy became menopausal 1.9 years earlier than referents. In a planned secondary analysis, baseline antimüllerian hormone levels and the absolute change and percentage change in antimüllerian hormone levels between baseline and 1-year follow-up were compared between groups.Baseline median antimüllerian hormone levels were similar between the hysterectomy group (n=148) and the referent group (n=172). After 1 year, patients undergoing hysterectomy had a significantly greater median percentage decrease (-40.7% compared with -20.9%; P<.001), had a higher proportion with undetectable antimüllerian hormone (12.8% compared with 4.7%; P=.02), and had on average 0.77 times the antimüllerian hormone level (P=.001) compared with referents. These differences were attenuated among white women but remained significant among black women. Comparisons of women stratified by low or high ovarian reserve at baseline or among propensity score-matched cohorts showed similar findings; however, the absolute median change in antimüllerian hormone levels was similar between groups (-0.3 compared with -0.2; P=.31).Women undergoing hysterectomy had similar antimüllerian hormone levels at baseline and experienced a greater percentage decrease in levels after 1 year compared with referents, suggesting that hysterectomy may lead to ovarian damage that is unrelated to baseline ovarian reserve.

Authors
Trabuco, EC; Moorman, PG; Algeciras-Schimnich, A; Weaver, AL; Cliby, WA
MLA Citation
Trabuco, EC, Moorman, PG, Algeciras-Schimnich, A, Weaver, AL, and Cliby, WA. "Association of Ovary-Sparing Hysterectomy With Ovarian Reserve." Obstetrics and gynecology 127.5 (May 2016): 819-827.
PMID
27054925
Source
epmc
Published In
Obstetrics & Gynecology (Elsevier)
Volume
127
Issue
5
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
819
End Page
827
DOI
10.1097/aog.0000000000001398

Breast Cancer Screening: Benefit or Harm?--Reply.

Authors
Myers, ER; Moorman, P; Sanders, GD
MLA Citation
Myers, ER, Moorman, P, and Sanders, GD. "Breast Cancer Screening: Benefit or Harm?--Reply." JAMA 315.13 (April 2016): 1402-1403.
PMID
27046371
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
315
Issue
13
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1402
End Page
1403
DOI
10.1001/jama.2015.19129

Analgesic medication use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women.

Existing literature examining analgesic medication use and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk has been inconsistent, with the majority of studies reporting an inverse association. Race-specific effects of this relationship have not been adequately addressed.Utilising data from the largest population-based case-control study of EOC in African Americans, the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, the relationship between analgesic use (aspirin, non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen) and risk of EOC was estimated by multivariate logistic regression. The association of frequency, duration, and indication of analgesic use on EOC risk was also assessed.Aspirin use, overall, was associated with a 44% lower EOC risk (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.35-0.92) and a 26% lower EOC risk was observed for non-aspirin NSAID use (OR=0.74; 95% CI=0.52-1.05). The inverse association was strongest for women taking aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease and women taking non-aspirin NSAIDs for arthritis. Significantly decreased EOC risks were observed for low-dose aspirin use, daily aspirin use, aspirin use for <5 years, and occasional non-aspirin NSAID use for a duration of ⩾5 years. No association was observed for acetaminophen use.Collectively, these findings support previous evidence that any NSAID use is inversely associated with EOC risk.

Authors
Peres, LC; Camacho, F; Abbott, SE; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Crankshaw, S; Funkhouser, E; Moorman, PG; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Wang, F; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Peres, LC, Camacho, F, Abbott, SE, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Crankshaw, S, Funkhouser, E, Moorman, PG, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Wang, F, and Schildkraut, JM. "Analgesic medication use and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in African American women." British journal of cancer 114.7 (March 2016): 819-825.
PMID
26908324
Source
epmc
Published In
British Journal of Cancer
Volume
114
Issue
7
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
819
End Page
825
DOI
10.1038/bjc.2016.39

Abstract A73: Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women

Authors
Bandera, EV; Qin, B; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, M; Funkhouser, E; Peters, E; Schwartz, A; Terry, P; Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, J
MLA Citation
Bandera, EV, Qin, B, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, M, Funkhouser, E, Peters, E, Schwartz, A, Terry, P, Moorman, PG, and Schildkraut, J. "Abstract A73: Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women." March 2016.
Source
crossref
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
25
Issue
3 Supplement
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
A73
End Page
A73
DOI
10.1158/1538-7755.DISP15-A73

Abstract PR05: Dietary quality and ovarian cancer risk in African American women

Authors
Qin, B; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Schildkraut, JM; Bandera, EV
MLA Citation
Qin, B, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Schildkraut, JM, and Bandera, EV. "Abstract PR05: Dietary quality and ovarian cancer risk in African American women." March 2016.
Source
crossref
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
25
Issue
3 Supplement
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
PR05
End Page
PR05
DOI
10.1158/1538-7755.DISP15-PR05

Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

Authors
Qin, B; Moorman, PG; Alberg, AJ; Barnholtz-Sloan, JS; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, ES; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Schildkraut, JM; Bandera, EV
MLA Citation
Qin, B, Moorman, PG, Alberg, AJ, Barnholtz-Sloan, JS, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, ES, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Schildkraut, JM, and Bandera, EV. "Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women." The British journal of nutrition 115.4 (February 2016): 694-702.
PMID
26669283
Source
epmc
Published In
The British journal of nutrition
Volume
115
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
694
End Page
702
DOI
10.1017/s0007114515004882

Corrigendum: Common variants at 19p13 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer

Authors
Bolton, KL; Tyrer, J; Song, H; Ramus, SJ; Notaridou, M; Jones, C; Sher, T; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Wozniak, E; Tsai, Y-Y; Weidhaas, J; Paik, D; Van Den Berg, DJ; Stram, DO; Pearce, CL; Wu, AH; Brewster, W; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Narod, SA; Levine, DA; Kaye, SB; Brown, R; Paul, J; Flanagan, J; Sieh, W; McGuire, V; Whittemore, AS; Campbell, I; Gore, ME; Lissowska, J; Yang, HP; Medrek, K; Gronwald, J; Lubinski, J; Jakubowska, A; Le, ND; Cook, LS; Kelemen, LE; Brooks-Wilson, A; Massuger, LFAG et al.
MLA Citation
Bolton, KL, Tyrer, J, Song, H, Ramus, SJ, Notaridou, M, Jones, C, Sher, T, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Wozniak, E, Tsai, Y-Y, Weidhaas, J, Paik, D, Van Den Berg, DJ, Stram, DO, Pearce, CL, Wu, AH, Brewster, W, Anton-Culver, H, Ziogas, A, Narod, SA, Levine, DA, Kaye, SB, Brown, R, Paul, J, Flanagan, J, Sieh, W, McGuire, V, Whittemore, AS, Campbell, I, Gore, ME, Lissowska, J, Yang, HP, Medrek, K, Gronwald, J, Lubinski, J, Jakubowska, A, Le, ND, Cook, LS, Kelemen, LE, Brooks-Wilson, A, and Massuger, LFAG et al. "Corrigendum: Common variants at 19p13 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer." Nature Genetics 48.1 (December 29, 2015): 101-101.
Source
crossref
Published In
Nature Genetics
Volume
48
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
101
End Page
101
DOI
10.1038/ng0116-101b

Should women at high risk for cancer use oral contraceptive pills?

Authors
Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG. "Should women at high risk for cancer use oral contraceptive pills?." Personalized Medicine 12.6 (November 2015): 533-535.
Source
crossref
Published In
Personalized medicine
Volume
12
Issue
6
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
533
End Page
535
DOI
10.2217/pme.15.36

Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review.

Patients need to consider both benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.To systematically synthesize available evidence on the association of mammographic screening and clinical breast examination (CBE) at different ages and intervals with breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, false-positive biopsy findings, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life expectancy.We searched PubMed (to March 6, 2014), CINAHL (to September 10, 2013), and PsycINFO (to September 10, 2013) for systematic reviews, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (with no limit to publication date), and observational and modeling studies published after January 1, 2000, as well as systematic reviews of all study designs. Included studies (7 reviews, 10 RCTs, 72 observational, 1 modeling) provided evidence on the association between screening with mammography, CBE, or both and prespecified critical outcomes among women at average risk of breast cancer (no known genetic susceptibility, family history, previous breast neoplasia, or chest irradiation). We used summary estimates from existing reviews, supplemented by qualitative synthesis of studies not included in those reviews.Across all ages of women at average risk, pooled estimates of association between mammography screening and mortality reduction after 13 years of follow-up were similar for 3 meta-analyses of clinical trials (UK Independent Panel: relative risk [RR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.73-0.89]; Canadian Task Force: RR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74-0.94]; Cochrane: RR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.74-0.87]); were greater in a meta-analysis of cohort studies (RR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.81]); and were comparable in a modeling study (CISNET; median RR equivalent among 7 models, 0.85 [range, 0.77-0.93]). Uncertainty remains about the magnitude of associated mortality reduction in the entire US population, among women 40 to 49 years, and with annual screening compared with biennial screening. There is uncertainty about the magnitude of overdiagnosis associated with different screening strategies, attributable in part to lack of consensus on methods of estimation and the importance of ductal carcinoma in situ in overdiagnosis. For women with a first mammography screening at age 40 years, estimated 10-year cumulative risk of a false-positive biopsy result was higher (7.0% [95% CI, 6.1%-7.8%]) for annual compared with biennial (4.8% [95% CI, 4.4%-5.2%]) screening. Although 10-year probabilities of false-positive biopsy results were similar for women beginning screening at age 50 years, indirect estimates of lifetime probability of false-positive results were lower. Evidence for the relationship between screening and life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy was low in quality. There was no direct evidence for any additional mortality benefit associated with the addition of CBE to mammography, but observational evidence from the United States and Canada suggested an increase in false-positive findings compared with mammography alone, with both studies finding an estimated 55 additional false-positive findings per extra breast cancer detected with the addition of CBE.For women of all ages at average risk, screening was associated with a reduction in breast cancer mortality of approximately 20%, although there was uncertainty about quantitative estimates of outcomes for different breast cancer screening strategies in the United States. These findings and the related uncertainty should be considered when making recommendations based on judgments about the balance of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.

Authors
Myers, ER; Moorman, P; Gierisch, JM; Havrilesky, LJ; Grimm, LJ; Ghate, S; Davidson, B; Mongtomery, RC; Crowley, MJ; McCrory, DC; Kendrick, A; Sanders, GD
MLA Citation
Myers, ER, Moorman, P, Gierisch, JM, Havrilesky, LJ, Grimm, LJ, Ghate, S, Davidson, B, Mongtomery, RC, Crowley, MJ, McCrory, DC, Kendrick, A, and Sanders, GD. "Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review." JAMA 314.15 (October 2015): 1615-1634.
PMID
26501537
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
314
Issue
15
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1615
End Page
1634
DOI
10.1001/jama.2015.13183

Risk-benefit assessment of the combined oral contraceptive pill in women with a family history of female cancer.

INTRODUCTION: Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most frequently used form of effective, reversible contraception among women of childbearing potential. In the average risk population, OCPs may offer a protective benefit against ovarian, endometrial and colorectal malignancies. In women at high risk for breast, ovarian, endometrial or colorectal malignancies, the risk-benefit profile is less well studied. AREAS COVERED: In this article, we review pertinent literature on the use of OCPs in patients with genetic susceptibilities due to mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 or mismatch repair genes implicated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer as well as those with a strong family history of malignancies associated with these syndromes. EXPERT OPINION: For women at high risk for ovarian, endometrial and/or colorectal malignancies due to genetic susceptibilities or a strong family history, the possibility of chemoprevention with OCPs may be an attractive option; however, the potential increase in breast cancer, although small, must be considered in clinical decision-making. The ultimate decision to use OCPs in a high-risk woman should be based on a consideration of her specific genetic risk, her age, her reproductive plans and her willingness to consider surgical prophylaxis options.

Authors
Davidson, BA; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Davidson, BA, and Moorman, PG. "Risk-benefit assessment of the combined oral contraceptive pill in women with a family history of female cancer." Expert opinion on drug safety 13.10 (October 2014): 1375-1382.
PMID
25146351
Source
epmc
Published In
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Volume
13
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1375
End Page
1382
DOI
10.1517/14740338.2014.951327

A multi-center population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-American women: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer, with poorer survival for African American (AA) women compared to whites. However, little is known about risk factors for OVCA in AA. To study the epidemiology of OVCA in this population, we started a collaborative effort in 10 sites in the US. Here we describe the study and highlight the challenges of conducting a study of a lethal disease in a minority population.The African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) is an ongoing, population-based case-control study of OVCA in AA in 10 geographic locations, aiming to recruit 850 women with invasive epithelial OVCA and 850 controls age- and geographically-matched to cases. Rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing systems are in place to ascertain cases and controls, respectively. A telephone survey focuses on risk factors as well as factors of particular relevance for AAs. Food-frequency questionnaires, follow-up surveys, biospecimens and medical records are also obtained.Current accrual of 403 AA OVCA cases and 639 controls exceeds that of any existing study to date. We observed a high proportion (15%) of deceased non-responders among the cases that in part is explained by advanced stage at diagnosis. A logistic regression model did not support that socio-economic status was a factor in advanced stage at diagnosis. Most risk factor associations were in the expected direction and magnitude. High BMI was associated with ovarian cancer risk, with multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of 1.50 (0.99-2.27) for obese and 1.27 (0.85- 1.91) for morbidly obese women compared to normal/underweight women.AACES targets a rare tumor in AAs and addresses issues most relevant to this population. The importance of the study is accentuated by the high proportion of OVCA cases ascertained as deceased. Our analyses indicated that obesity, highly prevalent in this population (>60% of the cases), was associated with increased OVCA risk. While these findings need to be replicated, they suggest the potential for an effective intervention on the risk in AAs. Upon completion of enrollment, AACES will be the largest epidemiologic study of OVCA in AA women.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Alberg, AJ; Bandera, EV; Barnholtz-Sloan, J; Bondy, M; Cote, ML; Funkhouser, E; Peters, E; Schwartz, AG; Terry, P; Wallace, K; Akushevich, L; Wang, F; Crankshaw, S; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Alberg, AJ, Bandera, EV, Barnholtz-Sloan, J, Bondy, M, Cote, ML, Funkhouser, E, Peters, E, Schwartz, AG, Terry, P, Wallace, K, Akushevich, L, Wang, F, Crankshaw, S, and Moorman, PG. "A multi-center population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-American women: the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES)." BMC cancer 14 (September 22, 2014): 688-.
PMID
25242549
Source
epmc
Published In
BMC Cancer
Volume
14
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
688
DOI
10.1186/1471-2407-14-688

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

Epidemiologic studies report a protective association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer risk, a finding consistent with NSAID-mediated suppression of aromatase-driven estrogen biosynthesis. However, the association between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality is uncertain and it is unknown whether this relationship differs by hormone receptor status. This study comprised 935 invasive breast cancer cases, of which 490 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, enrolled between 1996 and 2001 in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Self-reported NSAID use in the decade prior to diagnosis was categorized by duration and regularity of use. Differences in tumor size, stage, node, and receptor status by NSAID use were examined using Chi-square tests. Associations between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality were examined using age- and race-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis. Tumor characteristics did not differ by NSAID use. Increased duration and regularity of NSAID use was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in women with ER-positive tumors (long-term regular use (≥8 days/month for ≥ 3 years) versus no use; hazard ratio (HR) 0.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.98), with a statistically significant trend with increasing duration and regularity (p-trend = 0.036). There was no association for ER-negative cases (HR 1.19; 95 %CI 0.50-2.81; p-trend = 0.891). Long-term, regular NSAID use in the decade prior to breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-positive cases. If confirmed, these findings support the hypothesis that potential chemopreventive properties of NSAIDs are mediated, at least in part, through suppression of estrogen biosynthesis.

Authors
Allott, EH; Tse, C-K; Olshan, AF; Carey, LA; Moorman, PG; Troester, MA
MLA Citation
Allott, EH, Tse, C-K, Olshan, AF, Carey, LA, Moorman, PG, and Troester, MA. "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study." Breast cancer research and treatment 147.2 (September 2014): 415-421.
PMID
25151293
Source
epmc
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
147
Issue
2
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
415
End Page
421
DOI
10.1007/s10549-014-3099-z

Long-term risk of medical conditions associated with breast cancer treatment.

Early and late effects of cancer treatment are of increasing concern with growing survivor populations, but relevant data are sparse. We sought to determine the prevalence and hazard ratio of such effects in breast cancer cases. Women with invasive breast cancer and women with no cancer history recruited for a cancer research cohort completed a mailed questionnaire at a median of 10 years post-diagnosis or matched reference year (for the women without cancer). Reported medical conditions including lymphedema, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and heart disease (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease) were assessed in relation to breast cancer therapy and time since diagnosis using Cox regression. The proportion of women currently receiving treatment for these conditions was calculated. Study participants included 2,535 women with breast cancer and 2,428 women without cancer (response rates 66.0 % and 50.4 %, respectively) Women with breast cancer had an increased risk of lymphedema (Hazard ratio (HR) 8.6; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.3-11.6), osteopenia (HR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.8-2.4), and osteoporosis (HR 1.5; 95 % CI 1.2-1.9) but not heart disease, compared to women without cancer Hazard ratios varied by treatment and time since diagnosis. Overall, 49.3 % of breast cancer cases reported at least one medical condition, and at 10 or more years post-diagnosis, 37.7 % were currently receiving condition-related treatment. Responses from survivors a decade following cancer diagnosis demonstrate substantial treatment-related morbidity, and emphasize the need for continued medical surveillance and follow-up care into the second decade post-diagnosis.

Authors
Hill, DA; Horick, NK; Isaacs, C; Domchek, SM; Tomlinson, GE; Lowery, JT; Kinney, AY; Berg, JS; Edwards, KL; Moorman, PG; Plon, SE; Strong, LC; Ziogas, A; Griffin, CA; Kasten, CH; Finkelstein, DM
MLA Citation
Hill, DA, Horick, NK, Isaacs, C, Domchek, SM, Tomlinson, GE, Lowery, JT, Kinney, AY, Berg, JS, Edwards, KL, Moorman, PG, Plon, SE, Strong, LC, Ziogas, A, Griffin, CA, Kasten, CH, and Finkelstein, DM. "Long-term risk of medical conditions associated with breast cancer treatment." Breast cancer research and treatment 145.1 (May 2014): 233-243.
PMID
24696430
Source
epmc
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
145
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
233
End Page
243
DOI
10.1007/s10549-014-2928-4

Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Ovarian Function after Hysterectomy

Authors
Trabuco, EC; Moorman, PG; Weaver, AL; William, CA
MLA Citation
Trabuco, EC, Moorman, PG, Weaver, AL, and William, CA. "Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Ovarian Function after Hysterectomy." REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES 21.3 (March 2014): 101A-102A.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Reproductive Sciences
Volume
21
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
101A
End Page
102A

Challenges and Recommendations to Recruiting Women Who Do Not Adhere to Follow-Up Gynecological Care.

Non-adherence to recommended follow-up visits after an abnormal cytological finding is associated with poorer outcomes and higher health care costs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges when examining reasons for non-adherence to cervical cancer screening follow-up and to discuss the recommendations to overcome those challenges.We conducted a telephone survey with two subgroups of women: 1) those which adhered to recommended follow-up care after an abnormal Pap test, and 2) those which did not adhere.The follow-up accrual among non-adherent women lagged behind that of adherers. We were able to contact and conduct a survey with 51% of the adherers and 26% of the non-adherers. The challenges in studying non-adherent women were related to several distinct factors: 1) the definition of non-adherence, 2) the availability of alternate contact information, 3) the amount and type of financial incentives, and 4) the availability of staffing. We describe strategies employed to increase the accrual of non-adherent women.This paper describes four recommendations that may play a role in understanding and reducing non-adherence to follow-up gynecological care.

Authors
Wordlaw-Stinson, L; Jones, S; Little, S; Fish, L; Vidal, A; Smith, JS; Hoyo, C; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Wordlaw-Stinson, L, Jones, S, Little, S, Fish, L, Vidal, A, Smith, JS, Hoyo, C, and Moorman, PG. "Challenges and Recommendations to Recruiting Women Who Do Not Adhere to Follow-Up Gynecological Care." Open journal of preventive medicine 4.3 (March 2014): 123-128.
PMID
24991485
Source
epmc
Published In
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume
4
Issue
3
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
123
End Page
128
DOI
10.4236/ojpm.2014.43017

Long-term risk of medical conditions associated with breast cancer treatment

Early and late effects of cancer treatment are of increasing concern with growing survivor populations, but relevant data are sparse. We sought to determine the prevalence and hazard ratio of such effects in breast cancer cases. Women with invasive breast cancer and women with no cancer history recruited for a cancer research cohort completed a mailed questionnaire at a median of 10 years post-diagnosis or matched reference year (for the women without cancer). Reported medical conditions including lymphedema, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and heart disease (congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease) were assessed in relation to breast cancer therapy and time since diagnosis using Cox regression. The proportion of women currently receiving treatment for these conditions was calculated. Study participants included 2,535 women with breast cancer and 2,428 women without cancer (response rates 66.0 % and 50.4 %, respectively) Women with breast cancer had an increased risk of lymphedema (Hazard ratio (HR) 8.6; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 6.3-11.6), osteopenia (HR 2.1; 95 % CI 1.8-2.4), and osteoporosis (HR 1.5; 95 % CI 1.2-1.9) but not heart disease, compared to women without cancer Hazard ratios varied by treatment and time since diagnosis. Overall, 49.3 % of breast cancer cases reported at least one medical condition, and at 10 or more years post-diagnosis, 37.7 % were currently receiving condition-related treatment. Responses from survivors a decade following cancer diagnosis demonstrate substantial treatment-related morbidity, and emphasize the need for continued medical surveillance and follow-up care into the second decade post-diagnosis. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Authors
Hill, DA; Horick, NK; Isaacs, C; Domchek, SM; Tomlinson, GE; Lowery, JT; Kinney, AY; Berg, JS; Edwards, KL; Moorman, PG; Plon, SE; Strong, LC; Ziogas, A; Griffin, CA; Kasten, CH; Finkelstein, DM
MLA Citation
Hill, DA, Horick, NK, Isaacs, C, Domchek, SM, Tomlinson, GE, Lowery, JT, Kinney, AY, Berg, JS, Edwards, KL, Moorman, PG, Plon, SE, Strong, LC, Ziogas, A, Griffin, CA, Kasten, CH, and Finkelstein, DM. "Long-term risk of medical conditions associated with breast cancer treatment." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 145.1 (January 1, 2014): 233-243.
Source
scopus
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
145
Issue
1
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
233
End Page
243
DOI
10.1007/s10549-014-2928-4

The association between race and prostate cancer risk on initial biopsy in an equal access, multiethnic cohort

Purpose: Population-based studies have established a link between race and prostate cancer (PC) risk, but whether race predicts PC after adjusting for clinical characteristics is unclear. We investigated the association between race and risk of low- and high-grade PC in men undergoing initial prostate biopsy in an equal access medical center. Methods: We conducted a retrospective record review of 887 men (48.6 % black, 51.4 % white) from the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center who underwent initial prostate biopsy between 2001 and 2009. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of race and biopsy outcome was conducted adjusting for age, body mass index, number of cores taken, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and digital rectal examination findings. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the association between black race and PC grade (Gleason <7 vs. ≥7). Results: Black men were younger at biopsy (61 vs. 65 years, p < 0.001) and had a higher pre-biopsy PSA (6.6 vs. 5.8 ng/ml, p = 0.001). A total of 499 men had PC on biopsy (245 low grade; 254 high grade). In multivariable analyses, black race was significantly predictive of PC overall [odds ratio 1.50, p = 0.006] and high-grade PC [relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.84, p = 0.001], but was not significantly associated with low-grade PC (RRR 1.29, p = 0.139). Conclusion: In an equal access healthcare facility, black race was associated with greater risk of PC detection on initial biopsy and of high-grade PC after adjusting for clinical characteristics. Additional investigation of mechanisms linking black race and PC risk and PC aggressiveness is needed. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

Authors
Gaines, AR; Turner, EL; Moorman, PG; Freedland, SJ; Keto, CJ; McPhail, ME; Grant, DJ; Vidal, AC; Hoyo, C
MLA Citation
Gaines, AR, Turner, EL, Moorman, PG, Freedland, SJ, Keto, CJ, McPhail, ME, Grant, DJ, Vidal, AC, and Hoyo, C. "The association between race and prostate cancer risk on initial biopsy in an equal access, multiethnic cohort." Cancer Causes and Control 25.8 (January 1, 2014): 1029-1035.
Source
scopus
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
25
Issue
8
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
1029
End Page
1035
DOI
10.1007/s10552-014-0402-6

Metformin does not affect risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database

Background:While epidemiologic studies suggest that metformin use among diabetics may decrease prostate cancer (PC) incidence, the effect of metformin use on PC outcome is unclear. We investigated the association between pre-operative metformin use, dose and duration of use and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC patients with diabetes who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods:We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database of 371 PC patients with diabetes who underwent RP. Time to BCR between metformin users and non-users, and by metformin dose and duration of use was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional analysis adjusted for demographic, clinical and/or pathologic features. Time to castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), metastases and PC-specific mortality were explored as secondary outcomes using unadjusted analyses.Results:Of 371 diabetic men, 156 (42%) were using metformin before RP. Metformin use was associated with more recent year of surgery (P<0.0001) but no clinical or pathologic characteristics. After adjustment for year of surgery, clinical and pathologic features, there were no associations between metformin use (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.41), high metformin dose (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.57-1.61) or duration of use (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.02) and time to BCR. A total of 14 patients (3.8%) developed CRPC, 10 (2.7%) distant metastases and 8 (2.2%) died from PC. Unadjusted analysis suggested that high metformin dose vs non-use was associated with increased risk of CRPC (HR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-16.5), metastases (HR 4.8; 95% CI 1.2-18.5) and PC-specific mortality (HR 5.0; 95% CI 1.1-22.5).Conclusions:Metformin use, dose or duration of use was not associated with BCR in this cohort of diabetic PC patients treated with RP. The suggestion that higher metformin dose was associated with increased risk of CRPC, metastases and PC-specific mortality merits testing in large prospective studies with longer follow-up. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Authors
Allott, EH; Abern, MR; Gerber, L; Keto, CJ; Aronson, WJ; Terris, MK; Kane, CJ; Amling, CL; Cooperberg, MR; Moorman, PG; Freedland, SJ
MLA Citation
Allott, EH, Abern, MR, Gerber, L, Keto, CJ, Aronson, WJ, Terris, MK, Kane, CJ, Amling, CL, Cooperberg, MR, Moorman, PG, and Freedland, SJ. "Metformin does not affect risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database." Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 16.4 (December 1, 2013): 391-397.
Source
scopus
Published In
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Volume
16
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
391
End Page
397
DOI
10.1038/pcan.2013.48

Metformin does not affect risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database.

BACKGROUND: While epidemiologic studies suggest that metformin use among diabetics may decrease prostate cancer (PC) incidence, the effect of metformin use on PC outcome is unclear. We investigated the association between pre-operative metformin use, dose and duration of use and biochemical recurrence (BCR) in PC patients with diabetes who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database of 371 PC patients with diabetes who underwent RP. Time to BCR between metformin users and non-users, and by metformin dose and duration of use was assessed using multivariable Cox proportional analysis adjusted for demographic, clinical and/or pathologic features. Time to castrate-resistant PC (CRPC), metastases and PC-specific mortality were explored as secondary outcomes using unadjusted analyses. RESULTS: Of 371 diabetic men, 156 (42%) were using metformin before RP. Metformin use was associated with more recent year of surgery (P<0.0001) but no clinical or pathologic characteristics. After adjustment for year of surgery, clinical and pathologic features, there were no associations between metformin use (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.41), high metformin dose (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.57-1.61) or duration of use (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.99-1.02) and time to BCR. A total of 14 patients (3.8%) developed CRPC, 10 (2.7%) distant metastases and 8 (2.2%) died from PC. Unadjusted analysis suggested that high metformin dose vs non-use was associated with increased risk of CRPC (HR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-16.5), metastases (HR 4.8; 95% CI 1.2-18.5) and PC-specific mortality (HR 5.0; 95% CI 1.1-22.5). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin use, dose or duration of use was not associated with BCR in this cohort of diabetic PC patients treated with RP. The suggestion that higher metformin dose was associated with increased risk of CRPC, metastases and PC-specific mortality merits testing in large prospective studies with longer follow-up.

Authors
Allott, EH; Abern, MR; Gerber, L; Keto, CJ; Aronson, WJ; Terris, MK; Kane, CJ; Amling, CL; Cooperberg, MR; Moorman, PG; Freedland, SJ
MLA Citation
Allott, EH, Abern, MR, Gerber, L, Keto, CJ, Aronson, WJ, Terris, MK, Kane, CJ, Amling, CL, Cooperberg, MR, Moorman, PG, and Freedland, SJ. "Metformin does not affect risk of biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database." Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 16.4 (December 2013): 391-397.
PMID
24100644
Source
pubmed
Published In
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Volume
16
Issue
4
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
391
End Page
397
DOI
10.1038/pcan.2013.48

Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer and breast cancer among high-risk women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

PURPOSE: To estimate the risks of ovarian cancer and breast cancer associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use among women at elevated risk owing to mutations in BRCA1/2 or a strong family history. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published 2000 to 2012 that evaluated associations between OC use and breast or ovarian cancer among women who are carriers of a BRCA1/2 mutation or have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. RESULTS: From 6,476 unique citations, we identified six studies examining ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and eight studies examining breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. For BRCA1/2 mutation carriers combined, meta-analysis showed an inverse association between OC use and ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.73) and a nonstatistically significant association with breast cancer (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.58). Findings were similar when examining BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers separately. Data were inadequate to perform meta-analyses examining duration or timing of use. For women with a family history of ovarian or breast cancer, we identified four studies examining risk for ovarian cancer and three for breast cancer, but differences between studies precluded combining the data for meta-analyses, and no overall pattern could be discerned. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that associations between ever use of OCs and ovarian and breast cancer among women who are BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are similar to those reported for the general population.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Havrilesky, LJ; Gierisch, JM; Coeytaux, RR; Lowery, WJ; Peragallo Urrutia, R; Dinan, M; McBroom, AJ; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Havrilesky, LJ, Gierisch, JM, Coeytaux, RR, Lowery, WJ, Peragallo Urrutia, R, Dinan, M, McBroom, AJ, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer and breast cancer among high-risk women: a systematic review and meta-analysis." J Clin Oncol 31.33 (November 20, 2013): 4188-4198. (Review)
PMID
24145348
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Volume
31
Issue
33
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
4188
End Page
4198
DOI
10.1200/JCO.2013.48.9021

Factors Associated With Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy

Background Understanding the gaps in knowledge about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, transmission, and health consequences and factors associated with the knowledge gap is an essential first step for the development of interventions to improve adherence to follow-up among women with abnormal Pap smears. Purpose To examine the relationship between knowledge about HPV and adherence to scheduled colposcopic evaluation and variables related to lack of knowledge among women with abnormal Pap tests. Methods Telephone surveys were conducted with women who attended their scheduled appointments (adherers) and women who did not attend their appointments (nonadherers). Results The multivariable analyses indicate that lower HPV knowledge was independently associated with nonadherence to follow-up, controlling for race and education level. Factors related to lower knowledge scores included non-white race, lower education, and lack of health insurance at the time of the scheduled appointment. Conclusion Lack of knowledge of HPV was related to nonadherence among women scheduled for colposcopic evaluation. Translation to Health Education Practice Health education interventions that deliver complex information about HPV and cervical cancer should be in a format that is accessible and understandable to the women who are most at risk of being nonadherent. © 2013 AAHPERD.

Authors
Fish, LJ; Moorman, PG; Wordlaw-Stintson, L; Vidal, A; Smith, JS; Hoyo, C
MLA Citation
Fish, LJ, Moorman, PG, Wordlaw-Stintson, L, Vidal, A, Smith, JS, and Hoyo, C. "Factors Associated With Adherence to Follow-up Colposcopy." American Journal of Health Education 44.6 (November 1, 2013): 293-298.
PMID
24991653
Source
scopus
Published In
Evaluation
Volume
44
Issue
6
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
293
End Page
298
DOI
10.1080/19325037.2013.838881

Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancers: a systematic review.

Oral contraceptives may influence the risk of certain cancers. As part of the AHRQ Evidence Report, Oral Contraceptive Use for the Primary Prevention of Ovarian Cancer, we conducted a systematic review to estimate associations between oral contraceptive use and breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancer incidence. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Study inclusion criteria were women taking oral contraceptives for contraception or ovarian cancer prevention; includes comparison group with no oral contraceptive use; study reports quantitative associations between oral contraceptive exposure and relevant cancers; controlled study or pooled patient-level meta-analyses; sample size for nonrandomized studies ≥100; peer-reviewed, English-language; published from January 1, 2000 forward. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted by estimating pooled ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included 44 breast, 12 cervical, 11 colorectal, and 9 endometrial cancers studies. Breast cancer incidence was slightly but significantly increased in users (OR, 1.08; CI, 1.00-1.17); results show a higher risk associated with more recent use of oral contraceptives. Risk of cervical cancer was increased with duration of oral contraceptive use in women with human papillomavirus infection; heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. Colorectal cancer (OR, 0.86; CI, 0.79-0.95) and endometrial cancer incidences (OR, 0.57; CI, 0.43-0.77) were significantly reduced by oral contraceptive use. Compared with never use, ever use of oral contraceptives is significantly associated with decreases in colorectal and endometrial cancers and increases in breast cancers. Although elevated breast cancer risk was small, relatively high incidence of breast cancers means that oral contraceptives may contribute to a substantial number of cases.

Authors
Gierisch, JM; Coeytaux, RR; Urrutia, RP; Havrilesky, LJ; Moorman, PG; Lowery, WJ; Dinan, M; McBroom, AJ; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Gierisch, JM, Coeytaux, RR, Urrutia, RP, Havrilesky, LJ, Moorman, PG, Lowery, WJ, Dinan, M, McBroom, AJ, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancers: a systematic review." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22.11 (November 2013): 1931-1943. (Review)
PMID
24014598
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
22
Issue
11
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1931
End Page
1943
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0298

Risk of acute thromboembolic events with oral contraceptive use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

To estimate the risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI) associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and to describe how these risks vary by dose or formulation. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published from January 1995 through June 2012 that evaluated the association between OCP use and risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or MI. We reviewed 6,476 citations. We included English-language, controlled studies with human participants reporting a quantitative association between exposure to OCPs and outcomes of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or MI. Two investigators independently reviewed articles for inclusion or exclusion; discordant decisions were resolved by team review and consensus. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary odds ratios (ORs). Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. There were no randomized clinical trials. We found threefold increased odds of venous thromboembolism among current compared with noncurrent OCP users (14 studies; OR 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46-3.59). We found twofold increased odds of ischemic stroke (seven studies; OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.24-2.91). There was no evidence of increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (four studies; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71-1.49) or MI (eight studies; OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.87-2.08). Current use of combined OCPs is associated with increased odds of venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke but not hemorrhagic stroke or MI.

Authors
Peragallo Urrutia, R; Coeytaux, RR; McBroom, AJ; Gierisch, JM; Havrilesky, LJ; Moorman, PG; Lowery, WJ; Dinan, M; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Peragallo Urrutia, R, Coeytaux, RR, McBroom, AJ, Gierisch, JM, Havrilesky, LJ, Moorman, PG, Lowery, WJ, Dinan, M, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Risk of acute thromboembolic events with oral contraceptive use: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Obstetrics and gynecology 122.2 Pt 1 (August 1, 2013): 380-389. (Review)
Source
scopus
Published In
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume
122
Issue
2 Pt 1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
380
End Page
389

Risk of acute thromboembolic events with oral contraceptive use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or myocardial infarction (MI) associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and to describe how these risks vary by dose or formulation. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published from January 1995 through June 2012 that evaluated the association between OCP use and risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or MI. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed 6,476 citations. We included English-language, controlled studies with human participants reporting a quantitative association between exposure to OCPs and outcomes of venous thromboembolism, stroke, or MI. Two investigators independently reviewed articles for inclusion or exclusion; discordant decisions were resolved by team review and consensus. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary odds ratios (ORs). TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Fifty studies met inclusion criteria. There were no randomized clinical trials. We found threefold increased odds of venous thromboembolism among current compared with noncurrent OCP users (14 studies; OR 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.46-3.59). We found twofold increased odds of ischemic stroke (seven studies; OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.24-2.91). There was no evidence of increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (four studies; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71-1.49) or MI (eight studies; OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.87-2.08). CONCLUSION: Current use of combined OCPs is associated with increased odds of venous thromboembolism and ischemic stroke but not hemorrhagic stroke or MI.

Authors
Peragallo Urrutia, R; Coeytaux, RR; McBroom, AJ; Gierisch, JM; Havrilesky, LJ; Moorman, PG; Lowery, WJ; Dinan, M; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Peragallo Urrutia, R, Coeytaux, RR, McBroom, AJ, Gierisch, JM, Havrilesky, LJ, Moorman, PG, Lowery, WJ, Dinan, M, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Risk of acute thromboembolic events with oral contraceptive use: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Obstet Gynecol 122.2 Pt 1 (August 2013): 380-389. (Review)
PMID
23969809
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume
122
Issue
2 Pt 1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
380
End Page
389
DOI
10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182994c43

Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the overall reduction in ovarian cancer risk associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and whether reduction in risk is affected by specifics of OCP use, such as formulation or duration of use. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published from January 1990 to June 2012, with primary analysis of studies published since January 2000. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed 6,476 citations. We included English-language controlled studies with human participants reporting a quantitative association between exposure to OCPs (in which the explicit or implicit indication for OCP use was prevention of pregnancy or ovarian cancer) compared with no use of OCPs. Two investigators independently reviewed the title and abstract and full-text of articles for inclusion or exclusion decision; discordant decisions were resolved by team review and consensus. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria. A random-effects meta-analysis of 24 case-control and cohort studies showed significant reduction in ovarian cancer incidence in ever-users compared with never-users (odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.81). There was a significant duration-response relationship, with reduction in incidence of more than 50% among women using OCPs for 10 or more years. The lifetime reduction in ovarian cancer attributable to the use of OCPs is approximately 0.54% for a number-needed-to-treat of approximately 185 for a use period of 5 years. CONCLUSION: Significant duration-dependent reductions in ovarian cancer incidence in the general population are associated with OCP use.

Authors
Havrilesky, LJ; Moorman, PG; Lowery, WJ; Gierisch, JM; Coeytaux, RR; Urrutia, RP; Dinan, M; McBroom, AJ; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Havrilesky, LJ, Moorman, PG, Lowery, WJ, Gierisch, JM, Coeytaux, RR, Urrutia, RP, Dinan, M, McBroom, AJ, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Obstet Gynecol 122.1 (July 2013): 139-147. (Review)
PMID
23743450
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume
122
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
139
End Page
147
DOI
10.1097/AOG.0b013e318291c235

Oral contraceptive use for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer.

To estimate the overall balance of harms and benefits from the potential use of oral contraceptives (OCs) for the primary prevention of ovarian cancerWe searched PubMed®, Embase®, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language studies published from January 1990 to June 2012 that evaluated the potential benefits (reduction in ovarian, colorectal, and endometrial cancers) and harms (increase in breast and cervical cancer, and vascular complications) of OC use.Two investigators screened each abstract and full-text article for inclusion; the investigators abstracted data, and they performed quality ratings, applicability ratings, and evidence grading. Random-effects models were used to compute summary estimates of effects. A simulation model was used to estimate the effects of OC use on the overall balance of benefits and harms.We reviewed 55 studies relevant to ovarian cancer outcomes, 66 relevant to other cancers, and 50 relevant to vascular events. Ovarian cancer incidence was significantly reduced in OC users (OR [odds ratio], 0.73; 95% CI [confidence interval], 0.66 to 0.81), with greater reductions seen with longer duration of use. Breast cancer incidence was slightly but significantly increased in OC users (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.17), with a significant reduction in risk as time since last use increased. The risk of cervical cancer was significantly increased in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection who used OCs, but heterogeneity prevented a formal meta-analysis. Incidences of both colorectal cancer (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95) and endometrial cancer (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.76) were significantly reduced by OC use. The risk of vascular events was increased in current OC users compared with nonusers, although the increase in myocardial infarction was not statistically significant. The overall strength of evidence for ovarian cancer prevention was moderate to low, primarily because of the lack of randomized trials and inconsistent reporting of important characteristics of use, such as duration. The simulation model predicted that the combined increase in risk of breast and cervical cancers and vascular events was likely to be equivalent to or greater than the decreased risk in ovarian cancer, although the harm/benefit ratio was much more favorable when protection against endometrial and colorectal cancers was added, resulting in net gains in life expectancy of approximately 1 month.There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of OCs solely for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer. Although the net effects of the current patterns of OC use likely result in increased life expectancy when other noncontraceptive benefits are included, the harm/benefit ratio for ovarian cancer prevention alone is uncertain, particularly when the potential quality-of-life impact of breast cancer and vascular events are considered.

Authors
Havrilesky, LJ; Gierisch, JM; Moorman, PG; Coeytaux, RR; Urrutia, RP; Lowery, WJ; Dinan, M; McBroom, AJ; Wing, L; Musty, MD; Lallinger, KR; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Havrilesky, LJ, Gierisch, JM, Moorman, PG, Coeytaux, RR, Urrutia, RP, Lowery, WJ, Dinan, M, McBroom, AJ, Wing, L, Musty, MD, Lallinger, KR, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Oral contraceptive use for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer." Evidence report/technology assessment 212 (June 2013): 1-514.
PMID
24423062
Source
epmc
Published In
Evidence report/technology assessment
Issue
212
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
1
End Page
514

Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied. METHODS: Data from 14 ovarian cancer case-control studies were pooled, and stratified analyses by each environmental risk factor with tests for heterogeneity were conducted to determine the presence of interactions for all histologic subtypes. A genetic "risk score" was created to consider the effects of all six variants simultaneously. A multivariate model was fit to examine the association between all environmental risk factors and genetic risk score on ovarian cancer risk. RESULTS: Among 7,374 controls and 5,566 cases, there was no statistical evidence of interaction between the six SNPs or genetic risk score and the environmental risk factors on ovarian cancer risk. In a main effects model, women in the highest genetic risk score quartile had a 65% increased risk of ovarian cancer compared with women in the lowest [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-1.84]. Analyses by histologic subtype yielded risk differences across subtype for endometriosis (Phet < 0.001), parity (Phet < 0.01), and tubal ligation (Phet = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of interactions suggests that a multiplicative model is the best fit for these data. Under such a model, we provide a robust estimate of the effect of each risk factor that sets the stage for absolute risk prediction modeling that considers both environmental and genetic risk factors. Further research into the observed differences in risk across histologic subtype is warranted.

Authors
Pearce, CL; Rossing, MA; Lee, AW; Ness, RB; Webb, PM; for Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer), ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Chenevix-Trench, G; Jordan, SM; Stram, DA; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R; Nickels, S; Lurie, G; Thompson, PJ; Carney, ME; Goodman, MT; Moysich, K; Hogdall, E; Jensen, A; Goode, EL; Fridley, BL; Cunningham, JM; Vierkant, RA; Weber, RP; Ziogas, A; Anton-Culver, H; Gayther, SA; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Ramus, SJ; Brinton, L; Wentzensen, N; Lissowska, J et al.
MLA Citation
Pearce, CL, Rossing, MA, Lee, AW, Ness, RB, Webb, PM, for Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer), , Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, , Chenevix-Trench, G, Jordan, SM, Stram, DA, Chang-Claude, J, Hein, R, Nickels, S, Lurie, G, Thompson, PJ, Carney, ME, Goodman, MT, Moysich, K, Hogdall, E, Jensen, A, Goode, EL, Fridley, BL, Cunningham, JM, Vierkant, RA, Weber, RP, Ziogas, A, Anton-Culver, H, Gayther, SA, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Menon, U, Ramus, SJ, Brinton, L, Wentzensen, N, and Lissowska, J et al. "Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 22.5 (May 2013): 880-890.
PMID
23462924
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
22
Issue
5
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
880
End Page
890
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-1030-T

Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case-control studies (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk. This was most pronounced for borderline serous (recent BMI: pooled OR=1.24 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI 1.18-1.30), invasive endometrioid (1.17; 1.11-1.23) and invasive mucinous (1.19; 1.06-1.32) tumours. There was no association with serous invasive cancer overall (0.98; 0.94-1.02), but increased risks for low-grade serous invasive tumours (1.13, 1.03-1.25) and in pre-menopausal women (1.11; 1.04-1.18). Among post-menopausal women, the associations did not differ between hormone replacement therapy users and non-users. Whilst obesity appears to increase risk of the less common histological subtypes of ovarian cancer, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.

Authors
Olsen, CM; Nagle, CM; Whiteman, DC; Ness, R; Pearce, CL; Pike, MC; Rossing, MA; Terry, KL; Wu, AH; Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer), ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Risch, HA; Yu, H; Doherty, JA; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R; Nickels, S; Wang-Gohrke, S; Goodman, MT; Carney, ME; Matsuno, RK; Lurie, G; Moysich, K; Kjaer, SK; Jensen, A; Hogdall, E; Goode, EL; Fridley, BL; Vierkant, RA; Larson, MC; Schildkraut, J; Hoyo, C; Moorman, P; Weber, RP; Cramer, DW; Vitonis, AF; Bandera, EV et al.
MLA Citation
Olsen, CM, Nagle, CM, Whiteman, DC, Ness, R, Pearce, CL, Pike, MC, Rossing, MA, Terry, KL, Wu, AH, Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer), , Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, , Risch, HA, Yu, H, Doherty, JA, Chang-Claude, J, Hein, R, Nickels, S, Wang-Gohrke, S, Goodman, MT, Carney, ME, Matsuno, RK, Lurie, G, Moysich, K, Kjaer, SK, Jensen, A, Hogdall, E, Goode, EL, Fridley, BL, Vierkant, RA, Larson, MC, Schildkraut, J, Hoyo, C, Moorman, P, Weber, RP, Cramer, DW, Vitonis, AF, and Bandera, EV et al. "Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. (Published online)" Endocr Relat Cancer 20.2 (April 2013): 251-262.
PMID
23404857
Source
pubmed
Published In
Endocrine-Related Cancer
Volume
20
Issue
2
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
251
End Page
262
DOI
10.1530/ERC-12-0395

Comparison of characteristics of fibroids in African American and white women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy.

OBJECTIVE: To compare pathologic characteristics and epidemiologic risk factors for uterine fibroids in African American and white women undergoing hysterectomy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy. SETTING: Two university-associated hospitals in North Carolina. PATIENT(S): African American (n = 225) and white women (n = 135) with fibroid diagnosis. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Data were obtained from an in-person interview and abstracted from operative and pathologic reports. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression models were used to identify characteristics associated with higher uterine weight, greater number of fibroids, and size of the largest fibroid. RESULT(S): African American women had substantially more fibroids (9.9 vs. 4.5) with a concomitant higher mean uterine weight (477 vs. 267 g). Although African American women had a higher prevalence of established risk factors for fibroids, such as high body mass index (BMI) and hypertension, these factors were not associated with larger uteri or more numerous fibroids. In multiple linear regression models, the only factors statistically significantly associated with higher uterine weight, larger fibroids, and more numerous fibroids were race and nulligravidity. CONCLUSION(S): The presentation of fibroids as measured by uterine size or number of fibroids is more severe in African American women compared with white women. The differences in presentation cannot be explained by racial differences in the prevalence of known risk factors. Additional research is needed on environmental and genetic factors that may increase the risk for fibroids.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Leppert, P; Myers, ER; Wang, F
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Leppert, P, Myers, ER, and Wang, F. "Comparison of characteristics of fibroids in African American and white women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy." Fertil Steril 99.3 (March 1, 2013): 768-776.e1.
PMID
23199610
Source
pubmed
Published In
Fertility and Sterility
Volume
99
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
768
End Page
776.e1
DOI
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.10.039

Comparison of characteristics of fibroids in African American and white women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy

Objective: To compare pathologic characteristics and epidemiologic risk factors for uterine fibroids in African American and white women undergoing hysterectomy. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy. Setting: Two university-associated hospitals in North Carolina. Patient(s): African American (n = 225) and white women (n = 135) with fibroid diagnosis. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were obtained from an in-person interview and abstracted from operative and pathologic reports. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression models were used to identify characteristics associated with higher uterine weight, greater number of fibroids, and size of the largest fibroid. Result(s): African American women had substantially more fibroids (9.9 vs. 4.5) with a concomitant higher mean uterine weight (477 vs. 267 g). Although African American women had a higher prevalence of established risk factors for fibroids, such as high body mass index (BMI) and hypertension, these factors were not associated with larger uteri or more numerous fibroids. In multiple linear regression models, the only factors statistically significantly associated with higher uterine weight, larger fibroids, and more numerous fibroids were race and nulligravidity. Conclusion(s): The presentation of fibroids as measured by uterine size or number of fibroids is more severe in African American women compared with white women. The differences in presentation cannot be explained by racial differences in the prevalence of known risk factors. Additional research is needed on environmental and genetic factors that may increase the risk for fibroids. ©2013 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Leppert, P; Myers, ER; Wang, F
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Leppert, P, Myers, ER, and Wang, F. "Comparison of characteristics of fibroids in African American and white women undergoing premenopausal hysterectomy." Fertility and Sterility 99.3 (2013): 768-776.e1.
Source
scival
Published In
Fertility and Sterility
Volume
99
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
768
End Page
776.e1
DOI
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2012.10.039

Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE:: To estimate the overall reduction in ovarian cancer risk associated with the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and whether reduction in risk is affected by specifics of OCP use, such as formulation or duration of use. DATA SOURCES:: We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published from January 1990 to June 2012, with primary analysis of studies published since January 2000. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION:: We reviewed 6,476 citations. We included English-language controlled studies with human participants reporting a quantitative association between exposure to OCPs (in which the explicit or implicit indication for OCP use was prevention of pregnancy or ovarian cancer) compared with no use of OCPs. Two investigators independently reviewed the title and abstract and full-text of articles for inclusion or exclusion decision; discordant decisions were resolved by team review and consensus. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS:: Fifty-five studies met inclusion criteria. A random-effects meta-analysis of 24 case-control and cohort studies showed significant reduction in ovarian cancer incidence in ever-users compared with never-users (odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.81). There was a significant duration-response relationship, with reduction in incidence of more than 50% among women using OCPs for 10 or more years. The lifetime reduction in ovarian cancer attributable to the use of OCPs is approximately 0.54% for a number-needed-to-treat of approximately 185 for a use period of 5 years. CONCLUSION:: Significant duration-dependent reductions in ovarian cancer incidence in the general population are associated with OCP use. © 2013 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Authors
Havrilesky, LJ; Moorman, PG; Lowery, WJ; Gierisch, JM; Coeytaux, RR; Urrutia, RP; Dinan, M; McBroom, AJ; Hasselblad, V; Sanders, GD; Myers, ER
MLA Citation
Havrilesky, LJ, Moorman, PG, Lowery, WJ, Gierisch, JM, Coeytaux, RR, Urrutia, RP, Dinan, M, McBroom, AJ, Hasselblad, V, Sanders, GD, and Myers, ER. "Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis." Obstetrics and Gynecology 122.1 (2013): 139-147.
Source
scival
Published In
Obstetrics & Gynecology (Elsevier)
Volume
122
Issue
1
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
139
End Page
147
DOI
10.1097/AOG.0b013e318291c235

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RACE AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK ON INITIAL BIOPSY IN A CONTEMPORARY, MULTIETHNIC COHORT

Authors
Gaines, AR; Keto, CJ; Gerber, L; Freedland, SJ
MLA Citation
Gaines, AR, Keto, CJ, Gerber, L, and Freedland, SJ. "THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RACE AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK ON INITIAL BIOPSY IN A CONTEMPORARY, MULTIETHNIC COHORT." April 2012.
PMID
24879044
Source
wos-lite
Published In
The Journal of Urology
Volume
187
Issue
4
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
E772
End Page
E772

Genetic markers for ovarian cancer risk: Are we close to seeing a clinical impact?

Authors
Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG. "Genetic markers for ovarian cancer risk: Are we close to seeing a clinical impact?." Personalized Medicine 9.6 (2012): 565-567.
Source
scival
Published In
Personalized medicine
Volume
9
Issue
6
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
565
End Page
567
DOI
10.2217/pme.12.58

Effect of hysterectomy with ovarian preservation on ovarian function.

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively estimate the risk for earlier ovarian failure among women undergoing hysterectomy with ovarian preservation, as compared with women of similar age without hysterectomy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among women aged 30 to 47 years undergoing hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy (n=406) and women with intact uteri (n=465). Blood samples and questionnaire data were obtained at baseline and annually for up to 5 years. Hazard ratios (HR) for ovarian failure, defined as follicle-stimulating hormone levels 40 international units/L or higher, were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Ovarian failure occurred among 60 of the women with hysterectomy and 46 of the women in the control group. Women undergoing hysterectomy were at nearly a twofold increased risk for ovarian failure as compared with women with intact uteri (HR 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-2.86). The proportional hazards model further estimated that 14.8% of women with hysterectomies experienced ovarian failure after 4 years of follow-up compared with 8.0% of the women in the control group. Risk for ovarian failure was greater for women who had a unilateral oophorectomy along with their hysterectomy (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.57-5.49), but also it was significantly increased for women who retained both ovaries (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.65). CONCLUSION: Increased risk of earlier ovarian failure is a possible consequence of premenopausal hysterectomy. Although it is unresolved whether it is the surgery itself or the underlying condition leading to hysterectomy that is the cause of earlier ovarian failure, physicians and patients should take into account this possible sequela when considering options for treatment of benign conditions of the uterus. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Myers, ER; Schildkraut, JM; Iversen, ES; Wang, F; Warren, N
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Myers, ER, Schildkraut, JM, Iversen, ES, Wang, F, and Warren, N. "Effect of hysterectomy with ovarian preservation on ovarian function." Obstet Gynecol 118.6 (December 2011): 1271-1279.
PMID
22067716
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume
118
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1271
End Page
1279
DOI
10.1097/AOG.0b013e318236fd12

Reply: "age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer".

Authors
Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG. "Reply: "age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer"." Ann Epidemiol 21.10 (October 2011): 797-. (Letter)
PMID
21683615
Source
pubmed
Published In
Annals of Epidemiology
Volume
21
Issue
10
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
797
DOI
10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.04.009

Clinically relevant changes in family history of cancer over time.

CONTEXT: Knowledge of family cancer history is important for assessing cancer risk and guiding screening recommendations. OBJECTIVE: To quantify how often throughout adulthood clinically significant changes occur in cancer family history that would result in recommendations for earlier or intense screening. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study examining baseline and follow-up family history data from participants in the Cancer Genetics Network (CGN), a US national population-based cancer registry, between 1999 and 2009. PARTICIPANTS: Adults with a personal history, family history, or both of cancer enrolled in the CGN through population-based cancer registries. Retrospective colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer screening-specific analyses included 9861, 2547, and 1817 participants, respectively; prospective analyses included 1533, 617, and 163 participants, respectively. Median follow-up was 8 years (range, 0-11 years). Screening-specific analyses excluded participants with the cancer of interest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage of individuals with clinically significant family histories and rate of change over 2 periods: (1) retrospectively, from birth until CGN enrollment and (2) prospectively, from enrollment to last follow-up. RESULTS: Retrospective analysis revealed that the percentages of participants who met criteria for high-risk screening based on family history at ages 30 and 50 years, respectively, were as follows: for colorectal cancer, 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%-2.4%) and 7.1% (95% CI, 6.5%-7.6%); for breast cancer, 7.2% (95% CI, 6.1%-8.4%) and 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0%-12.8%); and for prostate cancer, 0.9% (95% CI, 0.5%-1.4%) and 2.0% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.7%). In prospective analysis, the numbers of participants who newly met criteria for high-risk screening based on family history per 100 persons followed up for 20 years were 2 (95% CI, 0-7) for colorectal cancer, 6 (95% CI, 2-13) for breast cancer, and 8 (95% CI, 3-16) for prostate cancer. The rate of change in cancer family history was similar for colorectal and breast cancer between the 2 analyses. CONCLUSION: Clinically relevant family history of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer that would result in recommendations for earlier or intense cancer screening increases between ages 30 and 50 years, although the absolute rate is low for prostate cancer.

Authors
Ziogas, A; Horick, NK; Kinney, AY; Lowery, JT; Domchek, SM; Isaacs, C; Griffin, CA; Moorman, PG; Edwards, KL; Hill, DA; Berg, JS; Tomlinson, GE; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, LC; Kasten, CH; Finkelstein, DM; Plon, SE
MLA Citation
Ziogas, A, Horick, NK, Kinney, AY, Lowery, JT, Domchek, SM, Isaacs, C, Griffin, CA, Moorman, PG, Edwards, KL, Hill, DA, Berg, JS, Tomlinson, GE, Anton-Culver, H, Strong, LC, Kasten, CH, Finkelstein, DM, and Plon, SE. "Clinically relevant changes in family history of cancer over time." JAMA 306.2 (July 13, 2011): 172-178.
PMID
21750294
Source
pubmed
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
306
Issue
2
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
172
End Page
178
DOI
10.1001/jama.2011.955

Reported symptoms before and one year after hysterectomy in African American and white women.

PURPOSE: Although African American women are more likely than white women to undergo hysterectomy, there are few data describing their symptoms before and after surgery. This report compares reported symptoms in white and African American women before and 1-year after having a hysterectomy with at least one ovary retained. METHODS: Using data from a prospective cohort study, we compared self-reported symptoms at baseline and 1-year follow-up among 382 women undergoing hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy (197 African American and 185 white) and 448 controls (199 African American and 249 white). Symptoms were assessed using an 11-item scale with questions on somatic, psychologic, and urogenital symptoms. RESULTS: Women undergoing hysterectomy had more severe symptom scores before surgery than controls, but no significant racial differences were found. At follow-up, total scores for women with hysterectomies were comparable to those of control women, but some differences were observed within individual domains. Urogenital scores were worse for women with hysterectomies for both African American and white women. African American women with hysterectomies had better scores in the psychologic domain than either controls or white women with hysterectomies. CONCLUSIONS: African American women, despite having such characteristics as larger uterine weight and lower hemoglobin that might suggest they would have more severe symptoms, had scores that were no worse than white women both before and after hysterectomy.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Myers, ER; Wang, F
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Myers, ER, and Wang, F. "Reported symptoms before and one year after hysterectomy in African American and white women." J Womens Health (Larchmt) 20.7 (July 2011): 1035-1042.
PMID
21671769
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Women's Health
Volume
20
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1035
End Page
1042
DOI
10.1089/jwh.2010.2543

Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 2 may play a role in ovarian cancer risk.

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and 321 women with borderline epithelial ovarian tumors was carried out to test the association between tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (n=58) in this pathway and risk of ovarian cancer. We found no association between variation in IGF1, IGFBP1 or IGFBP3 and risk of invasive disease, whereas five tSNPs in IGF2 were associated with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer at P<0.05 and followed-up one of the associated SNPs. We conducted genotyping in 3216 additional non-Hispanic white cases and 5382 additional controls and were able to independently replicate our initial findings. In the combined set of studies, rs4320932 was associated with a 13% decreased risk of ovarian cancer per copy of the minor allele carried (95% confidence interval 0.81-0.93, P-trend=7.4 × 10(-5)). No heterogeneity of effect across study centers was observed (p(het)=0.25). IGF2 is emerging as an important gene for ovarian cancer; additional genotyping is warranted to further confirm these associations with IGF2 and to narrow down the region harboring the causal SNP.

Authors
Pearce, CL; Doherty, JA; Van Den Berg, DJ; Moysich, K; Hsu, C; Cushing-Haugen, KL; Conti, DV; Ramus, SJ; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, SA; Pharoah, PDP; Song, H; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C; Whittemore, AS; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Gronwald, J; Medrek, K; Jakubowska, A; Lubinski, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; AOCS/ACS Study Group, ; Beesley, J; Webb, PM; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM; Iversen, ES; Moorman, PG; Edlund, CK; Stram, DO; Pike, MC; Ness, RB; Rossing, MA; Wu, AH
MLA Citation
Pearce, CL, Doherty, JA, Van Den Berg, DJ, Moysich, K, Hsu, C, Cushing-Haugen, KL, Conti, DV, Ramus, SJ, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Menon, U, Gayther, SA, Pharoah, PDP, Song, H, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Hogdall, C, Whittemore, AS, McGuire, V, Sieh, W, Gronwald, J, Medrek, K, Jakubowska, A, Lubinski, J, Chenevix-Trench, G, AOCS/ACS Study Group, , Beesley, J, Webb, PM, Berchuck, A, Schildkraut, JM, Iversen, ES, Moorman, PG, Edlund, CK, Stram, DO, Pike, MC, Ness, RB, Rossing, MA, and Wu, AH. "Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 2 may play a role in ovarian cancer risk." Hum Mol Genet 20.11 (June 1, 2011): 2263-2272.
PMID
21422097
Source
pubmed
Published In
Human Molecular Genetics
Volume
20
Issue
11
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
2263
End Page
2272
DOI
10.1093/hmg/ddr087

Common alleles in candidate susceptibility genes associated with risk and development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Common germline genetic variation in the population is associated with susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and expression microarray analysis identified nine genes associated with functional suppression of tumorogenicity in ovarian cancer cell lines; AIFM2, AKTIP, AXIN2, CASP5, FILIP1L, RBBP8, RGC32, RUVBL1 and STAG3. Sixty-three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in these genes were genotyped in 1,799 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 3,045 controls to look for associations with disease risk. Two SNPs in RUVBL1, rs13063604 and rs7650365, were associated with increased risk of serous ovarian cancer [HetOR = 1.42 (1.15-1.74) and the HomOR = 1.63 (1.10-1.42), p-trend = 0.0002] and [HetOR = 0.97 (0.80-1.17), HomOR = 0.74 (0.58-0.93), p-trend = 0.009], respectively. We genotyped rs13063604 and rs7650365 in an additional 4,590 cases and 6,031 controls from ten sites from the United States, Europe and Australia; however, neither SNP was significant in Stage 2. We also evaluated the potential role of tSNPs in these nine genes in ovarian cancer development by testing for allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 286 primary ovarian tumours. We found frequent LOH for tSNPs in AXIN2, AKTIP and RGC32 (64, 46 and 34%, respectively) and one SNP, rs1637001, in STAG3 showed significant allele-specific LOH with loss of the common allele in 94% of informative tumours (p = 0.015). Array comparative genomic hybridisation indicated that this nonrandom allelic imbalance was due to amplification of the rare allele. In conclusion, we show evidence for the involvement of a common allele of STAG3 in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Authors
Notaridou, M; Quaye, L; Dafou, D; Jones, C; Song, H; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, SK; Christensen, L; Høgdall, C; Blaakaer, J; McGuire, V; Wu, AH; Van Den Berg, DJ; Pike, MC; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Wozniak, E; Sher, T; Jacobs, IJ; Tyrer, J; Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Iversen, ES; Jakubowska, A; Mędrek, K; Lubiński, J; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Lurie, G; Wilkens, LR; Carney, ME; Wang-Gohrke, S; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Beckmann, MW; Thiel, FC; Ekici, AB; Chen, X; Beesley, J et al.
MLA Citation
Notaridou, M, Quaye, L, Dafou, D, Jones, C, Song, H, Høgdall, E, Kjaer, SK, Christensen, L, Høgdall, C, Blaakaer, J, McGuire, V, Wu, AH, Van Den Berg, DJ, Pike, MC, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Wozniak, E, Sher, T, Jacobs, IJ, Tyrer, J, Schildkraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Iversen, ES, Jakubowska, A, Mędrek, K, Lubiński, J, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Lurie, G, Wilkens, LR, Carney, ME, Wang-Gohrke, S, Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Beckmann, MW, Thiel, FC, Ekici, AB, Chen, X, and Beesley, J et al. "Common alleles in candidate susceptibility genes associated with risk and development of epithelial ovarian cancer." Int J Cancer 128.9 (May 1, 2011): 2063-2074.
PMID
20635389
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Cancer
Volume
128
Issue
9
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
2063
End Page
2074
DOI
10.1002/ijc.25554

Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

PURPOSE: Physical activity may influence ovarian cancer risk and outcomes through effects on ovulation, inflammatory markers, and other processes. We examined associations between self-reported physical activity and ovarian cancer risk and survival in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. METHODS: The analyses involved 638 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 683 controls recruited between 1999-2008. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess ovarian cancer risk in relation to reported average physical activity at various time periods. Kaplan-Meier analyses and proportional hazards modeling were used to assess associations between physical activity and survival among ovarian cancer cases. RESULTS: Modestly reduced risks for ovarian cancer were observed in some categories of physical activity, but there were no consistent patterns of greater reductions in risk with higher activity levels. Physical activity before diagnosis was not significantly related to ovarian cancer survival overall, but survival was better for women who reported greater than 2 hours of activity/week as compared to those reporting less than 1 hour/week among women who were non-obese (multivariable Hazard ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide weak evidence in support of beneficial effects of physical activity on ovarian cancer risk and survival, but results should be interpreted cautiously because of the lack of a clear dose response relation with higher levels of exercise and the likely misclassification of self-reported activity.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Jones, LW; Akushevich, L; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Jones, LW, Akushevich, L, and Schildkraut, JM. "Recreational physical activity and ovarian cancer risk and survival." Ann Epidemiol 21.3 (March 2011): 178-187.
PMID
21296269
Source
pubmed
Published In
Annals of Epidemiology
Volume
21
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
178
End Page
187
DOI
10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.10.014

Progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis: results from an international collaborative effort.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between self-reported endometriosis and the putative functional promoter +331C/T single nucleotide polymorphism and the PROGINS allele. DESIGN: Control subjects from ovarian cancer case-control studies participating in the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The majority of controls are drawn from population-based studies. SETTING: An international ovarian cancer consortium including studies from Australia, Europe, and the United States. PATIENT(S): Five thousand eight hundred twelve white female controls, of whom 348 had endometriosis, from eight ovarian cancer case-control studies. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Genotypes for the +331C/T single nucleotide polymorphism and PROGINS allele and a history of endometriosis. RESULT(S): The occurrence of endometriosis was reduced in women carrying one or more copies of the +331 T allele (odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.98), whereas there was no association between the PROGINS allele and endometriosis (odds ratio=0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.16). CONCLUSION(S): Additional studies of the +331C/T variant are warranted given the current finding and the equivocal results of previous studies. The +331 T allele has been shown to result in a reduced progesterone (P) receptor A to P receptor B ratio, and if the observed association with endometriosis is confirmed it would suggest that this ratio is important for this disease.

Authors
Near, AM; Wu, AH; Templeman, C; Van Den Berg, DJ; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Goode, EL; Cunningham, JM; Vierkant, RA; Fridley, BL; Chenevix-Trench, G; Webb, PM; Kjær, SK; Hogdall, E; Gayther, SA; Ramus, SJ; Menon, U; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Palmieri, RT; Ness, RB; Moysich, K; Cramer, DW; Terry, KL; Vitonis, AF; Pike, MC; Berchuck, A; Pearce, CL; Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, ; Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) (ACS), et al.
MLA Citation
Near, AM, Wu, AH, Templeman, C, Van Den Berg, DJ, Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Goode, EL, Cunningham, JM, Vierkant, RA, Fridley, BL, Chenevix-Trench, G, Webb, PM, Kjær, SK, Hogdall, E, Gayther, SA, Ramus, SJ, Menon, U, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Schildkraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Palmieri, RT, Ness, RB, Moysich, K, Cramer, DW, Terry, KL, Vitonis, AF, Pike, MC, Berchuck, A, Pearce, CL, Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, , and Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) (ACS), et al. "Progesterone receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of endometriosis: results from an international collaborative effort." Fertil Steril 95.1 (January 2011): 40-45.
PMID
20719308
Source
pubmed
Published In
Fertility and Sterility
Volume
95
Issue
1
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
40
End Page
45
DOI
10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.06.059

Evaluation of established breast cancer risk factors as modifiers of BRCA1 or BRCA2: a multi-center case-only analysis.

The incomplete penetrance of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 suggests that some combination of environmental and genetic factors modifies the risk of breast cancer in mutation carriers. This study sought to identify possible interactions between established breast cancer risk factors and BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations using a case-only study design. Breast cancer cases that had been tested for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were identified from 11 collaborating centers. Comparisons of reproductive and lifestyle risk factors were made between women with breast cancer who were positive for BRCA1 mutations (n = 283), BRCA2 mutations (n = 204), or negative for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (n = 894). Interaction risk ratios (IRRs) were calculated using multinominal logistic regression models. Compared with non-carriers, statistically significant IRRs were observed for later age at menarche among BRCA2 mutation carriers, for a greater number of pregnancies among both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and for alcohol use among BRCA1 mutation carriers. Our data suggest that the risk for breast cancer among BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers may be modified by reproductive characteristics and alcohol use. However, our results should be interpreted cautiously given the overall inconsistency in the epidemiologic literature on modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Iversen, ES; Marcom, PK; Marks, JR; Wang, F; Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, ; Lee, E; Ursin, G; Rebbeck, TR; Domchek, SM; Arun, B; Susswein, L; Isaacs, C; Garber, JE; Visvanathan, K; Griffin, CA; Sutphen, R; Brzosowicz, J; Gruber, S; Finkelstein, DM; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Iversen, ES, Marcom, PK, Marks, JR, Wang, F, Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, , Lee, E, Ursin, G, Rebbeck, TR, Domchek, SM, Arun, B, Susswein, L, Isaacs, C, Garber, JE, Visvanathan, K, Griffin, CA, Sutphen, R, Brzosowicz, J, Gruber, S, Finkelstein, DM, and Schildkraut, JM. "Evaluation of established breast cancer risk factors as modifiers of BRCA1 or BRCA2: a multi-center case-only analysis." Breast Cancer Res Treat 124.2 (November 2010): 441-451.
PMID
20309627
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
124
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
441
End Page
451
DOI
10.1007/s10549-010-0842-y

Genetics and women's health issues--the commitment of EMS to women scientists and gender-associated disease topics.

This manuscript presents an overview of a symposium held at the 2009 annual meeting of the Environmental Mutagen Society (EMS) in St. Louis, MO. The symposium was sponsored by the Women in the Environmental Mutagen Society (WEMS) special interest group, and it covered current molecular genetics technologies and their impact on diagnosis and treatment of diseases that primarily or differentially affect women. Four speakers presented groundbreaking new information from such areas as cancer genetics, gene-environment interactions, epigenetics, DNA repair, and molecular epidemiology. Although cancer was a primary focus of the symposium, other health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular disease were addressed. The rapid evolution in genomic technologies discussed in this symposium should provide new tools to explore some of the critical questions raised by the research projects described in this article. This symposium demonstrates that EMS provides a forum for the presentation, discussion, and extension of the data generated by the investigators featured in this article and other researchers engaged in the study of the molecular mechanisms and gene-environment interactions that impact women's health.

Authors
Witt, KL; Moorman, PG; Kovalchuk, O; Holland, N; Block, G; Andreassen, PR
MLA Citation
Witt, KL, Moorman, PG, Kovalchuk, O, Holland, N, Block, G, and Andreassen, PR. "Genetics and women's health issues--the commitment of EMS to women scientists and gender-associated disease topics." Environ Mol Mutagen 51.8-9 (October 2010): 774-780.
PMID
20740639
Source
pubmed
Published In
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume
51
Issue
8-9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
774
End Page
780
DOI
10.1002/em.20607

Common variants at 19p13 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy in the developed world, accounting for 4% of the deaths from cancer in women. We performed a three-phase genome-wide association study of EOC survival in 8,951 individuals with EOC (cases) with available survival time data and a parallel association analysis of EOC susceptibility. Two SNPs at 19p13.11, rs8170 and rs2363956, showed evidence of association with survival (overall P = 5 × 10⁻⁴ and P = 6 × 10⁻⁴, respectively), but they did not replicate in phase 3. However, the same two SNPs demonstrated genome-wide significance for risk of serous EOC (P = 3 × 10⁻⁹ and P = 4 × 10⁻¹¹, respectively). Expression analysis of candidate genes at this locus in ovarian tumors supported a role for the BRCA1-interacting gene C19orf62, also known as MERIT40, which contains rs8170, in EOC development.

Authors
Bolton, KL; Tyrer, J; Song, H; Ramus, SJ; Notaridou, M; Jones, C; Sher, T; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Wozniak, E; Tsai, Y-Y; Weidhaas, J; Paik, D; Van Den Berg, DJ; Stram, DO; Pearce, CL; Wu, AH; Brewster, W; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Narod, SA; Levine, DA; Kaye, SB; Brown, R; Paul, J; Flanagan, J; Sieh, W; McGuire, V; Whittemore, AS; Campbell, I; Gore, ME; Lissowska, J; Yang, HP; Medrek, K; Gronwald, J; Lubinski, J; Jakubowska, A; Le, ND; Cook, LS; Kelemen, LE; Brooks-Wilson, A; Massuger, LFAG et al.
MLA Citation
Bolton, KL, Tyrer, J, Song, H, Ramus, SJ, Notaridou, M, Jones, C, Sher, T, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Wozniak, E, Tsai, Y-Y, Weidhaas, J, Paik, D, Van Den Berg, DJ, Stram, DO, Pearce, CL, Wu, AH, Brewster, W, Anton-Culver, H, Ziogas, A, Narod, SA, Levine, DA, Kaye, SB, Brown, R, Paul, J, Flanagan, J, Sieh, W, McGuire, V, Whittemore, AS, Campbell, I, Gore, ME, Lissowska, J, Yang, HP, Medrek, K, Gronwald, J, Lubinski, J, Jakubowska, A, Le, ND, Cook, LS, Kelemen, LE, Brooks-Wilson, A, and Massuger, LFAG et al. "Common variants at 19p13 are associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer." Nat Genet 42.10 (October 2010): 880-884.
PMID
20852633
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nature Genetics
Volume
42
Issue
10
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
880
End Page
884
DOI
10.1038/ng.666

Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot".

We hypothesized that variants in genes expressed as a consequence of interactions between ovarian cancer cells and the host micro-environment could contribute to cancer susceptibility. We therefore used a two-stage approach to evaluate common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 173 genes involved in stromal epithelial interactions in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In the discovery stage, cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (n=675) and controls (n=1,162) were genotyped at 1,536 SNPs using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. Based on Positive Predictive Value estimates, three SNPs-PODXL rs1013368, ITGA6 rs13027811, and MMP3 rs522616-were selected for replication using TaqMan genotyping in up to 3,059 serous invasive cases and 8,905 controls from 16 OCAC case-control studies. An additional 18 SNPs with Pper-allele<0.05 in the discovery stage were selected for replication in a subset of five OCAC studies (n=1,233 serous invasive cases; n=3,364 controls). The discovery stage associations in PODXL, ITGA6, and MMP3 were attenuated in the larger replication set (adj. Pper-allele>or=0.5). However genotypes at TERT rs7726159 were associated with ovarian cancer risk in the smaller, five-study replication study (Pper-allele=0.03). Combined analysis of the discovery and replication sets for this TERT SNP showed an increased risk of serous ovarian cancer among non-Hispanic whites [adj. ORper-allele 1.14 (1.04-1.24) p=0.003]. Our study adds to the growing evidence that, like the 8q24 locus, the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus at 5p15.33, is a general cancer susceptibility locus.

Authors
Johnatty, SE; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Macgregor, S; Duffy, DL; Spurdle, AB; deFazio, A; Gava, N; Webb, PM; Rossing, MA; Doherty, JA; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Thompson, PJ; Wilkens, LR; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Cramer, DW; Terry, KL; Hankinson, SE; Tworoger, SS; Garcia-Closas, M; Yang, H; Lissowska, J; Chanock, SJ; Pharoah, PD; Song, H; Whitemore, AS; Pearce, CL; Stram, DO; Wu, AH; Pike, MC; Gayther, SA; Ramus, SJ; Menon, U; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A et al.
MLA Citation
Johnatty, SE, Beesley, J, Chen, X, Macgregor, S, Duffy, DL, Spurdle, AB, deFazio, A, Gava, N, Webb, PM, Rossing, MA, Doherty, JA, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Thompson, PJ, Wilkens, LR, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Chang-Claude, J, Wang-Gohrke, S, Cramer, DW, Terry, KL, Hankinson, SE, Tworoger, SS, Garcia-Closas, M, Yang, H, Lissowska, J, Chanock, SJ, Pharoah, PD, Song, H, Whitemore, AS, Pearce, CL, Stram, DO, Wu, AH, Pike, MC, Gayther, SA, Ramus, SJ, Menon, U, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Anton-Culver, H, and Ziogas, A et al. "Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "hot-spot". (Published online)" PLoS Genet 6.7 (July 8, 2010): e1001016-.
PMID
20628624
Source
pubmed
Published In
PLoS genetics
Volume
6
Issue
7
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
e1001016
DOI
10.1371/journal.pgen.1001016

Primary peritoneal and ovarian cancers: an epidemiological comparative analysis.

We performed case-control analyses using data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study to determine risk factors that distinguish primary peritoneal cancer (PPC) from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Our risk factor analyses were restricted to invasive serous cancers including 495 EOC cases, 62 PPC cases and 1,086 control women. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for risk factor associations. Although many case-control associations for the invasive serous PPC cases were similar to those of the invasive serous EOC cases, some differences were observed including a twofold increase in risk of invasive serous PPC in women who were >or=35 years at last pregnancy, whereas a decreased risk was observed for invasive serous EOC risk. We could not confirm a previous report of an association between tubal ligation and PPC, a factor consistently associated with a decreased risk of EOC. The difference in the risk factor associations between invasive serous PPC and EOC cancers suggests divergent molecular development of peritoneal and ovarian cancers. A larger study to determine risk factors for invasive serous PPC is warranted.

Authors
Grant, DJ; Moorman, PG; Akushevich, L; Palmieri, RT; Bentley, RC; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Grant, DJ, Moorman, PG, Akushevich, L, Palmieri, RT, Bentley, RC, and Schildkraut, JM. "Primary peritoneal and ovarian cancers: an epidemiological comparative analysis." Cancer Causes Control 21.7 (July 2010): 991-998.
PMID
20309725
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
21
Issue
7
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
991
End Page
998
DOI
10.1007/s10552-010-9525-6

Genetic variation in TYMS in the one-carbon transfer pathway is associated with ovarian carcinoma types in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

BACKGROUND: We previously reported the risks of ovarian carcinoma for common polymorphisms in one-carbon transfer genes. We sought to replicate associations for DPYD rs1801265, DNMT3A rs13420827, MTHFD1 rs1950902, MTHFS rs17284990, and TYMS rs495139 with risk of ovarian carcinoma overall and to use the large sample of assembled cases to investigate associations by histologic type. METHODS: Associations were evaluated in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, including 16 studies of 5,593 epithelial ovarian carcinoma cases and 9,962 controls of white non-Hispanic origin. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were adjusted for age and study site. RESULTS: The five polymorphisms were not associated with ovarian carcinoma overall (P(trend) > 0.13); however, associations for the minor allele at TYMS rs495139 were observed for carcinomas of mucinous type (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39; P = 0.02), clear cell type (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; P = 0.04), and endometrioid type (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; P = 0.04; P(heterogeneity) = 0.001). Restriction to low-grade mucinous carcinomas further strengthened the association for the mucinous type (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.07-1.62; P = 0.01). TYMS rs495139 was not associated with serous type (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.00-1.13; P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: TYMS rs495139 may be associated with a differential risk of ovarian carcinoma types, indicating the importance of accurate histopathologic classification. IMPACT: Biomarkers that distinguish ovarian carcinoma types are few, and TYMS rs495139 may provide a novel clue to type etiology.

Authors
Kelemen, LE; Goodman, MT; McGuire, V; Rossing, MA; Webb, PM; Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) Study Group, ; Köbel, M; Anton-Culver, H; Beesley, J; Berchuck, A; Brar, S; Carney, ME; Chang-Claude, J; Chenevix-Trench, G; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Cramer, DW; Cunningham, JM; Dicioccio, RA; Doherty, JA; Easton, DF; Fredericksen, ZS; Fridley, BL; Gates, MA; Gayther, SA; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Høgdall, E; Kjaer, SK; Lurie, G; Menon, U; Moorman, PG; Moysich, K; Ness, RB et al.
MLA Citation
Kelemen, LE, Goodman, MT, McGuire, V, Rossing, MA, Webb, PM, Australian Cancer Study (Ovarian Cancer) Study Group, , Köbel, M, Anton-Culver, H, Beesley, J, Berchuck, A, Brar, S, Carney, ME, Chang-Claude, J, Chenevix-Trench, G, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, , Cramer, DW, Cunningham, JM, Dicioccio, RA, Doherty, JA, Easton, DF, Fredericksen, ZS, Fridley, BL, Gates, MA, Gayther, SA, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Høgdall, E, Kjaer, SK, Lurie, G, Menon, U, Moorman, PG, Moysich, K, and Ness, RB et al. "Genetic variation in TYMS in the one-carbon transfer pathway is associated with ovarian carcinoma types in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19.7 (July 2010): 1822-1830.
PMID
20570913
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
19
Issue
7
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1822
End Page
1830
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-1317

Association between DNA damage response and repair genes and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: We analyzed the association between 53 genes related to DNA repair and p53-mediated damage response and serous ovarian cancer risk using case-control data from the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCOCS), a population-based, case-control study. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis was restricted to 364 invasive serous ovarian cancer cases and 761 controls of white, non-Hispanic race. Statistical analysis was two staged: a screen using marginal Bayes factors (BFs) for 484 SNPs and a modeling stage in which we calculated multivariate adjusted posterior probabilities of association for 77 SNPs that passed the screen. These probabilities were conditional on subject age at diagnosis/interview, batch, a DNA quality metric and genotypes of other SNPs and allowed for uncertainty in the genetic parameterizations of the SNPs and number of associated SNPs. Six SNPs had Bayes factors greater than 10 in favor of an association with invasive serous ovarian cancer. These included rs5762746 (median OR(odds ratio)(per allele) = 0.66; 95% credible interval (CI) = 0.44-1.00) and rs6005835 (median OR(per allele) = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.53-0.91) in CHEK2, rs2078486 (median OR(per allele) = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.21-2.25) and rs12951053 (median OR(per allele) = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.26) in TP53, rs411697 (median OR (rare homozygote) = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.35 - 0.79) in BACH1 and rs10131 (median OR( rare homozygote) = not estimable) in LIG4. The six most highly associated SNPs are either predicted to be functionally significant or are in LD with such a variant. The variants in TP53 were confirmed to be associated in a large follow-up study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, further follow-up of the DNA repair and response pathways in a larger dataset is warranted to confirm these results.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Iversen, ES; Wilson, MA; Clyde, MA; Moorman, PG; Palmieri, RT; Whitaker, R; Bentley, RC; Marks, JR; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Iversen, ES, Wilson, MA, Clyde, MA, Moorman, PG, Palmieri, RT, Whitaker, R, Bentley, RC, Marks, JR, and Berchuck, A. "Association between DNA damage response and repair genes and risk of invasive serous ovarian cancer. (Published online)" PLoS One 5.4 (April 8, 2010): e10061-.
Website
http://hdl.handle.net/10161/8883
PMID
20386703
Source
pubmed
Published In
PloS one
Volume
5
Issue
4
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
e10061
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0010061

ESR1/SYNE1 polymorphism and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk: an Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium study.

We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) region in three population-based case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in the United States, comprising a total of 1,128 and 1,866 non-Hispanic white invasive cases and controls, respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1 (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006]. rs2295190 is a nonsynonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1), which is involved in nuclear organization and structural integrity, function of the Golgi apparatus, and cytokinesis. An isoform encoded by SYNE1 has been reported to be downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. rs2295190 was genotyped in an additional 12 studies through the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, with 5,279 invasive epithelial cases and 7,450 controls. The per-T-allele OR for this 12-study set was 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.17; P = 0.017). Results for the serous subtype in the 15 combined studies were similar to those overall (n = 3,545; OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.025), and our findings were strongest for the mucinous subtype (n = 447; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.11-1.58; P = 0.002). No association was observed for the endometrioid subtype. In an additional analysis of 1,459 borderline ovarian cancer cases and 7,370 controls, rs2295190 was not associated with risk. These data provide suggestive evidence that the rs2295190 T allele, or another allele in linkage disequilibrium with it, may be associated with increased risk of invasive ovarian cancer.

Authors
Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Cushing-Haugen, KL; Chen, C; Van Den Berg, DJ; Wu, AH; Pike, MC; Ness, RB; Moysich, K; Chenevix-Trench, G; Beesley, J; Webb, PM; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Thompson, PJ; Carney, ME; Hogdall, E; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, C; Goode, EL; Cunningham, JM; Fridley, BL; Vierkant, RA; Berchuck, A; Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Palmieri, RT; Cramer, DW; Terry, KL; Yang, HP; Garcia-Closas, M; Chanock, S; Lissowska, J; Song, H; Pharoah, PDP; Shah, M et al.
MLA Citation
Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Cushing-Haugen, KL, Chen, C, Van Den Berg, DJ, Wu, AH, Pike, MC, Ness, RB, Moysich, K, Chenevix-Trench, G, Beesley, J, Webb, PM, Chang-Claude, J, Wang-Gohrke, S, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Thompson, PJ, Carney, ME, Hogdall, E, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, C, Goode, EL, Cunningham, JM, Fridley, BL, Vierkant, RA, Berchuck, A, Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Palmieri, RT, Cramer, DW, Terry, KL, Yang, HP, Garcia-Closas, M, Chanock, S, Lissowska, J, Song, H, Pharoah, PDP, and Shah, M et al. "ESR1/SYNE1 polymorphism and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk: an Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium study." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19.1 (January 2010): 245-250.
PMID
20056644
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
19
Issue
1
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
245
End Page
250
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0729

Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "Hot-Spot"

We hypothesized that variants in genes expressed as a consequence of interactions between ovarian cancer cells and the host micro-environment could contribute to cancer susceptibility. We therefore used a two-stage approach to evaluate common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 173 genes involved in stromal epithelial interactions in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). In the discovery stage, cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 675) and controls (n = 1,162) were genotyped at 1,536 SNPs using an Illumina GoldenGate assay. Based on Positive Predictive Value estimates, three SNPs-PODXL rs1013368, ITGA6 rs13027811, and MMP3 rs522616-were selected for replication using TaqMan genotyping in up to 3,059 serous invasive cases and 8,905 controls from 16 OCAC case-control studies. An additional 18 SNPs with Pper-allele<0.05 in the discovery stage were selected for replication in a subset of five OCAC studies (n = 1,233 serous invasive cases; n = 3,364 controls). The discovery stage associations in PODXL, ITGA6, and MMP3 were attenuated in the larger replication set (adj. Pper-allele≥0.5). However genotypes at TERT rs7726159 were associated with ovarian cancer risk in the smaller, five-study replication study (Pper-allele = 0.03). Combined analysis of the discovery and replication sets for this TERT SNP showed an increased risk of serous ovarian cancer among non-Hispanic whites [adj. ORper-allele 1.14 (1.04-1.24) p = 0.003]. Our study adds to the growing evidence that, like the 8q24 locus, the telomerase reverse transcriptase locus at 5p15.33, is a general cancer susceptibility locus. © 2010 Johnatty et al.

Authors
Johnatty, SE; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Macgregor, S; Duffy, DL; Spurdle, AB; Fazio, AD; Gava, N; Webb, PM; Rossing, MA; Doherty, JA; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Thompson, PJ; Wilkens, LR; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Cramer, DW; Terry, KL; Hankinson, SE; Tworoger, SS; Garcia-Closas, M; Yang, H; Lissowska, J; Chanock, SJ; Pharoah, PD; Song, H; Whitemore, AS; Pearce, CL; Stram, DO; Wu, AH; Pike, MC; Gayther, SA; Ramus, SJ; Menon, U; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A et al.
MLA Citation
Johnatty, SE, Beesley, J, Chen, X, Macgregor, S, Duffy, DL, Spurdle, AB, Fazio, AD, Gava, N, Webb, PM, Rossing, MA, Doherty, JA, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Thompson, PJ, Wilkens, LR, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Chang-Claude, J, Wang-Gohrke, S, Cramer, DW, Terry, KL, Hankinson, SE, Tworoger, SS, Garcia-Closas, M, Yang, H, Lissowska, J, Chanock, SJ, Pharoah, PD, Song, H, Whitemore, AS, Pearce, CL, Stram, DO, Wu, AH, Pike, MC, Gayther, SA, Ramus, SJ, Menon, U, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Anton-Culver, H, and Ziogas, A et al. "Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility "Hot-Spot"." PLoS Genetics 6.7 (2010): 1-10.
Source
scival
Published In
PLoS genetics
Volume
6
Issue
7
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1
End Page
10
DOI
10.1371/journal.pgen.1001016

Ovarian cancer risk factors in African-American and white women.

Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in both African-American and white women. Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may vary between racial/ethnic groups. Using data from a North Carolina case-control study (1999-2008), the authors conducted unconditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ovarian cancer risk factors in African-American (143 cases, 189 controls) and white (943 cases, 868 controls) women and to test for interactions by race/ethnicity. They also calculated attributable fractions within each racial/ethnic group for the modifiable factors of pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, tubal ligation, and body mass index. Many risk factors showed similar relations across racial/ethnic groups, but tubal ligation and family history of breast or ovarian cancer showed stronger associations among African Americans. Younger age at menarche was associated with risk only in white women. Attributable fractions associated with tubal ligation, oral contraceptive use, and obesity were markedly higher for African Americans. The relative importance of ovarian cancer risk factors may differ for African-American women, but conclusions were limited by the small sample. There is a clear need for further research on etiologic factors for ovarian cancer in African-American women.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Palmieri, RT; Akushevich, L; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Palmieri, RT, Akushevich, L, Berchuck, A, and Schildkraut, JM. "Ovarian cancer risk factors in African-American and white women." Am J Epidemiol 170.5 (September 1, 2009): 598-606.
PMID
19605513
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
170
Issue
5
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
598
End Page
606
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwp176

A genome-wide association study identifies a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus on 9p22.2.

Epithelial ovarian cancer has a major heritable component, but the known susceptibility genes explain less than half the excess familial risk. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify common ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles. We evaluated 507,094 SNPs genotyped in 1,817 cases and 2,353 controls from the UK and approximately 2 million imputed SNPs. We genotyped the 22,790 top ranked SNPs in 4,274 cases and 4,809 controls of European ancestry from Europe, USA and Australia. We identified 12 SNPs at 9p22 associated with disease risk (P < 10(-8)). The most significant SNP (rs3814113; P = 2.5 x 10(-17)) was genotyped in a further 2,670 ovarian cancer cases and 4,668 controls, confirming its association (combined data odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-0.86, P(trend) = 5.1 x 10(-19)). The association differs by histological subtype, being strongest for serous ovarian cancers (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.73-0.81, P(trend) = 4.1 x 10(-21)).

Authors
Song, H; Ramus, SJ; Tyrer, J; Bolton, KL; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Wozniak, E; Anton-Culver, H; Chang-Claude, J; Cramer, DW; DiCioccio, R; Dörk, T; Goode, EL; Goodman, MT; Schildkraut, JM; Sellers, T; Baglietto, L; Beckmann, MW; Beesley, J; Blaakaer, J; Carney, ME; Chanock, S; Chen, Z; Cunningham, JM; Dicks, E; Doherty, JA; Dürst, M; Ekici, AB; Fenstermacher, D; Fridley, BL; Giles, G; Gore, ME; De Vivo, I; Hillemanns, P; Hogdall, C; Hogdall, E; Iversen, ES; Jacobs, IJ; Jakubowska, A; Li, D et al.
MLA Citation
Song, H, Ramus, SJ, Tyrer, J, Bolton, KL, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Wozniak, E, Anton-Culver, H, Chang-Claude, J, Cramer, DW, DiCioccio, R, Dörk, T, Goode, EL, Goodman, MT, Schildkraut, JM, Sellers, T, Baglietto, L, Beckmann, MW, Beesley, J, Blaakaer, J, Carney, ME, Chanock, S, Chen, Z, Cunningham, JM, Dicks, E, Doherty, JA, Dürst, M, Ekici, AB, Fenstermacher, D, Fridley, BL, Giles, G, Gore, ME, De Vivo, I, Hillemanns, P, Hogdall, C, Hogdall, E, Iversen, ES, Jacobs, IJ, Jakubowska, A, and Li, D et al. "A genome-wide association study identifies a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus on 9p22.2." Nat Genet 41.9 (September 2009): 996-1000.
PMID
19648919
Source
pubmed
Published In
Nature Genetics
Volume
41
Issue
9
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
996
End Page
1000
DOI
10.1038/ng.424

Challenges of Epidemiologic Research in the Genomic Era: The Example of Ovarian Cancer

Authors
Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG. "Challenges of Epidemiologic Research in the Genomic Era: The Example of Ovarian Cancer." ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS 50.7 (August 2009): 553-553.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume
50
Issue
7
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
553
End Page
553

Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study.

Because both ovarian and breast cancer are hormone-related and are known to have some predisposition genes in common, we evaluated 11 of the most significant hits (six with confirmed associations with breast cancer) from the breast cancer genome-wide association study for association with invasive ovarian cancer. Eleven SNPs were initially genotyped in 2927 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 4143 controls from six ovarian cancer case-control studies. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using a likelihood ratio test in a logistic regression model stratified by study. Initially, three SNPs (rs2107425 in MRPL23, rs7313833 in PTHLH, rs3803662 in TNRC9) were weakly associated with ovarian cancer risk and one SNP (rs4954956 in NXPH2) was associated with serous ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white subjects (P-trend < 0.1). These four SNPs were then genotyped in an additional 4060 cases and 6308 controls from eight independent studies. Only rs4954956 was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk both in the replication study and in combined analyses. This association was stronger for the serous histological subtype [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 1.07 95% CI 1.01-1.13, P-trend = 0.02 for all types of ovarian cancer and OR 1.14 95% CI 1.07-1.22, P-trend = 0.00017 for serous ovarian cancer]. In conclusion, we found that rs4954956 was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, particularly for serous ovarian cancer. However, none of the six confirmed breast cancer susceptibility variants we tested was associated with ovarian cancer risk. Further work will be needed to identify the causal variant associated with rs4954956 or elucidate its function.

Authors
Song, H; Ramus, SJ; Kjaer, SK; DiCioccio, RA; Chenevix-Trench, G; Pearce, CL; Hogdall, E; Whittemore, AS; McGuire, V; Hogdall, C; Blaakaer, J; Wu, AH; Van Den Berg, DJ; Stram, DO; Menon, U; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Jacobs, IJ; Webb, PM; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Australian Cancer (Ovarian) Study, ; Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, ; Rossing, MA; Doherty, JA; Chang-Claude, J; Wang-Gohrke, S; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Thompson, PJ; Carney, ME; Ness, RB; Moysich, K; Goode, EL; Vierkant, RA; Cunningham, JM et al.
MLA Citation
Song, H, Ramus, SJ, Kjaer, SK, DiCioccio, RA, Chenevix-Trench, G, Pearce, CL, Hogdall, E, Whittemore, AS, McGuire, V, Hogdall, C, Blaakaer, J, Wu, AH, Van Den Berg, DJ, Stram, DO, Menon, U, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Jacobs, IJ, Webb, PM, Beesley, J, Chen, X, Australian Cancer (Ovarian) Study, , Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group, , Rossing, MA, Doherty, JA, Chang-Claude, J, Wang-Gohrke, S, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Thompson, PJ, Carney, ME, Ness, RB, Moysich, K, Goode, EL, Vierkant, RA, and Cunningham, JM et al. "Association between invasive ovarian cancer susceptibility and 11 best candidate SNPs from breast cancer genome-wide association study." Hum Mol Genet 18.12 (June 15, 2009): 2297-2304.
PMID
19304784
Source
pubmed
Published In
Human Molecular Genetics
Volume
18
Issue
12
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
2297
End Page
2304
DOI
10.1093/hmg/ddp138

A prospective study of weight gain after premenopausal hysterectomy.

PURPOSE: Many women who have had hysterectomies have the perception that they gained weight after surgery that cannot be attributed to changes in diet or physical activity. The purpose of this analysis was to assess weight gain in premenopausal women in the first year after hysterectomy compared with a control group of women with intact uteri and ovaries. METHODS: As part of a prospective cohort study designed to assess the risk for ovarian failure after premenopausal hysterectomy, weight was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up in 236 women undergoing hysterectomy and 392 control women. Changes in measured weight and reported weight were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for weight gains of >10 pounds. RESULTS: Women with hysterectomies weighed more and had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) than control women at baseline. Mean weight gain was 1.36 kg ( approximately 3 pounds) for women with hysterectomies vs. 0.61 kg ( approximately 1.3 pounds) for control women (p = 0.07). Weight gain of >10 pounds occurred in 23% of women with hysterectomies compared with 15% of control women (multivariable OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.04 = 2.48). CONCLUSIONS: Women undergoing hysterectomies appear to be at higher risk for weight gain in the first year after surgery. Heavier women and women who have had weight fluctuations throughout adulthood may be at greater risk for postsurgical weight gain, suggesting that lifestyle interventions to maintain or lose weight may be particularly helpful for these women in the months following hysterectomy.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Iversen, ES; Myers, ER; Gradison, M; Warren-White, N; Wang, F
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Iversen, ES, Myers, ER, Gradison, M, Warren-White, N, and Wang, F. "A prospective study of weight gain after premenopausal hysterectomy." J Womens Health (Larchmt) 18.5 (May 2009): 699-708.
PMID
19445617
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of Women's Health
Volume
18
Issue
5
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
699
End Page
708
DOI
10.1089/jwh.2008.1019

Association between glioma and history of allergies, asthma, and eczema: a case-control study with three groups of controls.

Because glioma etiology is largely unknown, the inverse association of glioma risk with atopic conditions is promising and deserves close scrutiny. We examined the association between a history of allergies, asthma, and eczema, and glioma risk using sibling, friend, and clinic-based controls. This analysis included 388 incident glioma cases and 80 sibling, 191 friend, and 177 clinic-based controls. Each subject's medical history was assessed via a Web-based or telephone survey. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations with allergies, asthma, eczema, and the overall number of these conditions were calculated from conditional (for sibling and friend controls) and unconditional (for clinic-based controls) logistic models. Allergies were consistently inversely associated with the glioma: ORs were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.15-1.84), 0.54 (95% CI, 0.28-1.07), and 0.34 (95% CI, 0.23-0.50) with sibling, friend, and clinic-based controls, respectively. Asthma showed an inverse association only in the comparison with sibling controls (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19-1.00). Eczema showed an inverse association only in the comparison with friend controls (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.18). The overall number of these conditions (ordinal score 0, 1, 2, 3) was inversely associated with glioma: The risk decreased 31% to 45% with each addition of an atopic condition. These estimates were the most stable when different control groups were considered. Comparing the prevalence of these conditions in the three control groups with published data, we note that clinic-based controls generally better approximate the prevalence data for population-based groups. These controls seem to present a reasonable choice for clinic-centered case-control studies.

Authors
Il'yasova, D; McCarthy, B; Marcello, J; Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Krishnamachari, B; Ali-Osman, F; Bigner, DD; Davis, F
MLA Citation
Il'yasova, D, McCarthy, B, Marcello, J, Schildkraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Krishnamachari, B, Ali-Osman, F, Bigner, DD, and Davis, F. "Association between glioma and history of allergies, asthma, and eczema: a case-control study with three groups of controls." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18.4 (April 2009): 1232-1238.
PMID
19336556
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
18
Issue
4
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1232
End Page
1238
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0995

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

The p53 protein is critical for multiple cellular functions including cell growth and DNA repair. We assessed whether polymorphisms in the region encoding TP53 were associated with risk of invasive ovarian cancer. The study population includes a total of 5,206 invasive ovarian cancer cases (2,829 of which were serous) and 8,790 controls from 13 case-control or nested case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Three of the studies performed independent discovery investigations involving genotyping of up to 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the tps3 region. Significant findings from this discovery phase were followed up for replication in the other OCAC studies. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to generate posterior median per allele odds ratios (OR), 95% probability intervals (PI), and Bayes factors (BF) for genotype associations. Five SMPs showed significant associations with risk in one or more of the discovery investigations and were followed up by OCAC. Mixed effects analysis confirmed associations with serous invasive cancers for two correlated (r2 = 0.62) SMPs: rs2287498 (median per allele OB, 1.30; 95% PI, 1.07-1.57) and rsl2951053 (median per allele OR, 1.19; 95% PI, 1.01-1.38). Analyses of other histologic subtypes suggested similar associations with endometrioid but not with mucinous or clear cell cancers. This large study provides statistical evidence for a small increase in risk of ovarian cancer associated with common variants in the TPS3 region. © 2009 American Association for Cancer Research.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Goode, EL; Clyde, MA; Iversen, ES; Moorman, PG; Berchuck, A; Marks, JR; Lissowska, J; Brinton, L; Peplonska, B; Cunningham, JM; Vierkant, RA; Rider, DN; Chenevix-Trench, G; Webb, PM; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Phelan, C; Sutphen, R; Sellers, TA; Pearce, L; Wu, AH; Van Berg, DD; Conti, D; Elund, CK; Anderson, R; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Carney, ME; Thompson, PJ; Gayther, SA; Ramus, SJ; Jacobs, I; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Blaakaer, J; Hogdall, C; Easton, DF; Song, H; Pharoah, PDP et al.
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Goode, EL, Clyde, MA, Iversen, ES, Moorman, PG, Berchuck, A, Marks, JR, Lissowska, J, Brinton, L, Peplonska, B, Cunningham, JM, Vierkant, RA, Rider, DN, Chenevix-Trench, G, Webb, PM, Beesley, J, Chen, X, Phelan, C, Sutphen, R, Sellers, TA, Pearce, L, Wu, AH, Van Berg, DD, Conti, D, Elund, CK, Anderson, R, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Carney, ME, Thompson, PJ, Gayther, SA, Ramus, SJ, Jacobs, I, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Blaakaer, J, Hogdall, C, Easton, DF, Song, H, and Pharoah, PDP et al. "Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer." Cancer Research 69.6 (March 15, 2009): 2349-2357.
PMID
19276375
Source
scopus
Published In
Cancer Research
Volume
69
Issue
6
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
2349
End Page
2357
DOI
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2902

Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P< or =0.10 in a log-additive model: rs2740574 in CYP3A4 (P=0.011), rs1805386 in LIG4 (P=0.007), and rs3218536 in XRCC2 (P=0.095). Additional genotyping in other OCAC studies was undertaken and only the variant in CYP3A4, rs2740574, continued to show an association in the replication data among homozygous carriers: OR(homozygous(hom))=2.50 (95% CI 0.54-11.57, P=0.24) with 1406 cases and 2827 controls. Overall, in the combined data the odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20-6.56, P=0.017, p(het) across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574 and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted.

Authors
Pearce, CL; Near, AM; Van Den Berg, DJ; Ramus, SJ; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, SA; Anderson, AR; Edlund, CK; Wu, AH; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, PM; Holt, SK; Chen, C; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Whittemore, AS; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, RA; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Carney, ME; Wilkens, LR; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, CK; Goode, EL; Sellers, TA; Vierkant, RA; Cunningham, JM; Schildkraut, JM; Berchuck, A; Moorman, PG; Iversen, ES; Cramer, DW et al.
MLA Citation
Pearce, CL, Near, AM, Van Den Berg, DJ, Ramus, SJ, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Menon, U, Gayther, SA, Anderson, AR, Edlund, CK, Wu, AH, Chen, X, Beesley, J, Webb, PM, Holt, SK, Chen, C, Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Whittemore, AS, McGuire, V, DiCioccio, RA, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Carney, ME, Wilkens, LR, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Edwards, R, Jennison, E, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Hogdall, CK, Goode, EL, Sellers, TA, Vierkant, RA, Cunningham, JM, Schildkraut, JM, Berchuck, A, Moorman, PG, Iversen, ES, and Cramer, DW et al. "Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium." Br J Cancer 100.2 (January 27, 2009): 412-420.
PMID
19127255
Source
pubmed
Published In
British Journal of Cancer
Volume
100
Issue
2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
412
End Page
420
DOI
10.1038/sj.bjc.6604820

Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

Authors
Pearce, CL; Near, AM; Van Den Berg, DJ; Ramus, SJ; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, SA; Anderson, AR; Edlund, CK; Wu, AH; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, PM; Holt, SK; Chen, C; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Whittemore, AS; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, RA; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Carney, ME; Wilkens, LR; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, CK; Goode, EL; Sellers, TA; Vierkant, RA; Cunningham, JC; Schildkraut, JM; Berchuck, A; Moorman, PG; Iversen, ES; Cramer, DW et al.
MLA Citation
Pearce, CL, Near, AM, Van Den Berg, DJ, Ramus, SJ, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Menon, U, Gayther, SA, Anderson, AR, Edlund, CK, Wu, AH, Chen, X, Beesley, J, Webb, PM, Holt, SK, Chen, C, Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Whittemore, AS, McGuire, V, DiCioccio, RA, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Carney, ME, Wilkens, LR, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Edwards, R, Jennison, E, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Hogdall, CK, Goode, EL, Sellers, TA, Vierkant, RA, Cunningham, JC, Schildkraut, JM, Berchuck, A, Moorman, PG, Iversen, ES, and Cramer, DW et al. "Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium." BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER 100.2 (January 22, 2009): 412-420.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
British Journal of Cancer
Volume
100
Issue
2
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
412
End Page
420
DOI
10.1038/sj.bjc.6604820

Erratum: Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the International Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (British Journal of Cancer (2009) 100 (412-420) DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604820 www.bjcancer.com)

Authors
Pearce, CL; Near, AM; Berg, DJVD; Ramus, SJ; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, SA; Anderson, AR; Edlund, CK; Wu, AH; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, PM; Holt, SK; Chen, C; Doherty, JA; Rossing, MA; Whittemore, AS; McGuire, V; Dicioccio, RA; Goodman, MT; Lurie, G; Carney, ME; Wilkens, LR; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, CK; Goode, EL; Sellers, TA; Vierkant, RA; Cunningham, JM; Schildkraut, JM; Berchuck, A; Moorman, PG; Iversen, ES; Cramer, DW et al.
MLA Citation
Pearce, CL, Near, AM, Berg, DJVD, Ramus, SJ, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Menon, U, Gayther, SA, Anderson, AR, Edlund, CK, Wu, AH, Chen, X, Beesley, J, Webb, PM, Holt, SK, Chen, C, Doherty, JA, Rossing, MA, Whittemore, AS, McGuire, V, Dicioccio, RA, Goodman, MT, Lurie, G, Carney, ME, Wilkens, LR, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Edwards, R, Jennison, E, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Hogdall, CK, Goode, EL, Sellers, TA, Vierkant, RA, Cunningham, JM, Schildkraut, JM, Berchuck, A, Moorman, PG, Iversen, ES, and Cramer, DW et al. "Erratum: Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the International Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (British Journal of Cancer (2009) 100 (412-420) DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604820 www.bjcancer.com)." British Journal of Cancer 101.10 (2009): 1805--.
Source
scival
Published In
British Journal of Cancer
Volume
101
Issue
10
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
1805-
DOI
10.1038/sj.bjc.6605431

Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women.

Over 22,000 cases of ovarian cancer were diagnosed in 2007 in the United States, but only a fraction of them can be attributed to mutations in highly penetrant genes such as BRCA1. To determine whether low-penetrance genetic variants contribute to ovarian cancer risk, we genotyped 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in several candidate gene pathways in 848 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 798 controls in the North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study (NCO) using a customized Illumina array. The inflammation gene interleukin-18 (IL18) showed the strongest evidence for association with epithelial ovarian cancer in a gene-by-gene analysis (P = 0.002) with a <25% chance of being a false-positive finding (q value = 0.240). Using a multivariate model search algorithm over 11 IL18 tagging SNPs, we found that the association was best modeled by rs1834481. Further, this SNP uniquely tagged a significantly associated IL18 haplotype and there was an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer per rs1834481 allele (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). In a replication stage, 12 independent studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) genotyped rs1834481 in an additional 5,877 cases and 7,791 controls. The fixed effects estimate per rs1834481 allele was null (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.05) when data from the 12 OCAC studies were combined. The effect estimate remained unchanged with the addition of the initial North Carolina Ovarian Cancer Study data. This analysis shows the importance of consortia, like the OCAC, in either confirming or refuting the validity of putative findings in studies with smaller sample sizes. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(12):3567-72).

Authors
Palmieri, RT; Wilson, MA; Iversen, ES; Clyde, MA; Calingaert, B; Moorman, PG; Poole, C; Anderson, AR; Anderson, S; Anton-Culver, H; Beesley, J; Hogdall, E; Brewster, W; Carney, ME; Chen, X; Chenevix-Trench, G; Chang-Claude, J; Cunningham, JM; Dicioccio, RA; Doherty, JA; Easton, DF; Edlund, CK; Gayther, SA; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Goode, EL; Goodman, MT; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, CK; Hopkins, MP; Jenison, EL; Blaakaer, J; Lurie, G; McGuire, V; Menon, U; Moysich, KB; Ness, RB; Pearce, CL; Pharoah, PDP et al.
MLA Citation
Palmieri, RT, Wilson, MA, Iversen, ES, Clyde, MA, Calingaert, B, Moorman, PG, Poole, C, Anderson, AR, Anderson, S, Anton-Culver, H, Beesley, J, Hogdall, E, Brewster, W, Carney, ME, Chen, X, Chenevix-Trench, G, Chang-Claude, J, Cunningham, JM, Dicioccio, RA, Doherty, JA, Easton, DF, Edlund, CK, Gayther, SA, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Goode, EL, Goodman, MT, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, CK, Hopkins, MP, Jenison, EL, Blaakaer, J, Lurie, G, McGuire, V, Menon, U, Moysich, KB, Ness, RB, Pearce, CL, and Pharoah, PDP et al. "Polymorphism in the IL18 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17.12 (December 2008): 3567-3572.
PMID
19064572
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
17
Issue
12
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
3567
End Page
3572
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0548

Breast cancer: hormones and other risk factors.

UNLABELLED: In North America and Northern Europe, breast cancer incidence rates begin increasing in the early reproductive years and continue climbing into the late seventies, whereas rates plateau after menopause in Japan and less developed countries. Female gender, age and country of birth are the strongest determinants of disease risk. Family history and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are important correlates of lifetime risk. Genetic polymorphisms associated with estrogen synthesis and metabolism are currently under study. Atypical hyperplasia and molecular alterations in benign breast lesions appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive carcinoma. In postmenopausal women, increased breast density on mammograms increases risk. Bone density and breast cancer are associated, presumably through the mechanism of endogenous estrogen levels. Serum estrogen levels are higher in breast cancer cases than controls. Many established risk factors for breast cancer may function through and endocrine mechanism. Current use of oral contraceptives and prolonged, current or recent use of hormone replacement therapy moderately increase risk. Tamoxifen and possibly other selective estrogen receptor modulators reduce breast cancer risk in high risk women. Relationships between various dietary micro and macronutrients and breast cancer have been suggested but require evaluation in clinical trials. Whereas alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk, most environmental factors, including polychlorinated compounds and electromagnetic fields, are not. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer etiology is becoming clearer through the study of molecular alterations in germline and somatic cell genes, and the interaction of these genes with steroid hormones and relevant growth factors. This knowledge should be useful for breast cancer prevention.

Authors
Hulka, BS; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Hulka, BS, and Moorman, PG. "Breast cancer: hormones and other risk factors." Maturitas 61.1-2 (September 2008): 203-213.
PMID
19434892
Source
pubmed
Published In
Maturitas
Volume
61
Issue
1-2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
203
End Page
213

Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer.

The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712 5' flanking CDKN2A, rs523349 in the 3' UTR of SRD5A2, D302H (rs1045485) in CASP8 and L10P (rs1982073) in TGFB1. Fourteen studies genotyped 4,624 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 8,113 controls of white non-Hispanic origin. A marginally significant association was found for RB1 when all studies were included [ordinal odds ratio (OR) 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.00) p = 0.041 and dominant OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.76-0.98) p = 0.025]; when the studies that originally suggested an association were excluded, the result was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded [ordinal OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) p = 0.027; dominant OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.24) p = 0.03]. The other 5 SNPs in BRCA2, CDKN2A, SRD5A2, CASP8 and TGFB1 showed no association with ovarian cancer risk; given the large sample size, these results can also be considered to be informative. These null results for SNPs identified from relatively large initial studies shows the importance of replicating associations by a consortium approach.

Authors
Ramus, SJ; Vierkant, RA; Johnatty, SE; Pike, MC; Van Den Berg, DJ; Wu, AH; Pearce, CL; Menon, U; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Gayther, SA; Dicioccio, RA; McGuire, V; Whittemore, AS; Song, H; Easton, DF; Pharoah, PDP; Garcia-Closas, M; Chanock, S; Lissowska, J; Brinton, L; Terry, KL; Cramer, DW; Tworoger, SS; Hankinson, SE; Berchuck, A; Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Cunningham, JM; Liebow, M; Kjaer, SK; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C; Blaakaer, J; Ness, RB; Moysich, KB; Edwards, RP; Carney, ME; Lurie, G et al.
MLA Citation
Ramus, SJ, Vierkant, RA, Johnatty, SE, Pike, MC, Van Den Berg, DJ, Wu, AH, Pearce, CL, Menon, U, Gentry-Maharaj, A, Gayther, SA, Dicioccio, RA, McGuire, V, Whittemore, AS, Song, H, Easton, DF, Pharoah, PDP, Garcia-Closas, M, Chanock, S, Lissowska, J, Brinton, L, Terry, KL, Cramer, DW, Tworoger, SS, Hankinson, SE, Berchuck, A, Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Cunningham, JM, Liebow, M, Kjaer, SK, Hogdall, E, Hogdall, C, Blaakaer, J, Ness, RB, Moysich, KB, Edwards, RP, Carney, ME, and Lurie, G et al. "Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer." Int J Cancer 123.2 (July 15, 2008): 380-388.
PMID
18431743
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Cancer
Volume
123
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
380
End Page
388
DOI
10.1002/ijc.23448

Weight gain after pre-menopausal hysterectomy

Authors
Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Myers, ER; Iversen, ES; Warren-White, N; Wang, F
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Myers, ER, Iversen, ES, Warren-White, N, and Wang, F. "Weight gain after pre-menopausal hysterectomy." June 1, 2008.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
167
Issue
11
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
S32
End Page
S32

Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Ovarian cancer is most frequently diagnosed in postmenopausal women; however, the strongest risk predictors, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, occur in most women in their twenties and thirties. Relatively few studies have examined how reproductive risk factors vary between pre- and postmenopausal ovarian cancer. The authors used data from a population-based, case-control study of ovarian cancer (896 cases, 967 controls) conducted in North Carolina from 1999 to 2006. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using unconditional logistic regression. Inverse associations with ovarian cancer were observed with duration of oral contraceptive use, later age at last use, and more recent use among premenopausal women; no significant associations were found for postmenopausal women. Analyses limited to oral contraceptive users showed that duration was a more significant predictor of risk than was timing of use. Parity was inversely associated with premenopausal but not postmenopausal ovarian cancer. Later age at pregnancy was associated with reduced risk for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Analyses among parous women showed that pregnancy timing was a stronger risk predictor than number of pregnancies. Findings suggest that associations between ovarian cancer and reproductive characteristics vary by menopausal status. Additional research is needed to further elucidate risk factors for postmenopausal disease.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Calingaert, B; Palmieri, RT; Iversen, ES; Bentley, RC; Halabi, S; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Calingaert, B, Palmieri, RT, Iversen, ES, Bentley, RC, Halabi, S, Berchuck, A, and Schildkraut, JM. "Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women." Am J Epidemiol 167.9 (May 1, 2008): 1059-1069.
PMID
18303003
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
167
Issue
9
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1059
End Page
1069
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwn006

Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer.

Risk factors for the newly identified "intrinsic" breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity.

Authors
Millikan, RC; Newman, B; Tse, C-K; Moorman, PG; Conway, K; Dressler, LG; Smith, LV; Labbok, MH; Geradts, J; Bensen, JT; Jackson, S; Nyante, S; Livasy, C; Carey, L; Earp, HS; Perou, CM
MLA Citation
Millikan, RC, Newman, B, Tse, C-K, Moorman, PG, Conway, K, Dressler, LG, Smith, LV, Labbok, MH, Geradts, J, Bensen, JT, Jackson, S, Nyante, S, Livasy, C, Carey, L, Earp, HS, and Perou, CM. "Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer." Breast Cancer Res Treat 109.1 (May 2008): 123-139.
PMID
17578664
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
109
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
123
End Page
139
DOI
10.1007/s10549-007-9632-6

Cyclin E overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer characterizes an etiologic subgroup.

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether cyclin E overexpression defines an etiologically distinct subgroup of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from 538 epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 629 controls enrolled in a population-based case-control study. Cyclin E protein overexpression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Case-control and case-case comparisons were done to evaluate the relationship between cyclin E overexpression and epidemiologic risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Case-control comparisons showed ovarian cancers with and without cyclin E overexpression have different associations with several epidemiologic risk factors. A dose-response relationship was observed between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and ovarian cancer that overexpressed cyclin E [OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0 for moderately high LOC (265-390 cycles) and OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5 for high LOC (>390 cycles) compared with low LOC (<265 cycles)], but no relationship was seen with cancers that lacked overexpression. The most important components of the LOC variable contributing to the differences in the association with the cyclin E subgroups of ovarian cancer were months of oral contraceptive use and months pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclin E overexpression is associated with a high number of LOC, largely influenced by oral contraceptive use and pregnancy. This suggests that cyclin E overexpression is a molecular signature characteristic of ovarian cancer cases that may arise via a pathway that involves ovulation-induced alterations.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Bland, AE; Halabi, S; Calingaert, B; Whitaker, R; Lee, PS; Elkins-Williams, T; Bentley, RC; Marks, JR; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Bland, AE, Halabi, S, Calingaert, B, Whitaker, R, Lee, PS, Elkins-Williams, T, Bentley, RC, Marks, JR, and Berchuck, A. "Cyclin E overexpression in epithelial ovarian cancer characterizes an etiologic subgroup." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17.3 (March 2008): 585-593.
PMID
18349276
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
17
Issue
3
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
585
End Page
593
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0596

Cyclin E overexpression relates to ovarian cancer histology but not to risk factors [2]

Authors
Schildraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Calingaert, B; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Schildraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Calingaert, B, and Berchuck, A. "Cyclin E overexpression relates to ovarian cancer histology but not to risk factors [2]." Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 17.7 (2008): 1841-1842.
Source
scival
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
17
Issue
7
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
1841
End Page
1842
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0491

Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer (Breast Cancer Research and Treatment DOI: 10.1007/s10549-007-9632-6)

Authors
Millikan, RC; Newman, B; Tse, CK; Moorman, PG; Conway, K; Dressler, LG; Smith, LV; Labbok, MH; Geradts, J; Bensen, JT; Jackson, S; Nyante, S; Livasy, C; Carey, L; Earp, HS; Perou, CM
MLA Citation
Millikan, RC, Newman, B, Tse, CK, Moorman, PG, Conway, K, Dressler, LG, Smith, LV, Labbok, MH, Geradts, J, Bensen, JT, Jackson, S, Nyante, S, Livasy, C, Carey, L, Earp, HS, and Perou, CM. "Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer (Breast Cancer Research and Treatment DOI: 10.1007/s10549-007-9632-6)." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 109.1 (2008): 141--.
Source
scival
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
109
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
141-
DOI
10.1007/s10549-007-9790-6

Oral contraceptives and survival in breast cancer patients aged 20 to 54 years.

Recent oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with modestly higher breast cancer incidence among younger women, but its impact on survival is unclear. This study examined the relationship between OC use before breast cancer diagnosis and survival. A population-based sample of 1,264 women aged 20 to 54 years with a first primary invasive breast cancer during 1990 to 1992 were followed up for 8 to 10 years. OC and covariate data were obtained by interviews conducted shortly after diagnosis and from medial records. All-cause mortality was ascertained through the National Death Index (n = 292 deaths). Age- and income-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by Cox regression methods. All-cause mortality was not associated with ever use of OCs or duration of use. Compared with nonusers, mortality estimates were elevated among women who were using OCs at diagnosis or stopped use in the previous year (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 0.95-2.61). The HR for use of high-dose estrogen pills within 5 years before diagnosis was double that of nonusers (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.29-4.41) or, if the most recent pill included the progestin levonorgestrel, compared with nonusers (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.91). Because subgroup estimates were based on small numbers of OC users, these results should be cautiously interpreted. Overall, most aspects of OC use did not seem to influence survival, although there is limited evidence that OC use just before diagnosis, particularly use of some pill types, may negatively impact survival in breast cancer patients aged 20 to 54 years.

Authors
Trivers, KF; Gammon, MD; Abrahamson, PE; Lund, MJ; Flagg, EW; Moorman, PG; Kaufman, JS; Cai, J; Porter, PL; Brinton, LA; Eley, JW; Coates, RJ
MLA Citation
Trivers, KF, Gammon, MD, Abrahamson, PE, Lund, MJ, Flagg, EW, Moorman, PG, Kaufman, JS, Cai, J, Porter, PL, Brinton, LA, Eley, JW, and Coates, RJ. "Oral contraceptives and survival in breast cancer patients aged 20 to 54 years." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16.9 (September 2007): 1822-1827.
PMID
17855700
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
16
Issue
9
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1822
End Page
1827
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0053

Age and menopausal effects of hormonal birth control and hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer risk.

It is unclear whether breast cancer risk varies by age and menopausal status in relation to use of hormonal birth control (HBC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), taken singly or cumulatively. The authors utilized data from 1,478 cases and 1,493 controls aged 20-98 years with known menopausal status, who had participated in a population-based, case-control study conducted on Long Island during 1996-1997. Exogenous hormone use over the lifecourse was assessed by use of memory aids. The authors examined associations among women in these subgroups: premenopausal (n = 968), postmenopausal <65 years (n = 1,045), and postmenopausal > or = 65 years (n = 958). Among premenopausal women, risk was increased for ever use of HBC (odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.81) or HRT (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.81) and was pronounced among women reporting use of both HBC and HRT (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.50, 4.46), long-term HRT use (OR = 3.93, 95% CI: 1.43, 10.84), or estrogen-plus-progestin therapy (OR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.45, 8.49). There was no effect of ever HBC use among postmenopausal women aged less than 65 years, but risk was modestly elevated for more than 5 years of HRT use (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.99). Among postmenopausal women aged 65 years or more, odds ratios for HBC or HRT use were around the null. These results emphasize that timing of exogenous hormone use is important. Women who used these hormones before menopause had elevated risks, but the harmful effects began to decline with age after menopause.

Authors
Shantakumar, S; Terry, MB; Paykin, A; Teitelbaum, SL; Britton, JA; Moorman, PG; Kritchevsky, SB; Neugut, AI; Gammon, MD
MLA Citation
Shantakumar, S, Terry, MB, Paykin, A, Teitelbaum, SL, Britton, JA, Moorman, PG, Kritchevsky, SB, Neugut, AI, and Gammon, MD. "Age and menopausal effects of hormonal birth control and hormone replacement therapy in relation to breast cancer risk." Am J Epidemiol 165.10 (May 15, 2007): 1187-1198.
PMID
17337757
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
165
Issue
10
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1187
End Page
1198
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwm006

Association between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival in younger women.

This analysis investigated whether reproductive factors such as age at menarche, parity, and timing and outcomes of pregnancies were associated with survival among women with breast cancer younger than 55 years. Female residents of Atlanta, Georgia, and central New Jersey who were diagnosed with a primary, incident invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 1992 and enrolled in a population-based study (n = 1,264) were followed for 8-10 years. Detailed exposure and covariate information was collected via in-person interviews administered shortly after diagnosis. Vital status as of January 1, 2000 was ascertained through the National Death Index via the state cancer registries (n = 292 deaths). Cox regression methods were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounders. Parity of 4 or more births, as compared with nulliparity, was positively associated with all-cause mortality, [HR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.09-2.67)]. Increased mortality was associated with having given birth within 5 years prior to diagnosis (5 years) [1.78 (1.28-2.47)], and was more pronounced among women with a pre-diagnostic body mass index of <25 kg/m2 [2.54 (1.61-4.00)]. Early age at menarche and early age at first birth also modestly increased mortality; history of miscarriage, induced abortion, and ever breastfeeding were not related to survival. These results may help elucidate breast cancer progression mechanisms and enable a better understanding of how reproductive characteristics influence breast cancer survival.

Authors
Trivers, KF; Gammon, MD; Abrahamson, PE; Lund, MJ; Flagg, EW; Kaufman, JS; Moorman, PG; Cai, J; Olshan, AF; Porter, PL; Brinton, LA; Eley, JW; Coates, RJ
MLA Citation
Trivers, KF, Gammon, MD, Abrahamson, PE, Lund, MJ, Flagg, EW, Kaufman, JS, Moorman, PG, Cai, J, Olshan, AF, Porter, PL, Brinton, LA, Eley, JW, and Coates, RJ. "Association between reproductive factors and breast cancer survival in younger women." Breast Cancer Res Treat 103.1 (May 2007): 93-102.
PMID
17004111
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
103
Issue
1
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
93
End Page
102
DOI
10.1007/s10549-006-9346-1

Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk among older women.

Reproductive factors have been shown to affect pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk differently, but whether there are additional age-specific differences among menopausal women as they age has not been clarified. We analyzed data from a large population-based case-control study that included 1,508 breast cancer cases and 1,556 controls, aged 20-98 years, who completed an in-home interviewer-administered questionnaire. The following subgroups were created to examine if the associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk varied by age- and menopausal-status: premenopausal (n=968), postmenopausal <65 years (n=1,045), postmenopausal >or=65 years (n=958). Among postmenopausal women >or=65 years, ever having breastfed decreased risk (odds ratio (OR)=0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.48, 0.92), and a strong dose-response relationship was observed for longer durations of breastfeeding (P trend=0.02), with the most pronounced protective effect observed for >or=14 months of breastfeeding (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.21,0.76). Late age at first birth (AFB) and older age at last birth (ALB) were associated with non-statistically significant increases in breast cancer risk in this older group, while late age at menarche and surgical menopause decreased risk. ORs for multiparity were close to the null. Among premenopausal women and postmenopausal women <65 years, multiparity significantly decreased risk, and older AFB nonsignificantly increased risk. Our findings suggest that the well-known protective effect of multiparity attenuates with older age. Moreover, breastfeeding, one of the few potentially modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, was an important factor in decreasing risk among older parous postmenopausal women.

Authors
Shantakumar, S; Terry, MB; Teitelbaum, SL; Britton, JA; Millikan, RC; Moorman, PG; Neugut, AI; Gammon, MD
MLA Citation
Shantakumar, S, Terry, MB, Teitelbaum, SL, Britton, JA, Millikan, RC, Moorman, PG, Neugut, AI, and Gammon, MD. "Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk among older women." Breast Cancer Res Treat 102.3 (May 2007): 365-374.
PMID
17033925
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
102
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
365
End Page
374
DOI
10.1007/s10549-006-9343-4

Statins and cancer risk: what do we know and where do we go from here?

The relationship between statin use and cancer risk has been evaluated in numerous observational studies and as a secondary outcome in randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of statins on cardiovascular outcomes. Although there are plausible biologic mechanisms to suggest that statins could inhibit cellular proliferation, the epidemiologic data do not show a consistent reduction in cancer risk among statin users. Despite the current lack of evidence for a chemopreventive effect, there are several methodologic considerations in the studies reported to date that prevent a definitive conclusion that statins do not reduce cancer risk. Given the widespread use of statins, continued monitoring of their risks and benefits is warranted.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Hamilton, RJ
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, and Hamilton, RJ. "Statins and cancer risk: what do we know and where do we go from here?." Epidemiology 18.2 (March 2007): 194-196.
PMID
17301705
Source
pubmed
Published In
Epidemiology
Volume
18
Issue
2
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
194
End Page
196
DOI
10.1097/01.ede.0000254699.31405.e2

Trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene and risk of ovarian cancer.

INTRODUCTION: Androgens may play a role in the development of ovarian cancers. Two trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms have been described in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene that may affect its function. Previous studies of ovarian cancer and AR repeat polymorphisms have been inconsistent. METHODS: We analyzed CAG and GGC repeat length polymorphisms in the AR gene using data from a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer that included 594 cases and 681 controls. Repeat lengths were determined by fluorescent DNA fragment analysis using ABI GeneScan software. Change point models were used to determine appropriate repeat length cutoff points by race (African American versus Caucasian) for both the shorter and longer CAG and GGC repeats. RESULTS: No relationship was observed between CAG repeat length and ovarian cancer among Caucasians. Among African Americans, having a short repeat length on either allele was associated with a 2-fold increase in ovarian cancer risk (age-adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.1). Having short CAG repeat lengths for both alleles was associated with a 5-fold increased risk for developing ovarian cancer (age-adjusted odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-1.7). No relationship with the GGC repeat length polymorphisms was observed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that having a short CAG repeat length in AR increases ovarian cancer risk in African Americans. The failure to observe this relationship in Caucasians may be due to the rarity of such short CAG alleles in this population or could reflect racial differences in disease etiology.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Murphy, SK; Palmieri, RT; Iversen, E; Moorman, PG; Huang, Z; Halabi, S; Calingaert, B; Gusberg, A; Marks, JR; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Murphy, SK, Palmieri, RT, Iversen, E, Moorman, PG, Huang, Z, Halabi, S, Calingaert, B, Gusberg, A, Marks, JR, and Berchuck, A. "Trinucleotide repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene and risk of ovarian cancer." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16.3 (March 2007): 473-480.
PMID
17372242
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
16
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
473
End Page
480
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0868

Risk factors for breast cancer characterized by the estrogen receptor alpha A908G (K303R) mutation.

INTRODUCTION: Estrogen is important in the development of breast cancer, and its biological effects are mediated primarily through the two estrogen receptors alpha and beta. A point mutation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene, ESR1, referred to as A908G or K303R, was originally identified in breast hyperplasias and was reported to be hypersensitive to estrogen. We recently detected this mutation at a low frequency of 6% in invasive breast tumors of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS). METHODS: In this report, we evaluated risk factors for invasive breast cancer classified according to the presence or absence of the ESR1 A908G mutation in the CBCS, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among younger and older white and African-American women in North Carolina. Of the 653 breast tumors evaluated, 37 were ESR1 A908G mutation-positive and 616 were mutation-negative. RESULTS: ESR1 A908G mutation-positive breast cancer was significantly associated with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15 to 6.28), whereas mutation-negative breast cancer was not. Comparison of the two case subgroups supported this finding (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.15 to 6.09). There was also the suggestion that longer duration of oral contraceptive (OC) use (OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.16 to 12.03; Ptrend = 0.02 for use of more than 10 years) and recent use of OCs (OR = 3.63, 95% CI = 0.80 to 16.45; Ptrend = 0.10 for use within 10 years) were associated with ESR1 A908G mutation-positive breast cancer; however, ORs for comparison of the two case subgroups were not statistically significant. Hormone replacement therapy use was inversely correlated with mutation-negative breast cancer, but the effect on mutation-positive cancer was unclear due to the small number of postmenopausal cases whose tumors carried the mutation. Mutation-negative breast cancer was associated with several reproductive factors, including younger age at menarche (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.94) and greater total estimated years of ovarian function (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.74). CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that OCs may interact with the ESR1 A908G mutant receptor to drive the development of some breast tumors.

Authors
Conway, K; Parrish, E; Edmiston, SN; Tolbert, D; Tse, C-K; Moorman, P; Newman, B; Millikan, RC
MLA Citation
Conway, K, Parrish, E, Edmiston, SN, Tolbert, D, Tse, C-K, Moorman, P, Newman, B, and Millikan, RC. "Risk factors for breast cancer characterized by the estrogen receptor alpha A908G (K303R) mutation." Breast Cancer Res 9.3 (2007): R36-.
PMID
17553133
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
R36
DOI
10.1186/bcr1731

Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

CONTEXT: Gene expression analysis has identified several breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER-), luminal A, and luminal B. OBJECTIVES: To determine population-based distributions and clinical associations for breast cancer subtypes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Immunohistochemical surrogates for each subtype were applied to 496 incident cases of invasive breast cancer from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (ascertained between May 1993 and December 1996), a population-based, case-control study that oversampled premenopausal and African American women. Subtype definitions were as follows: luminal A (ER+ and/or progesterone receptor positive [PR+], HER2-), luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+), basal-like (ER-, PR-, HER2-, cytokeratin 5/6 positive, and/or HER1+), HER2+/ER- (ER-, PR-, and HER2+), and unclassified (negative for all 5 markers). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We examined the prevalence of breast cancer subtypes within racial and menopausal subsets and determined their associations with tumor size, axillary nodal status, mitotic index, nuclear pleomorphism, combined grade, p53 mutation status, and breast cancer-specific survival. RESULTS: The basal-like breast cancer subtype was more prevalent among premenopausal African American women (39%) compared with postmenopausal African American women (14%) and non-African American women (16%) of any age (P<.001), whereas the luminal A subtype was less prevalent (36% vs 59% and 54%, respectively). The HER2+/ER- subtype did not vary with race or menopausal status (6%-9%). Compared with luminal A, basal-like tumors had more TP53 mutations (44% vs 15%, P<.001), higher mitotic index (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-21.7), more marked nuclear pleomorphism (OR, 9.7; 95% CI, 5.3-18.0), and higher combined grade (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 4.4-15.6). Breast cancer-specific survival differed by subtype (P<.001), with shortest survival among HER2+/ER- and basal-like subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Basal-like breast tumors occurred at a higher prevalence among premenopausal African American patients compared with postmenopausal African American and non-African American patients in this population-based study. A higher prevalence of basal-like breast tumors and a lower prevalence of luminal A tumors could contribute to the poor prognosis of young African American women with breast cancer.

Authors
Carey, LA; Perou, CM; Livasy, CA; Dressler, LG; Cowan, D; Conway, K; Karaca, G; Troester, MA; Tse, CK; Edmiston, S; Deming, SL; Geradts, J; Cheang, MCU; Nielsen, TO; Moorman, PG; Earp, HS; Millikan, RC
MLA Citation
Carey, LA, Perou, CM, Livasy, CA, Dressler, LG, Cowan, D, Conway, K, Karaca, G, Troester, MA, Tse, CK, Edmiston, S, Deming, SL, Geradts, J, Cheang, MCU, Nielsen, TO, Moorman, PG, Earp, HS, and Millikan, RC. "Race, breast cancer subtypes, and survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study." JAMA 295.21 (June 7, 2006): 2492-2502.
PMID
16757721
Source
pubmed
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
295
Issue
21
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
2492
End Page
2502
DOI
10.1001/jama.295.21.2492

COX-2 polymorphism, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and risk of colon cancer in African Americans (United States).

INTRODUCTION: The inducible Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme plays an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Recent reports suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COX-2 gene may alter enzyme function and in turn modify an individual's risk of colon cancer. We explored the association between the COX-2 Val511Ala SNP and risk of colon cancer among 240 African American cases and 326 African American controls in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. METHODS: We used unconditional logistic regression models to determine the odds ratios (ORs) for genotype and risk of colon cancer. RESULTS: We observed a non-statistically significant inverse association between any Ala COX-2 genotype and risk of colon cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.33, 1.16) among African Americans. The inverse association was present among non-regular NSAID users, use < or = 3 times/week, (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.32, 1.37) and regular NSAID users, use > or =3 times/week for > or =3 months, (OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.11, 1.54). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the COX-2 Val511Ala SNP does not antagonize the effect of NSAIDs on colon cancer risk and provides support that NSAID use and the COX-2 Val511Ala SNP may contribute to a reduced risk of colon cancer among African Americans.

Authors
Sansbury, LB; Millikan, RC; Schroeder, JC; North, KE; Moorman, PG; Keku, TO; de Cotret, AR; Player, J; Sandler, RS
MLA Citation
Sansbury, LB, Millikan, RC, Schroeder, JC, North, KE, Moorman, PG, Keku, TO, de Cotret, AR, Player, J, and Sandler, RS. "COX-2 polymorphism, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and risk of colon cancer in African Americans (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 17.3 (April 2006): 257-266.
PMID
16489533
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
17
Issue
3
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
257
End Page
266
DOI
10.1007/s10552-005-0417-0

Analgesic drug use and risk of ovarian cancer.

BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic research suggests that analgesic use may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer, although results are not consistent. METHODS: In a population-based, case-control study, we analyzed data from 586 ovarian cancer cases and 627 matched controls in North Carolina for the relationship between analgesic use and ovarian cancer risk. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Use of any nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including aspirin, within 5 years of diagnosis/interview was found to be associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer (adjusted OR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56-0.92). For use of acetaminophen, the OR was 0.78 (95% CI = 0.56-1.08). CONCLUSIONS: These data support an inverse relationship between the use of both nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and acetaminophen and the risk of ovarian cancer.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Moorman, PG; Halabi, S; Calingaert, B; Marks, JR; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Moorman, PG, Halabi, S, Calingaert, B, Marks, JR, and Berchuck, A. "Analgesic drug use and risk of ovarian cancer." Epidemiology 17.1 (January 2006): 104-107.
PMID
16357602
Source
pubmed
Published In
Epidemiology
Volume
17
Issue
1
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
104
End Page
107

Cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphism (Val511Ala), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer in African American women.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Sesay, J; Nwosu, V; Kane, JG; de Cotret, AR; Worley, K; Millikan, R
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Sesay, J, Nwosu, V, Kane, JG, de Cotret, AR, Worley, K, and Millikan, R. "Cyclooxygenase 2 polymorphism (Val511Ala), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer in African American women." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14.12 (December 2005): 3013-3014.
PMID
16365029
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
14
Issue
12
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
3013
End Page
3014
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0291

Anthropometric measurements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American and White women.

Previous studies of anthropometric factors and ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent and none have evaluated the association among African-American women. Data from a population-based, case-control study of 593 cases and 628 controls were used to evaluate ovarian cancer risk in relation to weight, height, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed and established risk factors were adjusted for using logistic regression models, stratified by race. Among all races, weight at age 18, WHR, weight and BMI one year prior to interview were associated with elevated ovarian cancer risk. When stratified by race, the association between WHR and ovarian was similar among Whites and among African Americans. However, African-American women in the fourth quartile of height had an elevated risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.3-7.8), but this risk was not apparent in Whites (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.7-1.4). These findings support the hypothesis that obesity is an important risk factor of ovarian cancer among African-Americans and Whites and also suggest that height may be a risk factor specific to African-Americans.

Authors
Hoyo, C; Berchuck, A; Halabi, S; Bentley, RC; Moorman, P; Calingaert, B; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Hoyo, C, Berchuck, A, Halabi, S, Bentley, RC, Moorman, P, Calingaert, B, and Schildkraut, JM. "Anthropometric measurements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American and White women." Cancer Causes Control 16.8 (October 2005): 955-963.
PMID
16132804
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
16
Issue
8
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
955
End Page
963
DOI
10.1007/s10552-005-3205-y

Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and risk of colon cancer in a population-based, case-control study of African Americans and Whites.

African Americans have the highest colon cancer incidence and mortality rates among all US ethnic groups. Epidemiologic studies suggest that use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer, but no study to date with adequate sample size has reported on the association among African Americans. The authors examined the association between NSAID use and risk of colon cancer in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina that enrolled 731 African-American (294 cases, 437 controls) and 960 White (349 cases, 611 controls) participants between 1996 and 2000. Odds ratios were calculated using unconditional logistic regression for categories of NSAIDs and colon cancer risk. Inverse associations between regular NSAID use and colon cancer were similar for African Americans (odds ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.77) and Whites (odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.83) but stronger for women than men. Inverse associations were slightly weaker for occasional versus regular NSAID use, but they were similar for aspirin and nonaspirin NSAID use. These results add new knowledge suggesting that the protective effect of NSAIDs against colon cancer is similar among African Americans and Whites.

Authors
Sansbury, LB; Millikan, RC; Schroeder, JC; Moorman, PG; North, KE; Sandler, RS
MLA Citation
Sansbury, LB, Millikan, RC, Schroeder, JC, Moorman, PG, North, KE, and Sandler, RS. "Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and risk of colon cancer in a population-based, case-control study of African Americans and Whites." Am J Epidemiol 162.6 (September 15, 2005): 548-558.
PMID
16093288
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
162
Issue
6
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
548
End Page
558
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwi248

Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women.

BACKGROUND: Middle-aged African American women have the highest incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and the lowest adherence to pap smear screening. METHODS: In 2001, we identified factors associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations using three focus group interviews and subsequently developed a questionnaire administered to 144 African American women aged 45 to 65 years. RESULTS: The perception that the Pap test was painful was associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: 1.67-13.7). Difficulty to pay for the office visit coupled with perceived pain was associated with a nearly sixfold increase in risk of non-adherence (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 2.8-15.5). Previously identified barriers to screening including lower education and socioeconomic status, poor access to care, knowledge of and exposure to known risk factors of invasive cervical cancer, cancer fatalism, and perceived racism were not independently associated with non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, among middle-aged African American women, future interventions addressing pain during a Pap test will likely increase acceptability of and adherence to cervical cancer screening. Pain could be addressed either by providing information during the pap test and/or using smaller lubricated speculums.

Authors
Hoyo, C; Yarnall, KSH; Skinner, CS; Moorman, PG; Sellers, D; Reid, L
MLA Citation
Hoyo, C, Yarnall, KSH, Skinner, CS, Moorman, PG, Sellers, D, and Reid, L. "Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women." Prev Med 41.2 (August 2005): 439-445.
PMID
15917039
Source
pubmed
Published In
Preventive Medicine
Volume
41
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
439
End Page
445
DOI
10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.11.021

Menopausal hormones and risk of ovarian cancer.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if use of menopausal hormones was associated with ovarian cancer and if risk varied by type of hormone used. STUDY DESIGN: Data from a population-based, case-control study of ovarian cancer in North Carolina (364 cases, 370 controls, all postmenopausal) were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between menopausal hormones and ovarian cancer. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs associated with various patterns of hormone use. RESULTS: Ovarian cancer cases were more likely than controls to report long-term use (>or=10 years) of unopposed estrogens (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.1). No relationship was observed for estrogen always used with progestin. CONCLUSION: Hormone replacement therapy used according to current recommendations should not increase risk of ovarian cancer; however, clinicians should be aware of possible increased risk among women with a long history of estrogen replacement therapy.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Calingaert, B; Halabi, S; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Calingaert, B, Halabi, S, and Berchuck, A. "Menopausal hormones and risk of ovarian cancer." Am J Obstet Gynecol 193.1 (July 2005): 76-82.
PMID
16021062
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Volume
193
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
76
End Page
82
DOI
10.1016/j.ajog.2004.11.013

Transforming growth factor beta receptor I polyalanine repeat polymorphism does not increase ovarian cancer risk.

OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the 6A allele of the type I TGFbeta receptor (TGFbetaR1) polyalanine repeat tract polymorphism may increase susceptibility to various types of cancer including ovarian cancer. METHODS: The TGFbetaR1 polyalanine polymorphism was genotyped in 588 ovarian cancer cases and 614 controls from a population-based case-control study in North Carolina. RESULTS: Significant racial differences in the frequency of the 6A allele were observed between Caucasian (10.7%) and African-American (2.4%) controls (P < 0.001). One or two copies of the 6A allele of the TGFbetaR1 polyalanine polymorphism was carried by 18% of all controls and 19% of cases, and there was no association with ovarian cancer risk (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.44). The odds ratio for 6A homozygotes was 1.81 (95% CI 0.655.06), but these comprised only 0.98% of controls and 1.70% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The 6A allele of the TGFbetaR1 polyalanine polymorphism does not appear to increase ovarian cancer risk. Larger studies would be needed to exclude the possibility that the small fraction of individuals who are 6A homozygotes have an increased risk of ovarian or other cancers.

Authors
Spillman, MA; Schildkraut, JM; Halabi, S; Moorman, P; Calingaert, B; Bentley, RC; Marks, JR; Murphy, S; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Spillman, MA, Schildkraut, JM, Halabi, S, Moorman, P, Calingaert, B, Bentley, RC, Marks, JR, Murphy, S, and Berchuck, A. "Transforming growth factor beta receptor I polyalanine repeat polymorphism does not increase ovarian cancer risk." Gynecol Oncol 97.2 (May 2005): 543-549.
PMID
15863158
Source
pubmed
Published In
Gynecologic Oncology
Volume
97
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
543
End Page
549
DOI
10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.01.025

Antidepressant medication use [corrected] and risk of ovarian cancer.

OBJECTIVE: It has been hypothesized that antidepressants may enhance cancer growth. Previous studies of antidepressant use and ovarian cancer have been inconsistent and have been limited in their ability to examine the association with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are currently the antidepressants most commonly prescribed. The objective of this paper was to evaluate whether women with ovarian cancer were more likely to report past use of antidepressants than control women. METHODS: Antidepressant use was assessed in a population-based, case-control study of ovarian cancer (593 cases, 628 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with antidepressant use overall and by subcategories of antidepressants. RESULTS: Antidepressant use was reported by 18% of cases and 20% of controls. No increased risk was observed for ever use of any type of antidepressant (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.2) or for SSRIs (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.7-1.5). There also was no evidence of increased risk with longer duration of use. Our study had greater than 80% power to detect an OR as small as 1.5. Thus, even a modest increase in risk associated with antidepressant use can be excluded with these data. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that antidepressants do not have a significant effect on ovarian cancer risk. In particular, the data suggest that SSRIs, which are the most commonly used class of antidepressants, are not associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Berchuck, A; Calingaert, B; Halabi, S; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Berchuck, A, Calingaert, B, Halabi, S, and Schildkraut, JM. "Antidepressant medication use [corrected] and risk of ovarian cancer." Obstet Gynecol 105.4 (April 2005): 725-730.
PMID
15802397
Source
pubmed
Published In
Obstetrics & Gynecology (Elsevier)
Volume
105
Issue
4
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
725
End Page
730
DOI
10.1097/01.AOG.0000157113.98061.eb

IGF1 (CA)19 repeat and IGFBP3 -202 A/C genotypes and the risk of prostate cancer in Black and White men.

We investigated the relationship between the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) cytosine-adenine repeat (CA)(19) polymorphism located upstream of the gene's transcription start site, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) -202 A/C promoter region polymorphism, and prostate cancer risk in Black and White men. Study subjects were U.S. veterans ages 41 to 75 years identified at the Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center over a 2.5-year period. Controls (n = 93) were frequency matched to cases (n = 100) based on race (Black or White) and age. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. For Blacks and Whites combined, an inverse association between prostate cancer and being homozygous for the most common IGF1 repeat allele, (CA)(19), (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7) was observed. Similar associations were noted for both Blacks (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.0-0.8) and Whites (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-1.6) separately. No statistically significant associations between the IGFBP3 C allele and prostate cancer were noted for Blacks (adjusted OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.8-6.2) or Whites (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.3-3.1). The prevalence of the homozygous IGF1 (CA)(19) genotype was much lower in Black controls (21%) than White controls (46%), which may, in part, explain the increased prostate cancer incidence in Black versus White men. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Demark-Wahnefried, W; Wenham, RM; Grubber, J; Jeffreys, AS; Grambow, SC; Marks, JR; Moorman, PG; Hoyo, C; Ali, S; Walther, PJ
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Demark-Wahnefried, W, Wenham, RM, Grubber, J, Jeffreys, AS, Grambow, SC, Marks, JR, Moorman, PG, Hoyo, C, Ali, S, and Walther, PJ. "IGF1 (CA)19 repeat and IGFBP3 -202 A/C genotypes and the risk of prostate cancer in Black and White men." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14.2 (February 2005): 403-408.
PMID
15734965
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
14
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
403
End Page
408
DOI
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0426

Comparative analysis of breast cancer risk factors among African-American women and White women.

The authors assessed risk factor profiles among 1,505 African-American and 1,809 White women in the 1993-2001 Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Multiple logistic regression models for case-control data were used to estimate odds ratios for several factors. Racial differences were observed in the prevalence of many breast cancer risk factors among both younger (aged 20-49 years) and older (aged 50-74 years) women. For older women, the magnitude and direction of associations were generally similar for African-American and White women, but important racial differences were observed among younger women. In particular, multiparity was associated with increased risk of breast cancer among younger African-American women (for three or four pregnancies: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 2.6; for five or more pregnancies: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.6, 3.1) but not among younger White women (for three or four pregnancies: OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.4, 1.2; for five or more pregnancies: OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.2, 3.0). The relations with age at first full-term pregnancy and nulliparity also varied by race. Case-only analyses before and after further adjustment for tumor stage and hormone receptor status revealed little effect on results. Hence, racial variations in both prevalences of and risks associated with particular factors may contribute to the higher incidence of breast cancer among younger African-American women.

Authors
Hall, IJ; Moorman, PG; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Hall, IJ, Moorman, PG, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Comparative analysis of breast cancer risk factors among African-American women and White women." Am J Epidemiol 161.1 (January 1, 2005): 40-51.
PMID
15615914
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
161
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
40
End Page
51
DOI
10.1093/aje/kwh331

Erratum: Antidepressant medication use for and risk of ovarian cancer (Obstetrics and Gynecology (2005) 105 (725-730))

Authors
Moorman, PG; Berchuck, A; Calingaert, B; Halabi, S; Schildkraut, M
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Berchuck, A, Calingaert, B, Halabi, S, and Schildkraut, M. "Erratum: Antidepressant medication use for and risk of ovarian cancer (Obstetrics and Gynecology (2005) 105 (725-730))." Obstetrics and Gynecology 105.6 (2005): 1495--.
Source
scival
Published In
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume
105
Issue
6
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1495-
DOI
10.1097/01.AOG.0000151956.00804.78

Association of aspirin use and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk.

Authors
Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG. "Association of aspirin use and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk." JAMA 292.12 (September 22, 2004): 1426-. (Letter)
PMID
15383504
Source
pubmed
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
292
Issue
12
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
1426
DOI
10.1001/jama.292.12.1426-a

Racial differences in enrolment in a cancer genetics registry.

BACKGROUND: Lower enrolment of minorities into research studies has been reported frequently. Most studies have little information about nonparticipants, making it difficult to identify characteristics associated with enrolment and how they might vary by race. METHODS: Women who had previously participated in a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in North Carolina were invited to enroll in a cancer genetics registry. Detailed questionnaire data on sociodemographic characteristics and cancer risk factors were available for all women. We compared characteristics of women who agreed to be in the registry with those who were deceased, were unlocatable, or declined enrolment. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of enrolment. RESULTS: Enrolment rates were markedly lower among African Americans than Whites (15% and 36%, respectively) due to both lower contact rates (41% versus 63%) and lower enrolment rates among those contacted (37% versus 58%). Logistic regression models suggested that racial differences in enrolment were not due to socioeconomic characteristics or other cancer risk factors; race was the only significant predictor of enrolment in multivariable models (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Although all women had previously taken part in a research study, African American women were less likely to enroll in the cancer genetics registry than White women. A possible explanation of these findings is that studies of genetics may present particular concerns for African Americans. Further research is needed to identify attitudes and issues that present barriers to participation among minorities.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Skinner, CS; Evans, JP; Newman, B; Sorenson, JR; Calingaert, B; Susswein, L; Crankshaw, TS; Hoyo, C; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Skinner, CS, Evans, JP, Newman, B, Sorenson, JR, Calingaert, B, Susswein, L, Crankshaw, TS, Hoyo, C, and Schildkraut, JM. "Racial differences in enrolment in a cancer genetics registry." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13.8 (August 2004): 1349-1354.
PMID
15298957
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
13
Issue
8
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
1349
End Page
1354

Consumption of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer: a review of the literature.

Differences in eating patterns and breast cancer rates across countries suggest that several dietary components, including dairy products, could affect breast cancer risk. However, dairy products are a diverse food group in terms of the factors that could potentially influence risk. Some dairy products, such as whole milk and many types of cheese, have a relatively high saturated fat content, which may increase risk. Moreover, milk products may contain contaminants such as pesticides, which have carcinogenic potential, and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor I, which have been shown to promote breast cancer cell growth. In contrast, the calcium and vitamin D contents of dairy products have been hypothesized to reduce breast cancer risk. We reviewed the current epidemiologic literature on the relation between dairy product intakes and breast cancer risk, focusing primarily on the results of cohort and case-control studies. Most of the studies reviewed showed no consistent pattern of increased or decreased breast cancer risk with a high consumption of dairy products as a whole or when broken down into high-fat and low-fat dairy products, milk, cheese, or butter. Measurement error may have attenuated any modest association with dairy products. The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a strong association between the consumption of milk or other dairy products and breast cancer risk.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Terry, PD
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, and Terry, PD. "Consumption of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer: a review of the literature." Am J Clin Nutr 80.1 (July 2004): 5-14. (Review)
PMID
15213021
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume
80
Issue
1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
5
End Page
14

Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case-control study of African Americans and whites.

INTRODUCTION: A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. METHODS: We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case-control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Carolina. Genotypes were evaluated for 2025 cases (760 African Americans and 1265 whites) and for 1812 controls (677 African Americans and 1135 whites). RESULTS: The odds ratio for MnSOD Ala/Ala versus any MnSOD Val genotypes was not elevated in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-1.2) or in whites (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8-1.2). Greater than additive joint effects were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype and smoking, radiation to the chest, and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Antagonism was observed between the Ala/Ala genotype and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The MnSOD genotype may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer in the presence of specific environmental exposures. These results provide further evidence for the importance of reactive oxygen species and of oxidative DNA damage in the etiology of breast cancer.

Authors
Millikan, RC; Player, J; de Cotret, AR; Moorman, P; Pittman, G; Vannappagari, V; Tse, C-KJ; Keku, T
MLA Citation
Millikan, RC, Player, J, de Cotret, AR, Moorman, P, Pittman, G, Vannappagari, V, Tse, C-KJ, and Keku, T. "Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case-control study of African Americans and whites." Breast Cancer Res 6.4 (2004): R264-R274.
PMID
15217492
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research
Volume
6
Issue
4
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
R264
End Page
R274
DOI
10.1186/bcr786

Association of aspirin use and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk [1] (multiple letters)

Authors
Moorman, PG; Woloshin, S; Schwartz, LM; Terry, MB; Gammon, M; Neugut, AI
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Woloshin, S, Schwartz, LM, Terry, MB, Gammon, M, and Neugut, AI. "Association of aspirin use and hormone receptor status with breast cancer risk [1] (multiple letters)." Journal of the American Medical Association 292.12 (2004): 1426-1427.
PMID
15383505
Source
scival
Published In
Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
292
Issue
12
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
1426
End Page
1427

Association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast.

OBJECTIVE: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been consistently associated with reduced colon cancer risk. Associations with other cancer sites, particularly breast cancer, have been less consistent. This study's objective was to examine the relationship between use of non-prescription and prescription NSAIDs and breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based, case-control study conducted in North Carolina between 1996 and 2000 to examine the association between NSAID use and breast cancer. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately for invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast. FINDINGS: NSAID use was inversely associated with invasive breast cancer (multivariable adjusted OR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3-0.6). Inverse associations were apparent for both prescription and non-prescription medications, and for occasional as well as regular use of NSAIDs. Inverse associations also were observed with carcinoma in situ, however the effects were somewhat weaker. INTERPRETATION: Our study adds to the accumulating, but somewhat inconsistent evidence that NSAIDs may reduce the risk of breast cancer. Future studies should work to define the most efficacious agents and determine whether genetic, lifestyle, or other characteristics influence their anti-carcinogenic properties.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Grubber, JM; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Grubber, JM, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast." Cancer Causes Control 14.10 (December 2003): 915-922.
PMID
14750530
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
14
Issue
10
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
915
End Page
922

Antidepressant medications and their association with invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast.

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals have suggested that antidepressants may promote the growth of mammary tumors, but epidemiologic data have not shown consistent associations between antidepressant use and breast cancer. METHODS: We analyzed data from a population-based, case-control study conducted in North Carolina from 1996 to 2000 to examine the association between antidepressant use and breast cancer. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) separately for invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ. RESULTS: Over 20% of both cases and controls reported having ever used antidepressants. Overall, women with invasive breast cancer did not report antidepressant use more frequently than controls (OR = 1.0; CI = 0.7-1.2). There was a suggestion that use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants for 36 months or more was more common among the breast cancer cases (OR = 2.7; CI = 0.9-7.9). Carcinoma in situ cases reported antidepressant use less frequently than controls (OR = 0.6; CI = 0.4-0.8). No consistent relation was observed between duration of use and carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSIONS: Antidepressant use in general was not related to an increased risk of breast cancer. There may be increased risk associated with long-term use of SSRIs. Continued monitoring of this relation is warranted, given the high prevalence of use of these drugs in the general population.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Grubber, JM; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Grubber, JM, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Antidepressant medications and their association with invasive breast cancer and carcinoma in situ of the breast." Epidemiology 14.3 (May 2003): 307-314.
PMID
12859031
Source
pubmed
Published In
Epidemiology
Volume
14
Issue
3
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
307
End Page
314

No relationship between ovarian cancer risk and progesterone receptor gene polymorphism in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina.

Authors
Lancaster, JM; Wenham, RM; Halabi, S; Calingaert, B; Marks, JR; Moorman, PG; Bentley, RC; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Lancaster, JM, Wenham, RM, Halabi, S, Calingaert, B, Marks, JR, Moorman, PG, Bentley, RC, Berchuck, A, and Schildkraut, JM. "No relationship between ovarian cancer risk and progesterone receptor gene polymorphism in a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12.3 (March 2003): 226-227.
PMID
12646513
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
12
Issue
3
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
226
End Page
227

Ovulation and ovarian cancer: a comparison of two methods for calculating lifetime ovulatory cycles (United States).

OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods for calculating lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) to determine if more detailed menstrual cycle information results in stronger associations with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using data from 232 cases and 242 controls in a population-based study of ovarian cancer, we compared a standard method for calculating LOC with a second method that had more detailed information on menstrual characteristics. Odds ratios for ovarian cancer by number of LOC were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The average number of LOC was 29 fewer for the second method that had more detailed menstrual cycle information, as compared to the standard method (p < 0.0001). The difference was due primarily to the second method considering episodes of missed/irregular periods. Associations between LOC and ovarian cancer were weaker for the second method than the standard method. Further analyses suggested that a reduced number of ovulatory cycles due to menstrual irregularity was associated with increased ovarian cancer risk, in contrast to the protective effects observed for fewer ovulatory cycles due to pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: Obtaining additional details on menstrual factors that affect LOC, particularly missed or irregular cycles, provides important information on ovarian cancer risk. Our data suggest that episodes of anovulation due to menstrual disturbances should be evaluated separately from anovulation due to pregnancy or oral contraceptive use.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Schildkraut, JM; Calingaert, B; Halabi, S; Vine, MF; Berchuck, A
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Schildkraut, JM, Calingaert, B, Halabi, S, Vine, MF, and Berchuck, A. "Ovulation and ovarian cancer: a comparison of two methods for calculating lifetime ovulatory cycles (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 13.9 (November 2002): 807-811.
PMID
12462545
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
13
Issue
9
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
807
End Page
811

Impact of progestin and estrogen potency in oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk.

BACKGROUND: Oral contraceptive (OC) use is associated with a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer, but the mechanism for the risk reduction has not been well defined. In this study, we investigate the relationship between the progestin and estrogen potency in combination OCs and the risk of developing ovarian cancer. METHODS: The study included 390 case subjects with epithelial ovarian cancer and 2865 control subjects, between 20 and 54 years of age, identified from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between ovarian cancer risk and combination OC formulations while controlling for potential confounders. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: With users of high-progestin/high-estrogen potency OC as the referent group, users of low-progestin/high-estrogen potency formulations (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2 to 3.7) and low-progestin/low-estrogen potency formulations (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 0.9 to 3.0) had a higher risk of ovarian cancer than users of high-progestin/high-estrogen potency formulation. Low-progestin potency OC formulations were associated with a statistically significant higher risk than high-progestin potency formulations (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.3 to 3.9). This association was seen even among users of short duration. CONCLUSION: The combination OC formulations with high-progestin potency appear to be associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk than those with low-progestin potency. Mechanisms underlying this reduction may include inhibition of ovulation and/or some direct biologic effects of the progestin.

Authors
Schildkraut, JM; Calingaert, B; Marchbanks, PA; Moorman, PG; Rodriguez, GC
MLA Citation
Schildkraut, JM, Calingaert, B, Marchbanks, PA, Moorman, PG, and Rodriguez, GC. "Impact of progestin and estrogen potency in oral contraceptives on ovarian cancer risk." J Natl Cancer Inst 94.1 (January 2, 2002): 32-38.
PMID
11773280
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume
94
Issue
1
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
32
End Page
38

Making epidemiologic studies responsive to the needs of participants and communities: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study experience.

In this report, we present the results of surveys administered to participants and nonparticipants in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS). Surveys and structured interviews were administered to determine women's concerns regarding participation in research studies, access to health care, and beliefs regarding causes of breast cancer. Survey results showed the highest concern for the growing number of women diagnosed with breast cancer in North Carolina and potential environmental agents that may cause breast cancer. Negative responses were noted for time constraints related to participation and lack of familiarity with epidemiologic research; another concern noted was the lack of centralized information regarding breast cancer treatment. These issues were addressed by (1) developing a web site that provided background information about the CBCS, summaries of published study results, and information about the etiology of breast cancer; and (2) creating a statewide, comprehensive breast cancer resource directory for women who need information about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and support. These two projects were carried out in collaboration with breast cancer advocates, and demonstrate the important role that advocates can play in making epidemiologic research more responsive to the needs of communities.

Authors
Plummer, P; Jackson, S; Konarski, J; Mahanna, E; Dunmore, C; Regan, G; Mattingly, D; Parker, B; Williams, S; Andrews, C; Vannapppagari, V; Hall, S; Deming, S; Hodgson, E; Moorman, P; Newman, B; Millikan, R
MLA Citation
Plummer, P, Jackson, S, Konarski, J, Mahanna, E, Dunmore, C, Regan, G, Mattingly, D, Parker, B, Williams, S, Andrews, C, Vannapppagari, V, Hall, S, Deming, S, Hodgson, E, Moorman, P, Newman, B, and Millikan, R. "Making epidemiologic studies responsive to the needs of participants and communities: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study experience." Environ Mol Mutagen 39.2-3 (2002): 96-101.
PMID
11921175
Source
pubmed
Published In
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Volume
39
Issue
2-3
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
96
End Page
101

Oral contraceptives and breast cancer among African-american women and white women.

The higher incidence of breast cancer among African-American women younger than 50 as compared to white women points to the need to examine exposures that are common among younger women, including exposure to oral contraceptives (OC). We examined patterns of OC use and their associations with breast cancer in a population-based, case-control study conducted in North Carolina between 1993 and 1996. The study population was comprised of 858 cases and 789 controls, of whom 40% were African-American women. There was little evidence that breast cancer was associated with OC use among older women (age >50) of either race, most of whom discontinued use in the distant past. Among younger women, there was a modest, but nonsignificant, increase in risk associated with ever use of OCs for both African-American and white women. There was a trend of increasing risks with more recent use among African-American women, whereas no such trend was apparent for white women. Overall, we found more substantial age differences than race differences in patterns of OC use and the risk of breast cancer associated with their use. The similarity of the associations between African-American and white women suggest that racial differences in breast cancer incidence are not likely to be attributable to OC use.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Oral contraceptives and breast cancer among African-american women and white women." J Natl Med Assoc 93.9 (September 2001): 329-334.
PMID
11560288
Source
pubmed
Published In
Journal of the National Medical Association
Volume
93
Issue
9
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
329
End Page
334

Prognostic significance of the number of lymph nodes examined in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma.

BACKGROUND: A recent report suggested that the number of lymph nodes examined was a strong predictor of survival in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma. Among women who had >or= 20 lymph nodes examined, the risk of dying from breast carcinoma within 5 years was increased nearly 4-fold compared with women who had fewer lymph nodes examined. Because these findings were based on a relatively small cohort of patients, corroborative studies with larger patient populations were needed. METHODS: The authors studied the relation between the number of lymph nodes examined and breast carcinoma survival among 911 women with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma with a median length of follow-up of 84 months. The association between other prognostic indicators and survival and the number of lymph nodes examined also was investigated. RESULTS: The number of lymph nodes examined was not found to be associated with either 5-year or long-term survival. The proportion of women dying from breast carcinoma was the same (8%) in both groups (those patients with >or= 20 lymph nodes examined vs. those in whom < 20 lymph nodes were examined) and the hazard ratio was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.64). CONCLUSIONS: In this larger study population, the authors failed to confirm the findings of an earlier investigation in which having a larger number of lymph nodes examined was associated with poorer survival. This finding suggests that it is unlikely the number of lymph nodes examined is an important prognostic indicator in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Hamza, A; Marks, JR; Olson, JA
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Hamza, A, Marks, JR, and Olson, JA. "Prognostic significance of the number of lymph nodes examined in patients with lymph node-negative breast carcinoma." Cancer 91.12 (June 15, 2001): 2258-2262.
PMID
11413513
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer
Volume
91
Issue
12
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
2258
End Page
2262

Comparison of two methods for calculating lifetime ovulatory cycles.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Calingaert, B; Vine, M; Halabi, S; Berchuck, A; Schildkraut, JM
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Calingaert, B, Vine, M, Halabi, S, Berchuck, A, and Schildkraut, JM. "Comparison of two methods for calculating lifetime ovulatory cycles." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY 153.11 (June 1, 2001): S138-S138.
Source
wos-lite
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
153
Issue
11
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
S138
End Page
S138

Vitamin supplement use and breast cancer in a North Carolina population.

OBJECTIVE: Laboratory data suggest that several different vitamins may inhibit the growth of mammary cancers, however epidemiologic data on the relationship between vitamin supplement use and breast cancer are inconsistent. We examined the association between self-reported vitamin supplement use and breast cancer among black women and white women. DESIGN AND SETTING: The data came from a population-based, case-control study conducted in North Carolina between 1993 and 1996. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for breast cancer associated with the use of multivitamins or individual vitamin supplements. SUBJECTS: Eligible cases were aged 20 to 74, and approximately 40% of the study population were black women. The analyses included 861 cases and 790 controls. RESULTS: Among all women, there was little evidence for an association between any vitamin supplement and breast cancer. Modest inverse associations were observed among white women for use of multivitamins 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-1.12), vitamin C 95% CI: 0.54-1.14) and vitamin E 95% CI: 0.49-1.13). There was no evidence that vitamin supplements reduced the risk of breast cancer among black women. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided very limited support for the hypothesis that vitamin supplements may reduce the risk of breast cancer. Although dietary factors are likely an important influence in breast cancer aetiology, reductions in risk are most likely to be achieved through dietary modification rather than through vitamin supplementation.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Ricciuti, MF; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Ricciuti, MF, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Vitamin supplement use and breast cancer in a North Carolina population." Public Health Nutr 4.3 (June 2001): 821-827.
PMID
11415490
Source
pubmed
Published In
Public health nutrition
Volume
4
Issue
3
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
821
End Page
827

Breast cancer: hormones and other risk factors.

UNLABELLED: In North America and Northern Europe, breast cancer incidence rates begin increasing in the early reproductive years and continue climbing into the late seventies, whereas rates plateau after menopause in japan and less developed countries. Female gender, age and country of birth are the strongest determinants of disease risk. Family history and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are important correlates of lifetime risk. Genetic polymorphisms associated with estrogen synthesis and metabolism are currently under study. Atypical hyperplasia and molecular alterations in benign breast lesions appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of invasive carcinoma. In postmenopausal women, increased breast density on mammograms increases risk. Bone density and breast cancer are associated, presumably through the mechanism of endogenous estrogen levels. Serum estrogen levels are higher in breast cancer cases than controls. Many established risk factors for breast cancer may function through and endocrine mechanism. Current use of oral contraceptives and prolonged, current or recent use of hormone replacement therapy moderately increase risk. Tamoxifen and possibly other selective estrogen receptor modulators reduce breast cancer risk in high risk women. Relationships between various dietary micro and macronutrients and breast cancer have been suggested but require evaluation in clinical trials. Whereas alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk, most environmental factors, including polychlorinated compounds and electromagnetic fields, are not. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer etiology is becoming clearer through the study of molecular alterations in germline and somatic cell genes, and the interaction of these genes with steroid hormones and relevant growth factors. This knowledge should be useful for breast cancer prevention.

Authors
Hulka, BS; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Hulka, BS, and Moorman, PG. "Breast cancer: hormones and other risk factors." Maturitas 38.1 (February 28, 2001): 103-113. (Review)
PMID
11311599
Source
pubmed
Published In
Maturitas
Volume
38
Issue
1
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
103
End Page
113

Race, anthropometric factors, and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer.

A recent study suggested that the greater prevalence of severe obesity among African-American women explained almost one third of the observed differences between African-American and White women in stage at diagnosis of breast cancer. The objective of this investigation was to attempt to replicate these findings in a second, larger population and to expand the analyses by including a measure of body fat distribution, the waist:hip ratio. The authors used data from a population-based study in North Carolina comprising 791 breast cancer cases (302 in African-American women and 489 in White women) diagnosed between 1993 and 1996. African-American women were more likely to have later-stage (TNM stage >/=II) breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6, 2.9). They also were much more likely to be severely obese (body mass index >/=32.3) (OR = 9.7; 95% CI: 6.5, 14.5) and to be in the highest tertile of waist:hip ratio (OR = 5.7; 95% CI: 3.8, 8.6). In multivariate logistic regression models, adjustment for waist:hip ratio reduced the odds ratio for later-stage disease in African-American women by 20%; adjustment for both waist:hip ratio and severe obesity reduced the odds ratio by 27%. These observations suggest that obesity and body fat distribution, in addition to socioeconomic and medical care factors, contribute to racial differences in stage at breast cancer diagnosis.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Jones, BA; Millikan, RC; Hall, IJ; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Jones, BA, Millikan, RC, Hall, IJ, and Newman, B. "Race, anthropometric factors, and stage at diagnosis of breast cancer." Am J Epidemiol 153.3 (February 1, 2001): 284-291.
PMID
11157416
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
153
Issue
3
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
284
End Page
291

Menopausal hormones and breast cancer in a biracial population.

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association between menopausal hormones and breast cancer in a biracial population. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for breast cancer associated with hormone use among 397 cases and 425 controls, all menopausal women. RESULTS: Odds ratios for ever use of hormones were 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5, 1.2) for White women and 0.7 (95% CI = 0.4, 1.2) for Black women. Risk was not increased with longer duration of use or more recent use. CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer risk was not increased among White or Black women who used menopausal hormones, despite patterns of use varying considerably between races.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Kuwabara, H; Millikan, RC; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Kuwabara, H, Millikan, RC, and Newman, B. "Menopausal hormones and breast cancer in a biracial population." Am J Public Health 90.6 (June 2000): 966-971.
PMID
10846517
Source
pubmed
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
90
Issue
6
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
966
End Page
971

Body size and breast cancer risk in black women and white women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

The relation between body size and breast cancer risk was investigated in a population-based, case-control study of Black women (350 cases, 353 controls) and White women (523 cases, 471 controls) from North Carolina, aged 20-74 years in 1993-1996. Logistic regression analyses compared tertiles of each body size variable, adjusting for age and breast cancer risk factors (results shown for highest relative to lowest tertile). Among premenopausal women, body mass index (kg/m2) was inversely associated with breast cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26, 0.80) for Whites but not for Blacks. There was essentially no association among postmenopausal women. Higher waist/hip ratio, adjusted for body mass index, increased risk for all women. Odds ratios for Black and White premenopausal women were 2.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 5.67) and 2.44 (95% CI: 1.17, 5.09), respectively; odds ratios for Black and White postmenopausal women were 1.62 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.79) and 1.64 (95% CI: 0.88, 3.07), respectively. Findings for body mass index differed among Black women when stratified by age (<50 years) (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.01) instead of menopausal status. Thus, the associations of breast cancer with body mass index and waist/hip ratio among Black women are similar to those documented for Whites, despite different body size profiles on average.

Authors
Hall, IJ; Newman, B; Millikan, RC; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Hall, IJ, Newman, B, Millikan, RC, and Moorman, PG. "Body size and breast cancer risk in black women and white women: the Carolina Breast Cancer Study." Am J Epidemiol 151.8 (April 15, 2000): 754-764.
PMID
10965972
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
151
Issue
8
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
754
End Page
764

Hormone-related factors and risk of breast cancer in relation to estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status.

Risk factors were examined for subgroups of breast cancer characterized by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. Data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, North Carolina case-control study of 862 breast cancer cases aged 20-74 years diagnosed during 1993-1996 and 790 controls frequency matched on race and age, were obtained by personal interview. ER and PR status was retrieved from medical records (80%) or was determined in the authors' laboratory (11%) but was missing for 9% of cases. The receptor status distribution was as follows: 53% ER+PR+, 11% ER+PR-, 8% ER-PR+, and 28% ER-PR-. Several hormone-related factors were associated with stronger increased risks for ER+PR+ than for ER-PR- breast cancer: the elevated odds ratios were strongest for ER+PR+ breast cancer among postmenopausal women who had an early age at menarche (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.4), nulliparity/late age at first full-term pregnancy (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.2 and OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7, respectively), or a high body mass index (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.0) and among pre-/perimenopausal women who had a high waist-hip ratio (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.1). In contrast, family history of breast or ovarian cancer and medical radiation exposure to the chest produced higher odds ratios for ER-PR- than for ER+PR+ breast cancer, especially among pre-/perimenopausal women.

Authors
Huang, WY; Newman, B; Millikan, RC; Schell, MJ; Hulka, BS; Moorman, PG
MLA Citation
Huang, WY, Newman, B, Millikan, RC, Schell, MJ, Hulka, BS, and Moorman, PG. "Hormone-related factors and risk of breast cancer in relation to estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status." Am J Epidemiol 151.7 (April 1, 2000): 703-714.
PMID
10752798
Source
pubmed
Published In
American Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
151
Issue
7
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
703
End Page
714

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer among black and white women in North Carolina (United States).

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk in black and white women. METHODS: We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of black and white women in North Carolina. Interviews were conducted with 890 cases and 841 controls frequency-matched on age and race. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of moderate to high levels of alcohol consumption was low. Compared with abstainers, the multivariate odds ratio for recent intake of one or two drinks per day was 1.4 (95% CI = 0.9-2.1) and two or more drinks a day was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.6-1.6); increasing consumption was not associated with risk (p for trend = 0.6). The associations were similar, but somewhat weaker, for average lifetime consumption. Among women who consumed 91 g/week or more of alcohol, a nonsignificant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for women reporting binge drinking (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.3), but not for those who consumed less than 91 g/week reporting binge drinking (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6-1.5). Odds ratios did not differ meaningfully by race, age, menopausal status, exogenous hormone use, or body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide little evidence for an association between alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer among either black or white women.

Authors
Kinney, AY; Millikan, RC; Lin, YH; Moorman, PG; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Kinney, AY, Millikan, RC, Lin, YH, Moorman, PG, and Newman, B. "Alcohol consumption and breast cancer among black and white women in North Carolina (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 11.4 (April 2000): 345-357.
PMID
10843445
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
11
Issue
4
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
345
End Page
357

The associations of adolescent cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, environmental tobacco smoke, and ionizing radiation with subsequent breast cancer risk (United States).

OBJECTIVES: Studies of breast cancer among survivors of the World War II atomic bomb blasts over Japan suggest that the adolescent breast may be particularly sensitive to carcinogenic insult. To further explore that possibility we examined the relationships of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, and medical treatment with ionizing radiation during adolescence with subsequent breast cancer risk. METHODS: Data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in North Carolina women aged 20-74 years (864 cases, 790 controls), were analyzed. RESULTS: A modest increase in breast cancer risk was suggested for women who began to smoke cigarettes between the ages of 10 and 14 years (OR: 1.5, CI: 0.9-2.5), and for women exposed to ionizing radiation between ages 10 and 19 years to treat or monitor a medical condition (OR: 1.6, CI: 0.5-2.5). Neither exposure to ETS at home prior to age 18 years (OR: 1.1, CI: 0.9-1.3) nor initiation of alcoholic beverage consumption between ages 10 and 15 years (OR: 1.1, CI: 0.6-1.8) appeared to increase risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting that some adolescent exposures could influence future breast cancer risk.

Authors
Marcus, PM; Newman, B; Millikan, RC; Moorman, PG; Baird, DD; Qaqish, B
MLA Citation
Marcus, PM, Newman, B, Millikan, RC, Moorman, PG, Baird, DD, and Qaqish, B. "The associations of adolescent cigarette smoking, alcoholic beverage consumption, environmental tobacco smoke, and ionizing radiation with subsequent breast cancer risk (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 11.3 (March 2000): 271-278.
PMID
10782661
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
11
Issue
3
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
271
End Page
278

Physical activity at age 12 and adult breast cancer risk (United States).

OBJECTIVES: Some epidemiologic studies suggest that adolescent physical activity reduces subsequent breast cancer risk. To examine this question further, we analyzed data on physical activity at age 12 that had been collected as part of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS). METHODS: The CBCS is a population-based, case-control study of 527 white and 337 African-American cases and 790 controls, frequency-matched on age and race. Respondents were asked whether, and to what extent, they engaged in four specific activities at age 12 (walking to school, biking to school, competitive training, performing vigorous household chores). RESULTS: Women who reported participation in any of the four activities had a modest reduction in breast cancer risk (odds ratio (OR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-1.0). Using an index measuring approximate number of activity episodes per week, analyses revealed modest inverse relationships for nearly all levels of activity relative to no reported activity; a weighting of the index by metabolic equivalent scores produced similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that adolescent physical activity may protect against adult breast cancer, even at moderate levels.

Authors
Marcus, PM; Newman, B; Moorman, PG; Millikan, RC; Baird, DD; Qaqish, B; Sternfeld, B
MLA Citation
Marcus, PM, Newman, B, Moorman, PG, Millikan, RC, Baird, DD, Qaqish, B, and Sternfeld, B. "Physical activity at age 12 and adult breast cancer risk (United States)." Cancer Causes Control 10.4 (August 1999): 293-302.
PMID
10482488
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
10
Issue
4
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
293
End Page
302

Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between reproductive events during adolescence and subsequent breast cancer risk. METHODS: Logistic regression models used self-reported data from 862 case patients and 790 controls in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. RESULTS: Miscarriage, induced abortion, and full-term pregnancy before 20 years of age were not associated with breast cancer. Among premenopausal women, breast-feeding before 20 years of age was inversely associated with disease. Oral contraceptive use before 18 years of age was positively associated with disease risk among African American women only. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy during adolescence does not appear to influence breast cancer risk, but breast-feeding may. A possible increased breast cancer risk among African American women who used oral contraceptives as adolescents warrants further study.

Authors
Marcus, PM; Baird, DD; Millikan, RC; Moorman, PG; Qaqish, B; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Marcus, PM, Baird, DD, Millikan, RC, Moorman, PG, Qaqish, B, and Newman, B. "Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk." Am J Public Health 89.8 (August 1999): 1244-1247.
PMID
10432916
Source
pubmed
Published In
American journal of public health
Volume
89
Issue
8
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
1244
End Page
1247

Lactation and breast cancer risk.

BACKGROUND: Data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer in African-American and white women residents of North Carolina, were evaluated to determine whether specific aspects of lactation are associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Analyses included 751 parous cases and 742 parous controls frequency-matched on age and race. Information on lactation, reproductive history, lifestyle characteristics and family history were obtained through a personal interview. RESULTS: When women who breastfed were compared to those who never breastfed, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 0.8 (0.5-1.1) and 0.7 (0.5-0.9) were found for women 20-49 years and 50-74 years, respectively. Similar inverse associations were observed for each of three categories of lifetime duration (1-3, 4-12, 13+ months). The inverse associations persisted and did not vary when number of children breastfed, ages at first and last lactation and lactational amenorrhoea were examined. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that any lactation, regardless of duration or timing, is associated with a slight reduction in the risk of breast cancer among younger and older parous women.

Authors
Furberg, H; Newman, B; Moorman, P; Millikan, R
MLA Citation
Furberg, H, Newman, B, Moorman, P, and Millikan, R. "Lactation and breast cancer risk." Int J Epidemiol 28.3 (June 1999): 396-402.
PMID
10405840
Source
pubmed
Published In
International Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
28
Issue
3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
396
End Page
402

Participation rates in a case-control study: the impact of age, race, and race of interviewer.

PURPOSE: Despite concerns about declining participation rates in epidemiologic studies in recent years, relatively few papers have discussed obstacles to recruiting study participants or strategies for optimizing response rates. This report describes factors associated with nonparticipation in a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer and discusses ways to overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Contact and cooperation rates were calculated for participants in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS), stratified by case status, age, race, and race of interviewer. Demographic and breast cancer risk factor characteristics of partial and full responders also were compared. RESULTS: Contact rates and cooperation rates varied by case/control status and demographic characteristics. Contact rates were lower among controls, younger women, and black women. Cooperation rates were lower among controls, older women, and black cases. Cooperation rates were higher among both black and nonblack women when participants and interviewers were concordant on race. CONCLUSIONS: Obstacles to recruitment seem to differ among race and age subgroups, suggesting that recruitment strategies may need to be tailored to potential participants based upon demographic characteristics. Strategies have been implemented to improve response rates in this and other epidemiologic studies; however, additional research and innovation in this area are needed.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Newman, B; Millikan, RC; Tse, CK; Sandler, DP
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Newman, B, Millikan, RC, Tse, CK, and Sandler, DP. "Participation rates in a case-control study: the impact of age, race, and race of interviewer." Ann Epidemiol 9.3 (April 1999): 188-195.
PMID
10192651
Source
pubmed
Published In
Annals of Epidemiology
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
188
End Page
195

Catechol-O-methyltransferase and breast cancer risk.

Recent studies suggest that a polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Methylation by COMT is the principal pathway for inactivation of catechol estrogens, which are hypothesized to participate in estrogen-induced carcinogenesis. We examined the association of COMT genotype and breast cancer risk in a population-based, case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population consisted of 654 cases and 642 controls, with approximately equal numbers of African-American and white women and women under the age of 50 and aged 50 or over. Contrary to previous reports, we did not observe an association between one or more copies of the low activity COMT allele (COMT-L) and breast cancer risk. Multivariate relative risks (RRs) were 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-1.1) for COMT-HL and 0.8 (0.6-1.1) for COMT-LL, compared with the COMT-HH genotype. RRs for COMT did not differ among African-American and white women and we did not observe strong modification of RR estimates by menopausal status, body mass index, physical activity or other covariates. Our results suggest that COMT genotype is not related to breast cancer risk.

Authors
Millikan, RC; Pittman, GS; Tse, CK; Duell, E; Newman, B; Savitz, D; Moorman, PG; Boissy, RJ; Bell, DA
MLA Citation
Millikan, RC, Pittman, GS, Tse, CK, Duell, E, Newman, B, Savitz, D, Moorman, PG, Boissy, RJ, and Bell, DA. "Catechol-O-methyltransferase and breast cancer risk." Carcinogenesis 19.11 (November 1998): 1943-1947.
PMID
9855007
Source
pubmed
Published In
Carcinogenesis
Volume
19
Issue
11
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
1943
End Page
1947

Age at menarche, time to regular cycling, and breast cancer (North Carolina, United States).

OBJECTIVES: Later menarche, and a longer time until onset of regular cycling, are considered markers of lower lifetime exposure to circulating ovarian hormones. While later age at menarche is associated with reduced breast cancer risk, evidence for the relationship between time until onset of regular cycles and breast cancer is inconsistent. We evaluated both associations with breast cancer risk. METHODS: We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among White and Black women aged 20 to 74 years, residing in central and eastern North Carolina (United States). Cases were diagnosed between May 1993 and June 1996. Unconditional logistic regression models were limited to women with complete data for the risk factors considered (n = 830 cases, 758 controls). RESULTS: We observed an inverse relationship between age at menarche and breast cancer risk, but found little support for the hypothesis that a longer time until onset of regular menstrual cycling was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer (odds ratios = 1.0 [95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.5], and 1.2 [CI = 0.8-1.6], respectively, for 1-4 years and < 1 year until onset of regular cycling, relative to 5+ years). There was little relationship between age at menarche and time until regular cycling. We found strong evidence that delays in onset of regular cycling were associated with increased frequency of irregular cycles throughout young adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Given the inconsistent findings regarding the links between menstrual cycle characteristics and breast cancer, and recent recommendations to delay menarche and alter the patterns of cycles of young women in order to reduce breast cancer risk, this topic calls for further, innovative study.

Authors
Rockhill, B; Moorman, PG; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Rockhill, B, Moorman, PG, and Newman, B. "Age at menarche, time to regular cycling, and breast cancer (North Carolina, United States)." Cancer Causes Control 9.4 (August 1998): 447-453.
PMID
9794178
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer Causes & Control
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
447
End Page
453

Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and breast cancer varies by menopausal status.

A nested case-control study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that women with high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are at an increased risk of breast cancer. The source population was a cohort of 95,000 women enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program who underwent a routine multiphasic health examination between 1964 and 1971. From the more than 2,000 breast cancer cases diagnosed in this cohort, 200 cases were randomly selected for this study. For each case, one control who matched on age and date of examination was chosen. Lipid and lipoprotein levels were measured in archived serum samples collected at the time of the women's examinations. Breast cancer risk factor information was obtained from questionnaires completed by the women when their blood was drawn and was supplemented with information from medical records. HDL-C levels were not significantly different between the cases and controls overall; however, a statistically significant interaction between the HDL-C level and menopausal status at diagnosis was detected. Premenopausal cases had mean HDL-C levels 3.48 mg/dl lower than matched controls [95% confidence interval (CI), -7.05, 0.09], whereas postmenopausal cases had levels 2.05 mg/dl higher than controls (95% CI, -0.94, 5.03). In multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio associated with each 1 mg/dl increase in HDL-C was 0.96 (95% Cl, 0.93-1.0) for premenopausal women and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.99-1.05) for postmenopausal women. Although many breast cancer risk factors are associated with high HDL-C, the relationship between breast cancer and HDL-C was independent of other factors evaluated.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Hulka, BS; Hiatt, RA; Krieger, N; Newman, B; Vogelman, JH; Orentreich, N
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Hulka, BS, Hiatt, RA, Krieger, N, Newman, B, Vogelman, JH, and Orentreich, N. "Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and breast cancer varies by menopausal status." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7.6 (June 1998): 483-488.
PMID
9641492
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
7
Issue
6
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
483
End Page
488

Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2, and breast cancer risk.

To examine the effects of smoking and N-acetylation genetics on breast cancer risk, we analyzed data from an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population consisted of 498 cases and 473 controls, with approximately equal numbers of African-American and white women, and women under the age of 50 and age 50 years or older. Among premenopausal women, there was no association between current smoking [odds ratio (OR), 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-1.5] or past smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and breast cancer risk. Among postmenopausal women, there was also no association with current smoking (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-2.0); however, a small increase in risk was observed for past smoking (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4). For postmenopausal women who smoked in the past, ORs and 95% CIs were 3.4 (1.4-8.1) for smoking within the past 3 years, 3.0 (1.3-6.7) for smoking 4-9 years ago, and 0.6 (0.3-1.4) for smoking 10-19 years ago. Neither N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) nor N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype alone was associated with increased breast cancer risk. There was little evidence for modification of smoking effects according to genotype, except among postmenopausal women. Among postmenopausal women, ORs for smoking within the past 3 years were greater for women with the NAT1*10 genotype (OR, 9.0; 95% CI, 1.9-41.8) than NAT1-non*10 (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.9-7.2) and greater for NAT2-rapid genotype (OR, 7.4; 95% CI, 1.6-32.6) than NAT2-slow (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 0.4-8.0). Future studies of NAT genotypes and breast cancer should investigate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke, diet, and other exposures.

Authors
Millikan, RC; Pittman, GS; Newman, B; Tse, CK; Selmin, O; Rockhill, B; Savitz, D; Moorman, PG; Bell, DA
MLA Citation
Millikan, RC, Pittman, GS, Newman, B, Tse, CK, Selmin, O, Rockhill, B, Savitz, D, Moorman, PG, and Bell, DA. "Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferases 1 and 2, and breast cancer risk." Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7.5 (May 1998): 371-378.
PMID
9610785
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
Volume
7
Issue
5
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
371
End Page
378

Frequency of breast cancer attributable to BRCA1 in a population-based series of American women.

CONTEXT: Previous studies of BRCA1 mutation prevalence have been based on high-risk groups, yielding estimates that do not reflect the experience of the general population of US patients with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of known disease-related mutations and other variants in BRCA1 and how it differs by race, age at diagnosis, and family history status in a population-based sample of white and black patients with breast cancer unselected for family history. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A 24-county area of central and eastern North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were women aged 20 to 74 years diagnosed as having a first invasive breast cancer between May 1993 and June 1996. Controls were frequency matched to cases by 5-year age range and race. The first 211 cases and 188 controls regardless of race and the subsequent 99 cases and 108 controls of African American ancestry are included in this report. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Germline variants at any site in the coding sequence, splice junctions, 5' untranslated region, or 3' untranslated region of the BRCA1 gene were analyzed in cases, and selected variants were analyzed in controls. Screening was performed using multiplex single-strand conformation analysis, with all potential variants confirmed using genomic sequencing. RESULTS: Three of 211 patients with breast cancer had disease-related variants at BRCA1, all of which were protein-truncating mutations. After adjustment for sampling probabilities, the proportion of patients with breast cancer with disease-related variants was 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 0%-7.2%) in white women and 0% in black women. Young age at diagnosis alone did not predict BRCA1 carrier status in this population. In white women, prevalence of inherited mutation was 23% for cases with family history of ovarian cancer, 13% for cases from families with at least 4 cases of breast cancer with or without ovarian cancer, and 33% for cases from families with both breast and ovarian cancer and at least 4 affected relatives. Because these results are based on few families at the highest levels of risk, confidence intervals around these estimates are wide. An additional 5 patients had rare missense mutations or a single amino acid deletion, the biological significance of which is unknown. In black women, a variant in the 3' untranslated region was statistically significantly more common in cases than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that in the general US population, widespread screening of BRCA1 is not warranted. In contrast, BRCA1 mutations are sufficiently frequent in families with both breast and ovarian cancer, or at least 4 cases of breast cancer (at any age), that genotyping might be considered. The emerging picture of BRCA1 population genetics involves complex interactions of family history, age, and genetic ancestry, all of which should be taken into account when considering testing or interpreting results.

Authors
Newman, B; Mu, H; Butler, LM; Millikan, RC; Moorman, PG; King, MC
MLA Citation
Newman, B, Mu, H, Butler, LM, Millikan, RC, Moorman, PG, and King, MC. "Frequency of breast cancer attributable to BRCA1 in a population-based series of American women." JAMA 279.12 (March 25, 1998): 915-921.
PMID
9544765
Source
pubmed
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
279
Issue
12
Publish Date
1998
Start Page
915
End Page
921

Rapid reporting of cancer incidence in a population-based study of breast cancer: one constructive use of a central cancer registry.

To support a study of genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry has implemented a rapid reporting procedure for hospitals in the study area. This system permits the identification of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases within a very short time period (less than one month). The procedures are straightforward, cost-effective, and greatly benefit the objectives of tissue collection and interviews with the cases. This article describes the rapid reporting procedures and their potential impact for population-based research. For the objective of making generalizable risk statements, the necessity of population-based research is stressed; participation with central cancer registries is endorsed for this and other molecular epidemiologic applications.

Authors
Aldrich, TE; Vann, D; Moorman, PG; Newman, B
MLA Citation
Aldrich, TE, Vann, D, Moorman, PG, and Newman, B. "Rapid reporting of cancer incidence in a population-based study of breast cancer: one constructive use of a central cancer registry." Breast Cancer Res Treat 35.1 (July 1995): 61-64.
PMID
7612905
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
35
Issue
1
Publish Date
1995
Start Page
61
End Page
64

The Carolina Breast Cancer Study: integrating population-based epidemiology and molecular biology.

The integration of epidemiology and molecular biology provides a new strategy to identify additional risk factors for breast cancer and to better understand the role played by traditionally recognized risk factors. The Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) is a population-based, case-control study designed to identify causes of breast cancer among Caucasian and African-American women who are residents of a 24-county area of central and eastern North Carolina. Information on established and potential breast cancer risk factors is obtained by personal interviews. Blood samples are collected from all consenting participants. Medical record documentation and paraffin-embedded tumor specimens are obtained for all breast cancer patients. DNA from tumor tissue is tested for a variety of molecular alterations characteristic of breast cancer. Germline DNA from blood lymphocytes is evaluated for presence of alleles increasing susceptibility to breast cancer. Statistical analyses evaluate gene-environment interaction by exploring the associations between environmental/behavioral factors and breast cancer in relation to specific molecular alterations (germline and tumor). Results will help identify high-risk women, clarify causal pathways, and hopefully contribute to the prevention of breast cancer.

Authors
Newman, B; Moorman, PG; Millikan, R; Qaqish, BF; Geradts, J; Aldrich, TE; Liu, ET
MLA Citation
Newman, B, Moorman, PG, Millikan, R, Qaqish, BF, Geradts, J, Aldrich, TE, and Liu, ET. "The Carolina Breast Cancer Study: integrating population-based epidemiology and molecular biology." Breast Cancer Res Treat 35.1 (July 1995): 51-60.
PMID
7612904
Source
pubmed
Published In
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Volume
35
Issue
1
Publish Date
1995
Start Page
51
End Page
60

Menopausal Hormones and the Risk of Breast Cancer

Authors
Moorman, PG; Hulka, BS
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, and Hulka, BS. "Menopausal Hormones and the Risk of Breast Cancer." The Endocrinologist 2.3 (May 1992): 189-194.
Source
crossref
Published In
Endocrinologist
Volume
2
Issue
3
Publish Date
1992
Start Page
189
End Page
194
DOI
10.1097/00019616-199205000-00009

Socioeconomic status and morbidity and mortality in hypertensive blacks.

Despite an overall limited range of social and economic opportunities in the recent past, blacks of lower socioeconomic status have experienced marked excesses in hypertension-related burdens compared with their more advantaged peers: the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension and its end-organ sequelae increased with decreasing educational achievement and the 5-year mortality was two times higher for black hypertensives of lower than higher educational achievement under conditions of usual care in U.S. communities in the 1970s. The Stepped Care program of antihypertensive pharmacologic therapy of the HDFP reduced all-cause mortality by 19% for black hypertensive men and 28% for black women. The HDFP also eliminated the association of mortality with educational achievement; the favorable impact of the program was greatest in the group at highest risk, blacks of lowest socioeconomic status.

Authors
Moorman, PG; Hames, CG; Tyroler, HA
MLA Citation
Moorman, PG, Hames, CG, and Tyroler, HA. "Socioeconomic status and morbidity and mortality in hypertensive blacks." Cardiovasc Clin 21.3 (1991): 179-194. (Review)
PMID
1828391
Source
pubmed
Published In
Cardiovascular clinics
Volume
21
Issue
3
Publish Date
1991
Start Page
179
End Page
194
Show More

Research Areas:

  • 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase
  • Acetaminophen
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell
  • Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous
  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Age Distribution
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anthropometry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • BRCA1 Protein
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Base Sequence
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Body Constitution
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Size
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic
  • Brain Neoplasms
  • Breast
  • Breast Feeding
  • Breast Neoplasms
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases
  • Carcinoma
  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Caspase 8
  • Chemoprevention
  • Chemotherapy
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9
  • Cohort Studies
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Colonoscopy
  • Colorectal Neoplasms
  • Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis
  • Computer Communication Networks
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
  • Contraception
  • Contraceptives, Oral
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
  • Cooperative Behavior
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Curriculum
  • Cyclin E
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • DNA
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Ligases
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Dairy Products
  • Data Collection
  • Demography
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diet
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP)
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Eczema
  • Educational Status
  • Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic
  • Endometrial Neoplasms
  • Endometriosis
  • Environment
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Epidemiologic Research Design
  • Epidemiologic Studies
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Estrogen Receptor Modulators
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy
  • Estrogens
  • Europe
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Exercise
  • Exons
  • Faculty, Medical
  • False Positive Reactions
  • Family
  • Female
  • Female Urogenital Diseases
  • Focus Groups
  • Folic Acid
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Food Contamination
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Frequency
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Genes, BRCA1
  • Genes, p53
  • Genetic Heterogeneity
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genome, Human
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Georgia
  • Glioma
  • Glycoproteins
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Haplotypes
  • Health Behavior
  • Health Resources
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Health Status
  • Heart Diseases
  • Heterozygote
  • Homozygote
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Hormones
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Hyperplasia
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Hypertension
  • Hysterectomy
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Incidence
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
  • Interleukin-18
  • International Cooperation
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Isoenzymes
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Keratin-5
  • Keratin-6
  • Keratins
  • Leiomyoma
  • Life Style
  • Linear Models
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • Logistic Models
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Lymph Node Excision
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Lymphedema
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Mammography
  • Maternal Age
  • Medical History Taking
  • Medical Records
  • Menarche
  • Menopause
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Menstruation Disturbances
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (NADP)
  • Middle Aged
  • Minority Groups
  • Models, Statistical
  • Molecular Epidemiology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Mutation
  • National Health Programs
  • Needs Assessment
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial
  • Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Netherlands
  • Neuropeptides
  • New Jersey
  • North Carolina
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Obesity
  • Odds Ratio
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Ovarian Neoplasms
  • Ovary
  • Ovulation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Pain
  • Parity
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Patient Participation
  • Patient Selection
  • Pedigree
  • Peptides
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms
  • Pesticides
  • Phenotype
  • Physical Fitness
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational
  • Population Surveillance
  • Postmenopause
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Pregnancy
  • Premenopause
  • Prevalence
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency
  • Probability
  • Progestins
  • Prognosis
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • Prostatic Neoplasms
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Quality of Life
  • Questionnaires
  • Race
  • Radiation, Ionizing
  • Radiotherapy
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Recreation
  • Registries
  • Regression Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Reproductive History
  • Research
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Retinoblastoma Protein
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk Management
  • Risk Reduction Behavior
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Social Class
  • Societies, Medical
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Survival Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Survivors
  • Telomerase
  • Thymidylate Synthase
  • Time Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta1
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Trinucleotide Repeats
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Markers, Biological
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • United States
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • Uterine Neoplasms
  • Veterans
  • Vitamin D
  • Weight Gain
  • Women's Health
  • Young Adult