John Sampson

Overview:

Current research activities involve the immunotherapeutic targeting of a tumor-specific mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor. Approaches used to target this tumor-specific epitope include unarmed and radiolabeled antibody therapy and cell mediated approaches using peptide vaccines and dendritic cells. Another area of interest involves drug delivery to brain tumors. Translational and clinical work is carried out in this area to formulate the relationship between various direct intratumoral infusion parameters and drug distribution within brain tumors and normal brain.

The Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program (BTIP) has an emphasis on translational research in Neuro-Oncology. There are two main areas of study. The first is novel mechanisms of delivery of large molecular weight molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies, throughout brain intersitial space using novel intracerebral infusion techniques developed by this laboratory. Studies exploring this technology are undertaken in both small and large laboratory animals and patients with brain tumors.

The other focus of the BTIP is translational immunotherapy. In this line of work, dendritic cell vaccination strategies and adoptive T-cell strategies have been developed to target novel and well-characterized tumor-specific antigens in patients with brain tumors. The BTIP integrates well with and works closely with the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke. The BTIP is well funded and currently holds seven NIH grants, including a SPORE in Brain Cancer grant. There are a large number of investigators at various levels so that students will get exposure to various levels of research and mentorship.

Positions:

Robert H., M.D. and Gloria Wilkins Professor of Neurosurgery, in the School of Medicine

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Professor of Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery
School of Medicine

Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical Engineering
Pratt School of Engineering

Professor of Immunology

Immunology
School of Medicine

Professor of Radiation Oncology

Radiation Oncology
School of Medicine

Professor of Pathology

Pathology
School of Medicine

Professor in Orthopaedic Surgery

Orthopaedic Surgery
School of Medicine

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

M.D. 1990

University of Manitoba (Canada)

Ph.D. 1996

Duke University

M.H.S. 2007

Duke University School of Medicine

M.B.A. 2011

Duke University

Investigator in Cerebral Hydrodynamics Lab, Neurosurgery

University of Manitoba (Canada)

Intern, Surgery

Duke University

Resident in Neurosurgery, Surgery

Duke University

Ph.D. Program in Pathology, Surgery

Duke University

Grants:

Enhancing dendritic cell migration to drive potent anti-tumor immune responses

Administered By
School of Medicine
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Clinical Brain Tumor Development of a Cytomegalovirus-targeted Therapeutic with Vaccine pre-conditioning to Validate Novel Predictors of Vaccine Efficacy

Administered By
Neurosurgery
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Quantitative Staging and Therapeutic Response in IDH-1 Mutated Glioblastomas

Administered By
Radiology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

Targeting Translation Control in Malignant Glioma

Administered By
Neurosurgery, Neuro-Oncology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Co Investigator
Start Date
End Date

Regional AGT Depletion of CNS and Leptomeningeal Tumors

Administered By
Neurosurgery, Neuro-Oncology
Awarded By
National Institutes of Health
Role
Collaborator
Start Date
End Date

Publications:

Risk Factors and Neurological Outcomes Associated With Circulatory Shock After Moderate-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study.

<h4>Background</h4>Extracranial multisystem organ failure is a common sequela of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Risk factors for developing circulatory shock and long-term functional outcomes of this patient subset are poorly understood.<h4>Objective</h4>To identify emergency department predictors of circulatory shock after moderate-severe TBI and examine long-term functional outcomes in patients with moderate-severe TBI who developed circulatory shock.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Transforming Clinical Research and Knowledge in TBI database for adult patients with moderate-severe TBI, defined as a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of <13 and stratified by the development of circulatory shock within 72 hours of hospital admission (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score ≥2). Demographic and clinical data were assessed with descriptive statistics. A forward selection regression model examined risk factors for the development of circulatory shock. Functional outcomes were examined using multivariable regression models.<h4>Results</h4>Of our moderate-severe TBI population (n = 407), 168 (41.2%) developed circulatory shock. Our predictive model suggested that race, computed tomography Rotterdam scores <3, GCS in the emergency department, and development of hypotension in the emergency department were associated with developing circulatory shock. Those who developed shock had less favorable 6-month functional outcomes measured by the 6-month GCS-Extended (odds ratio 0.36, P = .002) and 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (Diff. in means 3.86, P = .002) and a longer length of hospital stay (Diff. in means 11.0 days, P < .001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We report potential risk factors for circulatory shock after moderate-severe TBI. Our study suggests that developing circulatory shock after moderate-severe TBI is associated with poor long-term functional outcomes.
Authors
Toro, C; Hatfield, J; Temkin, N; Barber, J; Manley, G; Ohnuma, T; Komisarow, J; Foreman, B; Korley, FK; Vavilala, MS; Laskowitz, DT; Mathew, JP; Hernandez, A; Sampson, J; James, ML; Raghunathan, K; Goldstein, BA; Markowitz, AJ; Krishnamoorthy, V; TRACK-TBI Investigators,
MLA Citation
Toro, Camilo, et al. “Risk Factors and Neurological Outcomes Associated With Circulatory Shock After Moderate-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study. (Accepted)Neurosurgery, vol. 91, no. 3, Sept. 2022, pp. 427–36. Epmc, doi:10.1227/neu.0000000000002042.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1521974
PMID
35593705
Source
epmc
Published In
Neurosurgery
Volume
91
Published Date
Start Page
427
End Page
436
DOI
10.1227/neu.0000000000002042

Multiepitope supramolecular peptide nanofibers eliciting coordinated humoral and cellular antitumor immune responses.

Subunit vaccines inducing antibodies against tumor-specific antigens have yet to be clinically successful. Here, we use a supramolecular α-helical peptide nanofiber approach to design epitope-specific vaccines raising simultaneous B cell, CD8+ T cell, and CD4+ T cell responses against combinations of selected epitopes and show that the concurrent induction of these responses generates strong antitumor effects in mice, with significant improvements over antibody or CD8+ T cell-based vaccines alone, in both prophylactic and therapeutic subcutaneous melanoma models. Nanofiber vaccine-induced antibodies mediated in vitro tumoricidal antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). The addition of immune checkpoint and phagocytosis checkpoint blockade antibodies further improved the therapeutic effect of the nanofiber vaccines against murine melanoma. These findings highlight the potential clinical benefit of vaccine-induced antibody responses for tumor treatments, provided that they are accompanied by simultaneous CD8+ and CD4+ responses, and they illustrate a multiepitope cancer vaccine design approach using supramolecular nanomaterials.
Authors
Wu, Y; Wen, H; Bernstein, ZJ; Hainline, KM; Blakney, TS; Congdon, KL; Snyder, DJ; Sampson, JH; Sanchez-Perez, L; Collier, JH
MLA Citation
Wu, Yaoying, et al. “Multiepitope supramolecular peptide nanofibers eliciting coordinated humoral and cellular antitumor immune responses.Sci Adv, vol. 8, no. 29, July 2022, p. eabm7833. Pubmed, doi:10.1126/sciadv.abm7833.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1529650
PMID
35857833
Source
pubmed
Published In
Science Advances
Volume
8
Published Date
Start Page
eabm7833
DOI
10.1126/sciadv.abm7833

Utilization of Brain Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring and Association with Mortality Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the utilization patterns of brain tissue oxygen (PbtO2) monitoring following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and determine associations with mortality, health care use, and pulmonary toxicity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients from United States trauma centers participating in the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank between 2008 and 2016. We examined patients with severe TBI (defined by admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8) over the age of 18 years who survived more than 24 h from admission and required intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The primary exposure was PbtO2 monitor placement. The primary outcome was hospital mortality, defined as death during the hospitalization or discharge to hospice. Secondary outcomes were examined to determine the association of PbtO2 monitoring with health care use and pulmonary toxicity and included the following: (1) intensive care unit length of stay, (2) hospital length of stay, and (3) development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Regression analysis was used to assess differences in outcomes between patients exposed to PbtO2 monitor placement and those without exposure by using propensity weighting to address selection bias due to the nonrandom allocation of treatment groups and patient dropout. RESULTS: A total of 35,501 patients underwent placement of an ICP monitor. There were 1,346 (3.8%) patients who also underwent PbtO2 monitor placement, with significant variation regarding calendar year and hospital. Patients who underwent placement of a PbtO2 monitor had a crude in-hospital mortality of 31.1%, compared with 33.5% in patients who only underwent placement of an ICP monitor (adjusted risk ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.93). The development of the ARDS was comparable between patients who underwent placement of a PbtO2 monitor and patients who only underwent placement of an ICP monitor (9.2% vs. 9.8%, adjusted risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: PbtO2 monitor utilization varied widely throughout the study period by calendar year and hospital. PbtO2 monitoring in addition to ICP monitoring, compared with ICP monitoring alone, was associated with a decreased in-hospital mortality, a longer length of stay, and a similar risk of ARDS. These findings provide further guidance for clinicians caring for patients with severe TBI while awaiting completion of further randomized controlled trials.
Authors
Komisarow, JM; Toro, C; Curley, J; Mills, B; Cho, C; Simo, GM; Vavilala, MS; Laskowitz, DT; James, ML; Mathew, JP; Hernandez, A; Sampson, J; Ohnuma, T; Krishnamoorthy, V
MLA Citation
Komisarow, Jordan M., et al. “Utilization of Brain Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring and Association with Mortality Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.Neurocrit Care, vol. 36, no. 2, Apr. 2022, pp. 350–56. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s12028-021-01394-y.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1502600
PMID
34845596
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neurocritical Care
Volume
36
Published Date
Start Page
350
End Page
356
DOI
10.1007/s12028-021-01394-y

Association of Vasopressor Choice with Clinical and Functional Outcomes Following Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study.

BACKGROUND: Early hypotension following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Current guidelines suggest the use of intravenous vasopressors to support blood pressure following TBI; however, guidelines do not specify vasopressor type, resulting in variation in clinical practice. Minimal data are available to guide clinicians on optimal early vasopressor choice to support blood pressure following TBI. Therefore, we conducted a multicenter study to examine initial vasopressor choice for the support of blood pressure following TBI and its association with clinical and functional outcomes after injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the transforming research and clinical knowledge in traumatic brain injury (TRACK-TBI) study, an 18-center prospective cohort study of patients with TBI evaluated in participating level I trauma centers. We examined adults with moderate to severe TBI (defined as Glasgow Coma Scale score < 13) who were admitted to the intensive care unit and received an intravenous vasopressor within 48 h of admission. The primary exposure was initial vasopressor choice (phenylephrine versus norepinephrine), and the primary outcome was 6-month Glasgow Outcomes Scale Extended (GOSE), with the following secondary outcomes: length of hospital stay, length of intensive care unit stay, in-hospital mortality, new requirement for dialysis, and 6-month Disability Rating Scale. Regression analysis was used to assess differences in outcomes between patients exposed to norepinephrine versus phenylephrine, with propensity weighting to address selection bias due to the nonrandom allocation of the treatment groups and patient dropout. RESULTS: The final study sample included 156 patients, of whom 79 (51%) received norepinephrine, 69 (44%) received phenylephrine, and 8 (5%) received an alternate drug as their initial vasopressor. 121 (77%) of patients were men, with a mean age of 43.1 years. Of patients receiving norepinephrine as their initial vasopressor, 32% had a favorable outcome (GOSE 5-8), whereas 40% of patients receiving phenylephrine as their initial vasopressor had a favorable outcome. Compared with phenylephrine, exposure to norepinephrine was not significantly associated with improved 6-month GOSE (weighted odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 0.66-2.96, p = 0.37) or any secondary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with moderate to severe TBI received either phenylephrine or norepinephrine as first-line agents for blood pressure support following brain injury. Initial choice of norepinephrine, compared with phenylephrine, was not associated with improved clinical or functional outcomes.
Authors
Toro, C; Temkin, N; Barber, J; Manley, G; Jain, S; Ohnuma, T; Komisarow, J; Foreman, B; Korley, FK; Vavilala, MS; Laskowitz, DT; Mathew, JP; Hernandez, A; Sampson, J; James, ML; Goldstein, BA; Markowitz, AJ; Krishnamoorthy, V; TRACK-TBI Investigators,
MLA Citation
Toro, Camilo, et al. “Association of Vasopressor Choice with Clinical and Functional Outcomes Following Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A TRACK-TBI Study.Neurocrit Care, vol. 36, no. 1, Feb. 2022, pp. 180–91. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s12028-021-01280-7.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1492639
PMID
34341913
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neurocritical Care
Volume
36
Published Date
Start Page
180
End Page
191
DOI
10.1007/s12028-021-01280-7

Nivolumab plus radiotherapy with or without temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: Results from exploratory phase I cohorts of CheckMate 143.

Background: The phase 1 cohorts (1c+1d) of CheckMate 143 (NCT02017717) evaluated the safety/tolerability and efficacy of nivolumab plus radiotherapy (RT) ± temozolomide (TMZ) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods: In total, 136 patients were enrolled. In part A (safety lead-in), 31 patients (n = 15, methylated/unknown MGMT promoter; n = 16, unmethylated MGMT promoter) received nivolumab and RT+TMZ (NIVO+RT+TMZ) and 30 patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter received NIVO+RT. In part B (expansion), patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter were randomized to NIVO+RT+TMZ (n = 29) or NIVO+RT (n = 30). Primary endpoint was safety/tolerability; secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: NIVO+RT±TMZ was tolerable; grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 51.6% (NIVO+RT+TMZ) and 30.0% (NIVO+RT) of patients in part A and 46.4% (NIVO+RT+TMZ) and 28.6% (NIVO+RT) in part B. No new safety signals were detected. In part A, median OS (mOS) with NIVO+RT+TMZ was 33.38 months (95% CI, 16.2 to not estimable) in patients with methylated MGMT promoter. In patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter, mOS was 16.49 months (12.94-22.08) with NIVO+RT+TMZ and 14.41 months (12.55-17.31) with NIVO+RT. In part B, mOS was 14.75 months (10.01-18.6) with NIVO+RT+TMZ and 13.96 months (10.81-18.14) with NIVO+RT in patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter. Conclusions: CheckMate 143 was the first trial evaluating immune checkpoint inhibition with first-line treatment of glioblastoma. Results showed that NIVO can be safely combined with RT±TMZ, with no new safety signals. Toxicities, including lymphopenia, were more frequent with NIVO+RT+TMZ. OS was similar with or without TMZ in patients with unmethylated MGMT promoter, and differences by MGMT methylation status were observed.
Authors
Omuro, A; Reardon, DA; Sampson, JH; Baehring, J; Sahebjam, S; Cloughesy, TF; Chalamandaris, A-G; Potter, V; Butowski, N; Lim, M
MLA Citation
Omuro, Antonio, et al. “Nivolumab plus radiotherapy with or without temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma: Results from exploratory phase I cohorts of CheckMate 143.Neurooncol Adv, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2022, p. vdac025. Pubmed, doi:10.1093/noajnl/vdac025.
URI
https://scholars.duke.edu/individual/pub1518094
PMID
35402913
Source
pubmed
Published In
Neuro Oncology Advances
Volume
4
Published Date
Start Page
vdac025
DOI
10.1093/noajnl/vdac025

Research Areas:

3T3 Cells
Abortion
Academic Medical Centers
Adipates
Administration, Oral
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Oxidoreductases
Amino Acid Sequence
Angiogenesis Inhibitors
Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
Antibodies
Antibodies, Bispecific
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibodies, Neoplasm
Antibody Affinity
Antibody Formation
Antibody Specificity
Anticonvulsants
Antigen Presentation
Antigen-Antibody Complex
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Antigens
Antigens, CD3
Antigens, CD4
Antigens, Differentiation
Antigens, Neoplasm
Antineoplastic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Antitubercular Agents
Astrocytoma
Ataxia
Benzamides
Benzenesulfonates
Biological Assay
Biopsy
Bispecific antibodies
Blood-Brain Barrier
Blotting, Western
Body Burden
Body Mass Index
Bone Marrow Cells
Brain
Brain Diseases
Brain Neoplasms
Breast Neoplasms
CD4 Antigens
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes
CHO Cells
Camptothecin
Cancer Vaccines
Carboplatin
Carcinogenicity Tests
Carmustine
Catalytic Domain
Catheterization
Catheters, Indwelling
Cell Culture Techniques
Cell Division
Cell Line
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Membrane
Cell Movement
Cell Proliferation
Cell Survival
Cells, Cultured
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
Cerebrovascular Disorders
Cervical Vertebrae
Chemokines
Chemoradiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Chimera
Cholesterol
Chromatography
Cisplatin
Clinical Trials as Topic
Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
Cluster Analysis
Coculture Techniques
Cognition
Cohort Studies
Combined Modality Therapy
Complementarity Determining Regions
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
Confidence Intervals
Contrast Media
Convection
Cranial Irradiation
Cranial Nerve Diseases
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Craniocerebral Trauma
Craniotomy
Culture Media, Conditioned
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
Cytokines
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
DNA Methylation
DNA Modification Methylases
DNA Mutational Analysis
DNA Repair Enzymes
DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
Dacarbazine
Dactinomycin
Data Collection
Decanoic Acids
Decompression, Surgical
Dendritic Cells
Diagnosis, Differential
Diagnostic Imaging
Disease Models, Animal
Disease Progression
Disease-Free Survival
Dose Fractionation
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Drug Administration Routes
Drug Administration Schedule
Drug Delivery Systems
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Drug Implants
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Drug Synergism
Drug Therapy, Combination
Drugs, Chinese Herbal
Ear Neoplasms
Education, Graduate
Electrocoagulation
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Electroporation
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Eosinophilic Granuloma
Epidermal Growth Factor
Epitopes
Equipment Design
Escherichia coli
Etoposide
Exophthalmos
Exosomes
Exotoxins
Facial Nerve
Female
Flow Cytometry
Follow-Up Studies
Forkhead Transcription Factors
Gadolinium DTPA
Gene Expression
Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Gene Transfer Techniques
Genetic Engineering
Genetic Techniques
Genetic Testing
Genetic Therapy
Genetic Vectors
Genotype
Glasgow Coma Scale
Glioblastoma
Glioma
Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases
Goals
Guanine
HIV Infections
Head
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Health Care Costs
Health Services Accessibility
Hemocyanin
Hemocyanins
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Homeless Persons
Homosexuality
Humans
Hydroxyurea
Hypersensitivity, Delayed
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Imaging
Immune System
Immunity
Immunity, Innate
Immunization
Immunocompetence
Immunocompromised Host
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunoglobulin G
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes
Immunohistochemistry
Immunologic Surveillance
Immunomodulation
Immunosuppression
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy, Adoptive
Immunotoxins
Indicators and Reagents
Individualized Medicine
Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Infant
Infratentorial Neoplasms
Infusion Pumps
Infusion Pumps, Implantable
Infusions, Intra-Arterial
Infusions, Intravenous
Injections, Intradermal
Injections, Intralesional
Injections, Intravenous
Injections, Intraventricular
Injury Severity Score
Interferon-gamma
Interleukin-13
Interleukin-2
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
Intraocular Pressure
Intraoperative Complications
Iodine Radioisotopes
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase
Isotope Labeling
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Keratinocytes
Language
Linear Models
Liposomes
Lung Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Lymphocyte Activation
Lymphocyte Depletion
Lymphocytes
Lymphopenia
Macrophages
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maximum Tolerated Dose
Melanoma
Melanoma, Experimental
Membrane Proteins
Meningeal Neoplasms
Meningioma
Meningitis
Methods
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Inbred Strains
Mice, Nude
Mice, Transgenic
Microcirculation
Microinjections
Microsurgery
Middle Aged
Models, Animal
Models, Molecular
Molecular Sequence Data
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Monitoring, Intraoperative
Monocytes
Movement
Multivariate Analysis
Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
Mutant Proteins
Mutation
Naphthoquinones
Neoplasm Grading
Neoplasm Invasiveness
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Neoplasm Staging
Neoplasm Transplantation
Neoplasm, Residual
Neoplasms
Neoplasms, Experimental
Neoplastic Stem Cells
Neovascularization, Pathologic
Nerve Compression Syndromes
Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental
Neural Stem Cells
Neuroma, Acoustic
Neurosurgical Procedures
Niacinamide
Nitrosourea Compounds
North Carolina
O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
Observer Variation
Oligodendroglioma
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Oncology
Oncolytic Virotherapy
Oncolytic Viruses
Opportunistic Infections
Pain Management
Pain Measurement
Palliative Care
Paraganglioma
Paranasal Sinus Diseases
Paresis
Patient Selection
Peptide Fragments
Peptides
Phenylurea Compounds
Phosphoproteins
Phosphorylation
Phytotherapy
Pilot Projects
Piperazines
Plant Extracts
Plants, Medicinal
Poliomyelitis
Polyesters
Positron-Emission Tomography
Postoperative Complications
Posture
Poverty
Precision Medicine
Predictive Value of Tests
Preoperative Care
Prevalence
Principal Component Analysis
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Protein Engineering
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Protein Precursors
Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
Proteome
Proteomics
Proto-Oncogene Proteins
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
Publishing
Pyridines
Pyrimidines
Quality of Life
Quinazolines
RNA Viruses
Radiation Injuries
Radiation Tolerance
Radioimmunotherapy
Radioligand Assay
Radiometry
Radiopharmaceuticals
Radiosurgery
Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy Dosage
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
Radiotherapy, High-Energy
Radiotherapy, Image-Guided
Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
Receptor, erbB-2
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Recombinant Proteins
Recombination, Genetic
Recurrence
Registries
Relative Biological Effectiveness
Remission Induction
Reoperation
Reproducibility of Results
Retinal Diseases
Retrospective Studies
Retroviridae
Retroviridae Infections
Risk Assessment
Risk Factors
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Safety
Salvage Therapy
Sample Size
Saponins
Sensitivity and Specificity
Sequence Alignment
Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated
Signal Transduction
Single-Chain Antibodies
Sirolimus
Skin Neoplasms
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Software
Solubility
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Fusion
Spinal Neoplasms
Spleen
Standard of Care
Stereotaxic Techniques
Steroids
Subcutaneous Fat
Substrate Specificity
Supratentorial Neoplasms
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Surgical Wound Infection
Survival
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate
Swiss 3T3 Cells
T-Lymphocyte Subsets
T-Lymphocytes
T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
Tenascin
Th2 Cells
Thiazoles
Thrombocytopenia
Time Factors
Tissue Distribution
Titrimetry
Tomography, Emission-Computed
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Transfection
Transforming Growth Factor alpha
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Transplantation, Heterologous
Treatment
Treatment Failure
Treatment Outcome
Trigeminal Nerve
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
Tumor Burden
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Tumor Escape
Tumor Markers, Biological
Tumor Microenvironment
Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tyrosine
Tyrphostins
United States
Urban Population
Vaccination
Vaccines, Subunit
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Viremia
Virulence Factors
Work Schedule Tolerance
Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
Young Adult