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Zhang, Junfeng

Overview:

Dr. Zhang joined the Duke Faculty in fall 2013 from the University of Southern California where he had been a professor of environmental and global health and the director of Environmental and Biomarkers Analysis Laboratory since 2010. His prior positions include professor, department chair, and associate dean at the Rutgers School of Public Health. Dr. Zhang has more than 140 peer-reviewed publications. His work has been featured in major international media such as the Time, the New York Times, BBC, ABC, CBS, Yahoo News, etc. His early work on characterizing sources of non-methane greenhouse gases made him one of the officially recognized contributor to the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to IPCC. He is the 2012 recipient of the Jeremy Wesolowski Award, the highest award of the International Society of Exposure Science. He also received a Distinguished Alumni Award from the Rutgers Graduate School.

Dr. Zhang’s research interests include developing novel biomarkers of human exposure and health effects, assessing health and climate co-benefits of air pollution interventions, and examining biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures exert adverse health effects. Dr. Zhang has led a number of international collaborations to study air pollution health effects and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. He is currently leading two multidisciplinary, multi-institutional centers studying the health impact of engineered nanomaterials.

Positions:

Professor of Global and Environmental Health

Environmental Sciences and Policy
Nicholas School of the Environment

Research Professor of Global Health

Duke Global Health Institute
Institutes and Provost's Academic Units

Member of the Duke Cancer Institute

Duke Cancer Institute
School of Medicine

Education:

Ph.D. 1994

Ph.D. — Rutgers University

News:

Grants:

Effects of perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) exposure on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal development

Administered By
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Maternal Fetal Medicine/Midwifery Service
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Mentor
Start Date
September 25, 2017
End Date
June 30, 2022

Cooperative Program in Nanomaterials Hazard and Exposure Assessment Traineeships (NanoHEAT)

Administered By
Pratt School of Engineering
AwardedBy
Environmental Protection Agency
Role
Mentor
Start Date
December 01, 2015
End Date
November 30, 2018

The combined influence of outdoor and indoor pollutants on acute respiratory response of Children in China

Administered By
Civil and Environmental Engineering
AwardedBy
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Role
Investigator
Start Date
July 01, 2015
End Date
June 30, 2018

Duke University Program in Environmental Health

Administered By
Environmental Sciences and Policy
AwardedBy
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Role
Mentor
Start Date
July 01, 2013
End Date
June 30, 2018

Air Pollution Particle Effects on Human Lung Antimycobacterial Immunity

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 01, 2013
End Date
May 31, 2018

Prospective Evaluation of Air Pollution, Cognition, and Autism from Birth Onward (PEACABO)

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
Johns Hopkins University
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
August 01, 2015
End Date
April 30, 2018

Risk Assessment for Manufactured Nanoparticies Used in Consumer Products

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
Environmental Protection Agency
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 05, 2013
End Date
June 30, 2016

Respiratory Effects of Silver and Carbon Nanomaterials (RESAC)

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
National Institutes of Health
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
September 28, 2010
End Date
April 30, 2016

Prospective Evaluation of Air Pollution, Cognition, and Autism from Birth Onward (PECABO)

Administered By
Duke Global Health Institute
AwardedBy
University of Southern California
Role
Principal Investigator
Start Date
July 10, 2014
End Date
July 31, 2015
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Publications:

Effects of a nanoceria fuel additive on the physicochemical properties of diesel exhaust particles.

Nanoceria (i.e., CeO2 nanoparticles) fuel additives have been used in Europe and elsewhere to improve fuel efficiency. Previously we have shown that the use of a commercial fuel additive Envirox™ in a diesel-powered electricity generator reduced emissions of diesel exhaust particle (DEP) mass and other pollutants. However, such additives are currently not permitted for use in on-road vehicles in North America, largely due to limited data on the potential health impact. In this study, we characterized a variety of physicochemical properties of DEPs emitted from the same engine. Our methods include novel techniques such as Raman spectrometry for analyzing particle surface structure and an assay for DEP oxidative potential. Results show that with increasing Envirox™ concentrations in the fuel (0×, 0.1×, 1×, and 10× of manufacturer recommended 0.5 mL Envirox™ per liter fuel), DEP sizes decreased from 194.6 ± 20.1 to 116.3 ± 14.8 nm; the zeta potential changed from -28.4 mV to -22.65 mV; DEP carbon content decreased from 91.8% to 79.4%; cerium and nitrogen contents increased from 0.3% to 6.5% and 0.2% to 0.6%, respectively; the ratio of organic carbon (OC) to elemental carbon (EC) increased from 22.9% to 38.7%; and the ratio of the disordered carbon structure to the ordered carbon structure (graphitized carbon) in DEPs decreased. Compared to DEPs emitted from 0×, 0.1×, and 1× fuels, DEPs from the 10× fuel had a lower oxidative potential likely due to the increased ceria content because pure ceria nanoparticles exhibited the lowest oxidative potential compared to all the DEPs. Since the physicochemical parameters tested here are among the determinants of particle toxicity, our findings imply that adding ceria nanoparticles into diesel may alter the toxicity of DEPs. The findings from the present study, hence, can help future studies that will examine the impact of nanoceria additives on DEP toxicities.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Lee, K-B; He, L; Seiffert, J; Subramaniam, P; Yang, L; Chen, S; Maguire, P; Mainelis, G; Schwander, S; Tetley, T; Porter, A; Ryan, M; Shaffer, M; Hu, S; Gong, J; Chung, KF
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, Lee, K-B, He, L, Seiffert, J, Subramaniam, P, Yang, L, Chen, S, Maguire, P, Mainelis, G, Schwander, S, Tetley, T, Porter, A, Ryan, M, Shaffer, M, Hu, S, Gong, J, and Chung, KF. "Effects of a nanoceria fuel additive on the physicochemical properties of diesel exhaust particles." Environmental science. Processes & impacts 18.10 (October 2016): 1333-1342.
PMID
27711787
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Sciences: Processes and Impacts
Volume
18
Issue
10
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
1333
End Page
1342
DOI
10.1039/c6em00337k

Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.

Authors
Sweeney, S; Leo, BF; Chen, S; Abraham-Thomas, N; Thorley, AJ; Gow, A; Schwander, S; Zhang, JJ; Shaffer, MSP; Chung, KF; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE; Tetley, TD
MLA Citation
Sweeney, S, Leo, BF, Chen, S, Abraham-Thomas, N, Thorley, AJ, Gow, A, Schwander, S, Zhang, JJ, Shaffer, MSP, Chung, KF, Ryan, MP, Porter, AE, and Tetley, TD. "Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells." Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces 145 (September 2016): 167-175.
PMID
27182651
Source
epmc
Published In
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces
Volume
145
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
167
End Page
175
DOI
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2016.04.040

Dynamic population flow based risk analysis of infectious disease propagation in a metropolis.

Knowledge on the characteristics of infectious disease propagation in metropolises plays a critical role in guiding public health intervention strategies to reduce death tolls, disease incidence, and possible economic losses. Based on the SIR model, we established a comprehensive spatiotemporal risk assessment model to compute infectious disease propagation within an urban setting using Beijing, China as a case study. The model was developed for a dynamic population distribution using actual data on location, density of residences and offices, and means of public transportation (e.g., subways, buses and taxis). We evaluated four influencing factors including biological, behavioral, environmental parameters and infectious sources. The model output resulted in a set of maps showing how the four influencing factors affected the trend and characteristics of airborne infectious disease propagation in Beijing. We compared the scenarios for the long-term dynamic propagation of infectious disease without governmental interventions versus scenarios with government intervention and hospital coordinated emergency responses. Lastly, the sensitivity of the average number of people at different location in spreading infections is analyzed. Based on our results, we provide valuable recommendations to governmental agencies and the public in order to minimize the disease propagation.

Authors
Zhang, N; Huang, H; Duarte, M; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, N, Huang, H, Duarte, M, and Zhang, JJ. "Dynamic population flow based risk analysis of infectious disease propagation in a metropolis." Environment international 94 (September 2016): 369-379.
PMID
27107973
Source
epmc
Published In
Environment International
Volume
94
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
369
End Page
379
DOI
10.1016/j.envint.2016.03.038

Oxidative DNA damage during sleep periods among nightshift workers.

Oxidative DNA damage may be increased among nightshift workers because of suppression of melatonin, a cellular antioxidant, and/or inflammation related to sleep disruption. However, oxidative DNA damage has received limited attention in previous studies of nightshift work.From two previous cross-sectional studies, urine samples collected during a night sleep period for 217 dayshift workers and during day and night sleep (on their first day off) periods for 223 nightshift workers were assayed for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Urinary measures of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), a marker of circulating melatonin levels, and actigraphy-based sleep quality data were also available.Nightshift workers during their day sleep periods excreted 83% (p=0.2) and 77% (p=0.03) of the 8-OH-dG that dayshift workers and they themselves, respectively, excreted during their night sleep periods. Among nightshift workers, higher aMT6s levels were associated with higher urinary 8-OH-dG levels, and an inverse U-shaped trend was observed between 8-OH-dG levels and sleep efficiency and sleep duration.Reduced excretion of 8-OH-dG among nightshift workers during day sleep may reflect reduced functioning of DNA repair machinery, which could potentially lead to increased cellular levels of oxidative DNA damage. Melatonin disruption among nightshift workers may be responsible for the observed effect, as melatonin is known to enhance repair of oxidative DNA damage. Quality of sleep may similarly impact DNA repair. Cellular levels of DNA damage will need to be evaluated in future studies to help interpret these findings.

Authors
Bhatti, P; Mirick, DK; Randolph, TW; Gong, J; Buchanan, DT; Zhang, JJ; Davis, S
MLA Citation
Bhatti, P, Mirick, DK, Randolph, TW, Gong, J, Buchanan, DT, Zhang, JJ, and Davis, S. "Oxidative DNA damage during sleep periods among nightshift workers." Occupational and environmental medicine 73.8 (August 2016): 537-544.
PMID
27307003
Source
epmc
Published In
Occupational and environmental medicine
Volume
73
Issue
8
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
537
End Page
544
DOI
10.1136/oemed-2016-103629

Pulmonary effects of inhalation of spark-generated silver nanoparticles in Brown-Norway and Sprague-Dawley rats.

The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products is concerning. We examined the potential toxic effects when inhaled in Brown-Norway (BN) rats with a pre-inflammatory state compared to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.We determined the effect of AgNPs generated from a spark generator (mass concentration: 600-800 μg/mm(3); mean diameter: 13-16 nm; total lung doses: 8 [Low] and 26-28 [High] μg) inhaled by the nasal route in both rat strains. Rats were sacrificed at day 1 and day 7 after exposure and measurement of lung function.In both strains, there was an increase in neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid at 24 h at the high dose, with concomitant eosinophilia in BN rats. While BAL inflammatory cells were mostly normalised by Day 7, lung inflammation scores remained increased although not the tissue eosinophil scores. Total protein levels were elevated at both lung doses in both strains. There was an increase in BAL IL-1β, KC, IL-17, CCL2 and CCL3 levels in both strains at Day 1, mostly at high dose. Phospholipid levels were increased at the high dose in SD rats at Day 1 and 7, while in BN rats, this was only seen at Day 1; surfactant protein D levels decreased at day 7 at the high dose in SD rats, but was increased at Day 1 at the low dose in BN rats. There was a transient increase in central airway resistance and in tissue elastance in BN rats at Day 1 but not in SD rats. Positive silver-staining was seen particularly in lung tissue macrophages in a dose and time-dependent response in both strains, maximal by day 7. Lung silver levels were relatively higher in BN rat and present at day 7 in both strains.Presence of cellular inflammation and increasing silver-positive macrophages in lungs at day 7, associated with significant levels of lung silver indicate that lung toxicity is persistent even with the absence of airway luminal inflammation at that time-point. The higher levels and persistence of lung silver in BN rats may be due to the pre-existing inflammatory state of the lungs.

Authors
Seiffert, J; Buckley, A; Leo, B; Martin, NG; Zhu, J; Dai, R; Hussain, F; Guo, C; Warren, J; Hodgson, A; Gong, J; Ryan, MP; Zhang, JJ; Porter, A; Tetley, TD; Gow, A; Smith, R; Chung, KF
MLA Citation
Seiffert, J, Buckley, A, Leo, B, Martin, NG, Zhu, J, Dai, R, Hussain, F, Guo, C, Warren, J, Hodgson, A, Gong, J, Ryan, MP, Zhang, JJ, Porter, A, Tetley, TD, Gow, A, Smith, R, and Chung, KF. "Pulmonary effects of inhalation of spark-generated silver nanoparticles in Brown-Norway and Sprague-Dawley rats." Respiratory research 17.1 (July 19, 2016): 85-.
PMID
27435725
Source
epmc
Published In
Respiratory Research
Volume
17
Issue
1
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
85
DOI
10.1186/s12931-016-0407-7

Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympics on the risk of pregnancy complications.

Taking advantage of the natural experiment of the 2008 Beijing Olympics (August 8 to September 24), when air pollution levels decreased by 13% to 60%, the authors assessed whether having ≥1 pregnancy month during the Olympics was associated with decreased risks of hypertensive disorders (HDs) and/or fetal-placental conditions (FPCs). Singleton births to mothers with ≥1 pregnancy month in 2008 or 2009 (N = 56,155) were included. Using generalized additive models, the authors estimated the risk of HDs and FPCs associated with (1) the 2008 Olympics compared with the same dates in 2009, and (2) increased mean ambient PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), and SO2 (sulfur dioxide) concentrations during each trimester. However, no association between HDs or FPCs and having any trimester during the 2008 Olympic period was found. This may, in part, be due to a small number of pregnancy complications in this population.

Authors
Assibey-Mensah, V; Liu, K; Thurston, SW; Stevens, TP; Zhang, J; Zhang, J; Kane, C; Pan, Y; Weinberger, B; Ohman-Strickland, P; Woodruff, T; Rich, DQ
MLA Citation
Assibey-Mensah, V, Liu, K, Thurston, SW, Stevens, TP, Zhang, J, Zhang, J, Kane, C, Pan, Y, Weinberger, B, Ohman-Strickland, P, Woodruff, T, and Rich, DQ. "Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympics on the risk of pregnancy complications." Archives of environmental & occupational health 71.4 (July 2016): 208-215.
PMID
26066998
Source
epmc
Published In
Archives of environmental & occupational health
Volume
71
Issue
4
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
208
End Page
215
DOI
10.1080/19338244.2015.1058236

Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that air pollution is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Limited experimental data have shown that early-life exposure to ambient particles either increases susceptibility to diet-induced weight gain in adulthood or increases insulin resistance, adiposity, and inflammation. However, no data have directly supported a link between air pollution and non-diet-induced weight increases. In a rodent model, we found that breathing Beijing's highly polluted air resulted in weight gain and cardiorespiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Compared to those exposed to filtered air, pregnant rats exposed to unfiltered Beijing air were significantly heavier at the end of pregnancy. At 8 wk old, the offspring prenatally and postnatally exposed to unfiltered air were significantly heavier than those exposed to filtered air. In both rat dams and their offspring, after continuous exposure to unfiltered air we observed pronounced histologic evidence for both perivascular and peribronchial inflammation in the lungs, increased tissue and systemic oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and an enhanced proinflammatory status of epididymal fat. Results suggest that TLR2/4-dependent inflammatory activation and lipid oxidation in the lung can spill over systemically, leading to metabolic dysfunction and weight gain.-Wei, Y., Zhang, J., Li, Z., Gow, A., Chung, K. F., Hu, M., Sun, Z., Zeng, L., Zhu, T., Jia, G., Li, X., Duarte, M., Tang, X. Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing.

Authors
Wei, Y; Zhang, JJ; Li, Z; Gow, A; Chung, KF; Hu, M; Sun, Z; Zeng, L; Zhu, T; Jia, G; Li, X; Duarte, M; Tang, X
MLA Citation
Wei, Y, Zhang, JJ, Li, Z, Gow, A, Chung, KF, Hu, M, Sun, Z, Zeng, L, Zhu, T, Jia, G, Li, X, Duarte, M, and Tang, X. "Chronic exposure to air pollution particles increases the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from a natural experiment in Beijing." FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 30.6 (June 2016): 2115-2122.
PMID
26891735
Source
epmc
Published In
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Volume
30
Issue
6
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
2115
End Page
2122
DOI
10.1096/fj.201500142

Risk analysis for rumor propagation in metropolises based on improved 8-state ICSAR model and dynamic personal activity trajectories

Authors
Zhang, N; Huang, H; Duarte, M; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Zhang, N, Huang, H, Duarte, M, and Zhang, J. "Risk analysis for rumor propagation in metropolises based on improved 8-state ICSAR model and dynamic personal activity trajectories." Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications 451 (June 2016): 403-419.
Source
crossref
Published In
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
Volume
451
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
403
End Page
419
DOI
10.1016/j.physa.2015.12.131

Dietary intake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and associated cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese urban adults: Inter- and intra-individual variability.

Dietary intake is one of the major exposure pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially in Chinese people because foods are often prepared with grilling and/or frying that would produce high levels of PAHs. In this paper, we assessed daily dietary intakes (DDI) of PAHs, using a "duplicate plate method", among 100 Chinese urban residents. The DDI of benzo(a)pyrene ranged from 0.06 µg per day to 13.5 µg per day with a median of 0.69 µg per day, varying largely across subjects. The median Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) attributable to PAH dietary intake was 6.65 × 10(-5) (4.41 × 10(-5) to 1.02 × 10(-4) as inter-quartile range). The contribution of several high-PAH containing foods like barbecued, smoked or deep-fried meats to the overall DDIs was about 13%. The use of raw foods may underestimate dietary intake of PAHs and associated exposure risk considerably. Results from foods sampled in different seasons suggested that seasonal variability within an individual may contribute notably to overall variability measured in a population and more future studies with longer-term investigation on food ingestion and pollutant exposure are needed. The study indicates that measuring actually consumed foods is more appropriate for dietary intake exposure assessment, and intra-individual variance should be taken into account during study design and data analysis.

Authors
Duan, X; Shen, G; Yang, H; Tian, J; Wei, F; Gong, J; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Duan, X, Shen, G, Yang, H, Tian, J, Wei, F, Gong, J, and Zhang, JJ. "Dietary intake polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and associated cancer risk in a cohort of Chinese urban adults: Inter- and intra-individual variability." Chemosphere 144 (February 2016): 2469-2475.
PMID
26619312
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
144
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
2469
End Page
2475
DOI
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.019

Measurement of human CYP1A2 induction by inhalation exposure to benzo(a)pyrene based on in vivo isotope breath method.

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of certain carcinogens, and inducible by toxic substrates. To date, few studies have investigated in vivo CYP1A2 induction in humans and its relationship to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Non-smoking healthy male coke-oven workers (n = 30) were recruited as 'exposure' group, and non-smoking healthy office workers in the same city (n = 10) were selected as 'control' group, to test whether high inhalation exposure to PAHs can induce CYP1A2 activity in human livers. Significantly higher inhalation exposure of PAHs were found among the exposure group compared to the control. Inhalation BaP exposure concentration in the exposure group was more than 30 times higher than the control group (p < 0.001). However, the exposure group did not exhale significant higher levels of (13)CO2/(12)CO2 in breath samples (p = 0.81), and no significant relationship was found between the inhaled BaP concentration and the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 ratio (p = 0.91). A significant association was found between the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 exhalation and dietary BaP intake level. Hepatic CYP1A2 activity/induction level was not effected by inhaled BaP but was altered by ingestion of BaP.

Authors
Duan, X; Shen, G; Yang, H; Lambert, G; Wei, F; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Duan, X, Shen, G, Yang, H, Lambert, G, Wei, F, and Zhang, JJ. "Measurement of human CYP1A2 induction by inhalation exposure to benzo(a)pyrene based on in vivo isotope breath method." Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) 208.Pt B (January 2016): 506-511.
PMID
26552516
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Pollution
Volume
208
Issue
Pt B
Publish Date
2016
Start Page
506
End Page
511
DOI
10.1016/j.envpol.2015.10.023

Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to traffic-emitted pollutants.

1-Nitro-pyrene has been considered a compound specific to diesel combustion emission, while 1- and 2-nitro-napthalene are mainly produced through photochemical conversion of naphthalene released to the atmosphere. Metabolites of these compounds may serve as biomarkers of exposure to traffic related pollutants. We collected urine samples from 111 healthy and non-smoking subjects within (i.e., during the Beijing Olympics) and outside (i.e., before and after the Olympics) a traffic control regime to improve Beijing's air quality. Urines were analyzed for the sum of 1&2-amino-naphthalene (metabolites of 1- and 2-nitro-naphthalene) and 1-amino-pyrene (a metabolite of 1-nitro-pyrene), using an HPLC-fluorescence method. Within the same time periods, PM2.5 mass and constituents were measured, including elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate, PAHs, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particle number concentrations. The associations between the urinary metabolites and air pollutants were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to during-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene decreased by 23% (p=0.066) and 16% (p=0.049), respectively, while there was no change in 1-amino-pyrene (2% increase, p=0.892). From during- to post-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene, 1-amino-pyrene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene concentrations increased by 26% (p=0.441), 37% (p=0.355), and 3% (p=0.868), respectively. Furthermore, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene were associated with traffic related pollutants in a similar lag pattern. 1-amino-pyrene was associated more strongly with diesel combustion products (e.g. PN and elemental carbon) and not affected by season. Time-lag analyses indicate strongest/largest associations occurred 24-72h following exposure. 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene can be used as a biomarker of exposure to general vehicle-emitted pollutants. More data are needed to confirm 1-amino-pyrene as a biomarker of exposure to diesel combustion emissions. Controlling creatinine as an independent variable in the models will provide a moderate adjusting effect on the biomarker analysis.

Authors
Gong, J; Zhu, T; Kipen, H; Rich, DQ; Huang, W; Lin, W-T; Hu, M; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Gong, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Rich, DQ, Huang, W, Lin, W-T, Hu, M, and Zhang, JJ. "Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to traffic-emitted pollutants." Environment international 85 (December 2015): 104-110.
PMID
26382649
Source
epmc
Published In
Environment International
Volume
85
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
104
End Page
110
DOI
10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.003

Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported decreased birth weight associated with increased air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy. However, it is not clear when during pregnancy increases in air pollution are associated with the largest differences in birth weight. OBJECTIVES: Using the natural experiment of air pollution declines during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, we evaluated whether having specific months of pregnancy (i.e., 1st…8th) during the 2008 Olympics period was associated with larger birth weights, compared with pregnancies during the same dates in 2007 or 2009. METHODS: Using n = 83,672 term births to mothers residing in four urban districts of Beijing, we estimated the difference in birth weight associated with having individual months of pregnancy during the 2008 Olympics (8 August-24 September 2008) compared with the same dates in 2007 and 2009. We also estimated the difference in birth weight associated with interquartile range (IQR) increases in mean ambient particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations during each pregnancy month. RESULTS: Babies whose 8th month of gestation occurred during the 2008 Olympics were, on average, 23 g larger (95% CI: 5 g, 40 g) than babies whose 8th month occurred during the same calendar dates in 2007 or 2009. IQR increases in PM2.5 (19.8 μg/m3), CO (0.3 ppm), SO2 (1.8 ppb), and NO2 (13.6 ppb) concentrations during the 8th month of pregnancy were associated with 18 g (95% CI: -32 g, -3 g), 17 g (95% CI: -28 g, -6 g), 23 g (95% CI: -36 g, -10 g), and 34 g (95% CI: -70 g, 3 g) decreases in birth weight, respectively. We did not see significant associations for months 1-7. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city, were associated with higher birth weight. CITATION: Rich DQ, Liu K, Zhang J, Thurston SW, Stevens TP, Pan Y, Kane C, Weinberger B, Ohman-Strickland P, Woodruff TJ, Duan X, Assibey-Mensah V, Zhang J. 2015. Differences in birth weight associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics air pollution reduction: results from a natural experiment. Environ Health Perspect 123:880-887; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408795.

Authors
Rich, DQ; Liu, K; Zhang, J; Thurston, SW; Stevens, TP; Pan, Y; Kane, C; Weinberger, B; Ohman-Strickland, P; Woodruff, TJ; Duan, X; Assibey-Mensah, V; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Rich, DQ, Liu, K, Zhang, J, Thurston, SW, Stevens, TP, Pan, Y, Kane, C, Weinberger, B, Ohman-Strickland, P, Woodruff, TJ, Duan, X, Assibey-Mensah, V, and Zhang, J. "Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment." Environ Health Perspect 123.9 (September 2015): 880-887.
PMID
25919693
Source
pubmed
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
123
Issue
9
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
880
End Page
887
DOI
10.1289/ehp.1408795

Modeling In Vivo Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Pulmonary Alveolar Lining Fluid.

Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in the body. Modeling of ENM transport and clearance in vivo has traditionally treated tissues as well-mixed compartments, without consideration of nanoscale interaction and transformation mechanisms. ENM agglomeration, dissolution and transport, along with adsorption of biomolecules, such as surfactant lipids and proteins, cause irreversible changes to ENM morphology and surface properties. The model presented in this article quantifies ENM transformation and transport in the alveolar air to liquid interface and estimates eventual alveolar cell dosimetry. This formulation brings together established concepts from colloidal and surface science, physics, and biochemistry to provide a stochastic framework capable of capturing essential in vivo processes in the pulmonary alveolar lining layer. The model has been implemented for in vitro solutions with parameters estimated from relevant published in vitro measurements and has been extended here to in vivo systems simulating human inhalation exposures. Applications are presented for four different ENMs, and relevant kinetic rates are estimated, demonstrating an approach for improving human in vivo pulmonary dosimetry.

Authors
Mukherjee, D; Porter, A; Ryan, M; Schwander, S; Chung, KF; Tetley, T; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, P
MLA Citation
Mukherjee, D, Porter, A, Ryan, M, Schwander, S, Chung, KF, Tetley, T, Zhang, J, and Georgopoulos, P. "Modeling In Vivo Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Pulmonary Alveolar Lining Fluid." Nanomaterials 5.3 (September 2015): 1223-1249.
PMID
26240755
Source
epmc
Published In
Nanomaterials
Volume
5
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1223
End Page
1249
DOI
10.3390/nano5031223

Static and Dynamic Microscopy of the Chemical Stability and Aggregation State of Silver Nanowires in Components of Murine Pulmonary Surfactant.

The increase of production volumes of silver nanowires (AgNWs) and of consumer products incorporating them may lead to increased health risks from occupational and public exposures. There is currently limited information about the putative toxicity of AgNWs upon inhalation and incomplete understanding of the properties that control their bioreactivity. The lung lining fluid (LLF), which contains phospholipids and surfactant proteins, represents a first contact site with the respiratory system. In this work, the impact of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), Curosurf, and murine LLF on the stability of AgNWs was examined. Both the phospholipid and protein components of the LLF modified the dissolution kinetics of AgNWs, due to the formation of a lipid corona or aggregation of the AgNWs. Moreover, the hydrophilic proteins, but neither the hydrophobic surfactant proteins nor the phospholipids, induced agglomeration of the AgNWs. Finally, the generation of a secondary population of nanosilver was observed and attributed to the reduction of Ag(+) ions by the surface capping of the AgNWs. Our findings highlight that combinations of spatially resolved dynamic and static techniques are required to develop a holistic understanding of which parameters govern AgNW behavior at the point of exposure and to accurately predict their risks on human health and the environment.

Authors
Theodorou, IG; Botelho, D; Schwander, S; Zhang, J; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Shaffer, MSP; Gow, A; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE
MLA Citation
Theodorou, IG, Botelho, D, Schwander, S, Zhang, J, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Shaffer, MSP, Gow, A, Ryan, MP, and Porter, AE. "Static and Dynamic Microscopy of the Chemical Stability and Aggregation State of Silver Nanowires in Components of Murine Pulmonary Surfactant." Environmental science & technology 49.13 (July 2015): 8048-8056.
PMID
26061974
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
49
Issue
13
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
8048
End Page
8056
DOI
10.1021/acs.est.5b01214

Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells.

Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.

Authors
Sweeney, S; Theodorou, IG; Zambianchi, M; Chen, S; Gow, A; Schwander, S; Zhang, JJ; Chung, KF; Shaffer, MSP; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE; Tetley, TD
MLA Citation
Sweeney, S, Theodorou, IG, Zambianchi, M, Chen, S, Gow, A, Schwander, S, Zhang, JJ, Chung, KF, Shaffer, MSP, Ryan, MP, Porter, AE, and Tetley, TD. "Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells." Nanoscale 7.23 (June 2015): 10398-10409.
PMID
25996248
Source
epmc
Published In
Nanoscale
Volume
7
Issue
23
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
10398
End Page
10409
DOI
10.1039/c5nr01496d

Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics.

This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m(3), 27.1±15.7 μg/m(3) and 2.3±1.0 μg/m(3), respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

Authors
Altemose, B; Gong, J; Zhu, T; Hu, M; Zhang, L; Cheng, H; Zhang, L; Tong, J; Kipen, HM; Strickland, PO; Meng, Q; Robson, MG; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Altemose, B, Gong, J, Zhu, T, Hu, M, Zhang, L, Cheng, H, Zhang, L, Tong, J, Kipen, HM, Strickland, PO, Meng, Q, Robson, MG, and Zhang, J. "Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics." Atmospheric environment (Oxford, England : 1994) 109 (May 2015): 61-69.
PMID
25883528
Source
epmc
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
109
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
61
End Page
69
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.056

Adsorption of surfactant protein D from human respiratory secretions by carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles depends on nanomaterial surface modification and size.

The alveolar respiratory unit constitutes one of the main targets of inhaled nanoparticles; the effect of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) on human health is largely unknown. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is synthesized by alveolar type II epithelial cells and released into respiratory secretions; its main function is in immune defence, notably against inhaled microbes. SP-D also plays an important role in modulating an appropriate inflammatory response in the lung, and reduced SP-D is associated with a number of inflammatory lung diseases. Adsorption of SP-D to inhaled NMs may facilitate their removal via macrophage phagocytosis. This study addresses the hypothesis that the chemistry, size and surface modification of engineered NMs will impact on their interaction with, and adsorption of, SP-D. To this purpose, we have examined the interactions between SP-D in human lung lavage and two NMs, carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles, with different surface functionalization. We have demonstrated that particle size, functionalization and concentration affect the adsorption of SP-D from human lung lavage. Functionalization with negatively charged groups enhanced the amount of SP-D binding. While SP-D binding would be expected to enhance macrophage phagocytosis, these results suggest that the degree of binding is markedly affected by the physicochemistry of the NM and that deposition of high levels of some nanoparticles within the alveolar unit might deplete SP-D levels and affect alveolar immune defence mechanisms.

Authors
Marchetti, M; Shaffer, MSP; Zambianchi, M; Chen, S; Superti, F; Schwander, S; Gow, A; Zhang, JJ; Chung, KF; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE; Tetley, TD
MLA Citation
Marchetti, M, Shaffer, MSP, Zambianchi, M, Chen, S, Superti, F, Schwander, S, Gow, A, Zhang, JJ, Chung, KF, Ryan, MP, Porter, AE, and Tetley, TD. "Adsorption of surfactant protein D from human respiratory secretions by carbon nanotubes and polystyrene nanoparticles depends on nanomaterial surface modification and size." Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 370.1661 (February 2015): 20140038-.
PMID
25533095
Source
epmc
Published In
Philosophical Transactions B
Volume
370
Issue
1661
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
20140038
DOI
10.1098/rstb.2014.0038

Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; this treatment also reduced levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid; inhibited bronchial hyperresponsiveness; and attenuated ozone-induced increases in total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreases in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the lung. Ozone exposure led to decreases in the H2S production rate and in mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine-β-synthetase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the lung. These effects were prevented and reversed by NaHS treatment. Furthermore, NaHS prevented and reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27. H2S may have preventive and therapeutic value in the treatment of airway diseases that have an oxidative stress basis.

Authors
Zhang, P; Li, F; Wiegman, CH; Zhang, M; Hong, Y; Gong, J; Chang, Y; Zhang, JJ; Adcock, I; Chung, KF; Zhou, X
MLA Citation
Zhang, P, Li, F, Wiegman, CH, Zhang, M, Hong, Y, Gong, J, Chang, Y, Zhang, JJ, Adcock, I, Chung, KF, and Zhou, X. "Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness." American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 52.1 (January 2015): 129-137.
PMID
25010831
Source
epmc
Published In
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Volume
52
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
129
End Page
137
DOI
10.1165/rcmb.2013-0415oc

Haze, health and disease.

Authors
Chung, KF; Zhang, JJ; Zhong, N
MLA Citation
Chung, KF, Zhang, JJ, and Zhong, N. "Haze, health and disease." Journal of thoracic disease 7.1 (January 2015): 1-2. (introduction)
PMID
25694812
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Thoracic Disease
Volume
7
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
1
End Page
2
DOI
10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.01.01

Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned.

Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the "Chinese haze", was created to describe China's air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20(th) century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pollution problems. In this regard, this article addresses the followings specific questions: (I) What is the Chinese haze in comparison with the sulfurous (London-type) smog and the photochemical (Los Angeles-type) smog? (II) How does Chinese haze fit into the current trend of global air pollution transition? (III) What are the major mitigation measures that have improved air quality in Western countries? and (IV) What specific recommendations for China can be derived from lessons and experiences from Western countries?

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Samet, JM
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, and Samet, JM. "Chinese haze versus Western smog: lessons learned." Journal of thoracic disease 7.1 (January 2015): 3-13. (Review)
PMID
25694813
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Thoracic Disease
Volume
7
Issue
1
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
3
End Page
13
DOI
10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.12.06

Pulmonary toxicity of instilled silver nanoparticles: influence of size, coating and rat strain.

Particle size and surface chemistry are potential determinants of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) respiratory toxicity that may also depend on the lung inflammatory state. We compared the effects of intratracheally-administered AgNPs (20 nm and 110 nm; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate-capped; 0.1 mg/Kg) in Brown-Norway (BN) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In BN rats, there was both a neutrophilic and eosinophilic response, while in SD rats, there was a neutrophilic response at day 1, greatest for the 20 nm citrate-capped AgNPs. Eosinophilic cationic protein was increased in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in BN and SD rats on day 1. BAL protein and malondialdehyde levels were increased in BN rats at 1 and 7 days, and BAL KC, CCL11 and IL-13 levels at day 1, with increased expression of CCL11 in lung tissue. Pulmonary resistance increased and compliance decreased at day 1, with persistence at day 7. The 20 nm, but not the 110 nm, AgNPs increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness on day 1, which continued at day 7 for the citrate-capped AgNPs only. The 20 nm versus the 110 nm size were more proinflammatory in terms of neutrophil influx, but there was little difference between the citrate-capped versus the PVP-capped AgNPs. AgNPs can induce pulmonary eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, features characteristic of asthma.

Authors
Seiffert, J; Hussain, F; Wiegman, C; Li, F; Bey, L; Baker, W; Porter, A; Ryan, MP; Chang, Y; Gow, A; Zhang, J; Zhu, J; Tetley, TD; Chung, KF
MLA Citation
Seiffert, J, Hussain, F, Wiegman, C, Li, F, Bey, L, Baker, W, Porter, A, Ryan, MP, Chang, Y, Gow, A, Zhang, J, Zhu, J, Tetley, TD, and Chung, KF. "Pulmonary toxicity of instilled silver nanoparticles: influence of size, coating and rat strain." PloS one 10.3 (January 2015): e0119726-.
PMID
25747867
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
10
Issue
3
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
e0119726
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0119726

Modulation of Human Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size and Surface Modification.

Exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNP) used in consumer products carries potential health risks including increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens. Systematic assessments of antimicrobial macrophage immune responses in the context of AgNP exposure are important because uptake of AgNP by macrophages may lead to alterations of innate immune cell functions. In this study we examined the effects of exposure to AgNP with different particle sizes (20 and 110 nm diameters) and surface chemistry (citrate or polyvinlypyrrolidone capping) on cellular toxicity and innate immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) by human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Exposures of MDM to AgNP significantly reduced cellular viability, increased IL8 and decreased IL10 mRNA expression. Exposure of M.tb-infected MDM to AgNP suppressed M.tb-induced expression of IL1B, IL10, and TNFA mRNA. Furthermore, M.tb-induced IL-1β, a cytokine critical for host resistance to M.tb, was inhibited by AgNP but not by carbon black particles indicating that the observed immunosuppressive effects of AgNP are particle specific. Suppressive effects of AgNP on the M.tb-induced host immune responses were in part due to AgNP-mediated interferences with the TLR signaling pathways that culminate in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. AgNP exposure suppressed M.tb-induced expression of a subset of NF-κB mediated genes (CSF2, CSF3, IFNG, IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, NFKB1A). In addition, AgNP exposure increased the expression of HSPA1A mRNA and the corresponding stress-induced Hsp72 protein. Up-regulation of Hsp72 by AgNP can suppress M.tb-induced NF-κB activation and host immune responses. The observed ability of AgNP to modulate infectious pathogen-induced immune responses has important public health implications.

Authors
Sarkar, S; Leo, BF; Carranza, C; Chen, S; Rivas-Santiago, C; Porter, AE; Ryan, MP; Gow, A; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Zhang, JJ; Georgopoulos, PG; Ohman-Strickland, PA; Schwander, S
MLA Citation
Sarkar, S, Leo, BF, Carranza, C, Chen, S, Rivas-Santiago, C, Porter, AE, Ryan, MP, Gow, A, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Zhang, JJ, Georgopoulos, PG, Ohman-Strickland, PA, and Schwander, S. "Modulation of Human Macrophage Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Silver Nanoparticles of Different Size and Surface Modification." PloS one 10.11 (January 2015): e0143077-.
PMID
26580078
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
10
Issue
11
Publish Date
2015
Start Page
e0143077
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0143077

Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products.

Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

Authors
Royce, SG; Mukherjee, D; Cai, T; Xu, SS; Alexander, JA; Mi, Z; Calderon, L; Mainelis, G; Lee, K; Lioy, PJ; Tetley, TD; Chung, KF; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, PG
MLA Citation
Royce, SG, Mukherjee, D, Cai, T, Xu, SS, Alexander, JA, Mi, Z, Calderon, L, Mainelis, G, Lee, K, Lioy, PJ, Tetley, TD, Chung, KF, Zhang, J, and Georgopoulos, PG. "Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products." Journal of nanoparticle research : an interdisciplinary forum for nanoscale science and technology 16.11 (November 2014).
PMID
25745354
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume
16
Issue
11
Publish Date
2014
DOI
10.1007/s11051-014-2724-4

A controlled trial of acute effects of human exposure to traffic particles on pulmonary oxidative stress and heart rate variability.

For many individuals, daily commuting activities on roadways account for a substantial proportion of total exposure, as well as peak-level exposures, to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPS) including ultrafine particles, but the health impacts of these exposures are not well-understood. We sought to determine if exposure to TRAPs particles during commuting causes acute oxidative stress in the respiratory tract or changes in heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of autonomic activity.We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial in which twenty-one young adults took two 1.5-hr rides in a passenger vehicle in morning rush-hour traffic. The subjects wore a powered-air-purifying respirator, and were blinded to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration during one of the rides. At time points before and after the rides, we measured HRV and markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) including nitrite, the sum of nitrite and nitrate, malondialdehyde, and 8-isoprostane. We used mixed linear models to evaluate the effect of exposure on EBC and HRV outcomes, adjusting for pre-exposure response levels. We used linear models to examine the effects of particle concentrations on EBC outcomes at post-exposure time points.Mean EBC nitrite and the sum of nitrite and nitrate were increased from baseline at immediately post-exposure comparing unfiltered to filtered rides (2.11 μM vs 1.70 μM, p = 0.02 and 19.1 μM vs 10.0 μM, p = 0.02, respectively). Mean EBC malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were about 10% greater following the unfiltered vs. filtered exposures, although this result was not statistically significant. We found no significant associations between exposure to traffic particles and HRV outcomes at any of the time points. At immediately post-exposure, an interquartile range increase in particle number concentration was associated with statistically significant increases in nitrite (99.4%, 95% CI 32.1% to 166.7%) and nitrite + nitrate (75.7%, 95% CI 21.5% to 130.0%).Increases in markers of oxidative stress in EBC may represent early biological responses to widespread exposures to TRAPs particles that affect passengers in vehicles on heavily trafficked roadways.

Authors
Laumbach, RJ; Kipen, HM; Ko, S; Kelly-McNeil, K; Cepeda, C; Pettit, A; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhang, L; Zhang, J; Gong, J; Veleeparambil, M; Gow, AJ
MLA Citation
Laumbach, RJ, Kipen, HM, Ko, S, Kelly-McNeil, K, Cepeda, C, Pettit, A, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhang, L, Zhang, J, Gong, J, Veleeparambil, M, and Gow, AJ. "A controlled trial of acute effects of human exposure to traffic particles on pulmonary oxidative stress and heart rate variability." Particle and fibre toxicology 11 (November 2014): 45-.
PMID
25361615
Source
epmc
Published In
Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Volume
11
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
45
DOI
10.1186/s12989-014-0045-5

Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver.

Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) possess unique characteristics affecting their interactions in biological media and biological tissues. Systematic investigation of the effects of particle properties on biological toxicity requires a comprehensive modeling framework which can be used to predict ENM particokinetics in a variety of media. The Agglomeration-diffusion-sedimentation-reaction model (ADSRM) described here is stochastic, using a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to study the evolution of nanoparticles in biological media, as they interact with each other and with the media over time. Nanoparticle diffusion, gravitational settling, agglomeration, and dissolution are treated in a mechanistic manner with focus on silver ENMs (AgNPs). The ADSRM model utilizes particle properties such as size, density, zeta potential, and coating material, along with medium properties like density, viscosity, ionic strength, and pH, to model evolving patterns in a population of ENMs along with their interaction with associated ions and molecules. The model predictions for agglomeration and dissolution are compared with in vitro measurements for various types of ENMs, coating materials, and incubation media, and are found to be overall consistent with measurements. The model has been implemented for an in vitro case in cell culture systems to inform in vitro dosimetry for toxicology studies, and can be directly extended to other biological systems, including in vivo tissue subsystems by suitably modifying system geometry.

Authors
Mukherjee, D; Leo, BF; Royce, SG; Porter, AE; Ryan, MP; Schwander, S; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, PG
MLA Citation
Mukherjee, D, Leo, BF, Royce, SG, Porter, AE, Ryan, MP, Schwander, S, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Zhang, J, and Georgopoulos, PG. "Modeling physicochemical interactions affecting in vitro cellular dosimetry of engineered nanomaterials: application to nanosilver." Journal of nanoparticle research : an interdisciplinary forum for nanoscale science and technology 16.10 (October 2014): 2616-.
PMID
25598696
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Nanoparticle Research
Volume
16
Issue
10
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
2616
DOI
10.1007/s11051-014-2616-7

Analysis of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and its hydrolytic metabolites in biological specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

Due to its cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and adipogenicity observed in in vitro studies, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) may pose a health risk to humans. Quantifying BADGE exposure is an essential step to assess potential health risks associated with this ubiquitous compound widely used in certain plastic products. Due to the lack of endogenous sources for BADGE, bio-monitoring of BADGE and/or its hydrolytic metabolites (BADGE·H2O and BADGE·2H2O) can be a useful means to measure exposure. In this study, we developed a highly specific and sensitive method to measure BADGE, BADGE·H2O and BADGE·2H2O in plasma and urine, using a fast liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography and positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method. The method can quantify BADGE, BADGE·H2O and BADGE·2H2O with lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.05, 0.05 and 0.2 ng/ml, respectively. The percentage deviation of mean calculated concentrations from target concentrations was within 20%, variations across repeated analyses were within 15%, and mean extraction recovery was higher than 51.4% for all the three analytes in both plasma and urine matrices. The method has been applied to venous blood samples, cord blood samples, and urine samples collected from 9 to 14 adult volunteers. Results showed that concentrations of BADGE were lower than LLOQ in all of these samples except one urine sample. Low levels of BADGE·H2O from 0.108 to 0.222 ng/ml were observed in four venous blood samples and one urine sample (0.187 ng/ml). In contrast, concentrations of BADGE·2H2O were higher than LLOQ, varying from 0.660 to 303.593 ng/ml, in all the 10 venous blood samples and 1 cord blood sample (0.592 ng/ml) and two urine samples (0.200 and 0.306 ng/ml). The results suggest that bio-monitoring of blood and urine for BADGE exposure should focus on the hydrolysis derivatives of BADGE, mainly in the form of BADGE·2H2O.

Authors
Chang, Y; Nguyen, C; Paranjpe, VR; Gilliland, F; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Chang, Y, Nguyen, C, Paranjpe, VR, Gilliland, F, and Zhang, JJ. "Analysis of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and its hydrolytic metabolites in biological specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry." Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 965 (August 2014): 33-38.
PMID
24980807
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Volume
965
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
33
End Page
38
DOI
10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.06.005

Peak expiratory flow, breath rate and blood pressure in adults with changes in particulate matter air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study.

This study aims to examine whether changes in short-term exposures to particulate matter are associated with changes in lung function, breath rate, and blood pressure among healthy adults and whether smoking status modifies the association.We took advantage of the artificially controlled changes in air pollution levels that occurred during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China and conducted a panel study of 201 Beijing residents. Data were collected before, during, and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effect models and generalized estimating equation models were used to compare measurements of peak expiratory flow, breath rate and blood pressure across three time points.The mean values of peak expiratory flow were 346.0 L/min, 399.3 L/min, and 364.1L/min over the three study periods. Peak expiratory flow levels increased in 78% of the participants when comparing the during- with pre- Olympics time points, while peak expiratory flow levels decreased in 80% of participants for the post- and during-Olympic periods comparison. In subgroup analyses comparing the during-Olympic to pre-Olympic time points, we found a larger percentage change in peak expiratory flow (+17%) among female, younger and non-smoking participants than among male, elderly and smoking participants (+12%). The percentage of participants with a fast breath rate (>20/min) changed from 9.7% to 4.9% to 30.1% among females, and from 7.9% to 2.6% to 27.3% among males over the three time points. The changes in blood pressure over the three study periods were not very clear, although there is an increase in diastolic pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure among males during the games.The results suggest that exposure to different air pollution levels has significant effects on respiratory function. Smoking, age and gender appear to modify participants' biological response to changes in air quality.

Authors
Mu, L; Deng, F; Tian, L; Li, Y; Swanson, M; Ying, J; Browne, RW; Rittenhouse-Olson, K; Zhang, JJ; Zhang, Z-F; Bonner, MR
MLA Citation
Mu, L, Deng, F, Tian, L, Li, Y, Swanson, M, Ying, J, Browne, RW, Rittenhouse-Olson, K, Zhang, JJ, Zhang, Z-F, and Bonner, MR. "Peak expiratory flow, breath rate and blood pressure in adults with changes in particulate matter air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study." Environmental research 133 (August 2014): 4-11.
PMID
24906062
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Research
Volume
133
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
4
End Page
11
DOI
10.1016/j.envres.2014.05.006

Comparisons of ultrafine and fine particles in their associations with biomarkers reflecting physiological pathways.

Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics compared to before and after the Olympics, we conducted the current study to compare ultrafine particles (UFPs) and fine particles (PM2.5) in their associations with biomarkers reflecting multiple pathophysiological pathways linking exposure and cardiorespiratory events. Number concentrations of particles (13.0-764.7 nm) and mass concentrations of PM2.5 were measured at two locations within 9 km from the residence and workplace of 125 participating Beijing residents. Each participant was measured 6 times for biomarkers of autonomic function (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures), hemostasis (von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and P-selectin), pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress (exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH, malondialdehyde, and nitrite), and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (urinary malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, plasma fibrinogen, and white blood cells). Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations of biomarkers with UFPs and PM2.5 measured 1-7 days prior to biomarker measurements (lags). We found that the correlation coefficient for UFPs at two locations (∼ 9 km apart) was 0.45, and at the same location, the correlation coefficient for PM2.5 vs UFPs was -0.18. Changes in biomarker levels associated with increases in UFPs and PM2.5 were comparable in magnitude. However, associations of certain biomarkers with UFPs had different lag patterns compared to those with PM2.5, suggesting that the ultrafine size fraction (≤ 100 nm) and the fine size fraction (∼ 100 nm to 2.5 μm) of PM2.5 are likely to affect PM-induced pathophysiological pathways independently.

Authors
Gong, J; Zhu, T; Kipen, H; Wang, G; Hu, M; Guo, Q; Ohman-Strickland, P; Lu, S-E; Wang, Y; Zhu, P; Rich, DQ; Huang, W; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Gong, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Wang, G, Hu, M, Guo, Q, Ohman-Strickland, P, Lu, S-E, Wang, Y, Zhu, P, Rich, DQ, Huang, W, and Zhang, J. "Comparisons of ultrafine and fine particles in their associations with biomarkers reflecting physiological pathways." Environmental science & technology 48.9 (May 2014): 5264-5273.
PMID
24666379
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
48
Issue
9
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
5264
End Page
5273
DOI
10.1021/es5006016

Household coal combustion: Exposure to toxic pollutants and health effects

Authors
Zhang, J; Duan, X; Bruce, N; Adair-Rohani, H; Smith, KR
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Duan, X, Bruce, N, Adair-Rohani, H, and Smith, KR. "Household coal combustion: Exposure to toxic pollutants and health effects." Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate (January 1, 2014): 756-759.
Source
scopus
Published In
Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
756
End Page
759

Climate change and health

Authors
Samet, JM; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Samet, JM, and Zhang, JJ. "Climate change and health." Routledge Handbook of Global Public Health in Asia. January 1, 2014. 281-298.
Source
scopus
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
281
End Page
298
DOI
10.4324/9781315818719

Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.

Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties.

Authors
Sarkar, S; Zhang, L; Subramaniam, P; Lee, K-B; Garfunkel, E; Strickland, PAO; Mainelis, G; Lioy, PJ; Tetley, TD; Chung, KF; Zhang, J; Ryan, M; Porter, A; Schwander, S
MLA Citation
Sarkar, S, Zhang, L, Subramaniam, P, Lee, K-B, Garfunkel, E, Strickland, PAO, Mainelis, G, Lioy, PJ, Tetley, TD, Chung, KF, Zhang, J, Ryan, M, Porter, A, and Schwander, S. "Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells." PloS one 9.5 (January 2014): e97304-.
PMID
24825358
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
9
Issue
5
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
e97304
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0097304

The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis.

Previous studies have investigated the associations between exposure to ambient air pollution and biomarkers of physiological pathways, yet little has been done on the comparison across biomarkers of different pathways to establish the temporal pattern of biological response. In the current study, we aim to compare the relative temporal patterns in responses of candidate pathways to different pollutants. Four biomarkers of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, five biomarkers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, ten parameters of autonomic function, and three biomarkers of hemostasis were repeatedly measured in 125 young adults, along with daily concentrations of ambient CO, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, EC, OC, and sulfate, before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics. We used a two-stage modeling approach, including Stage I models to estimate the association between each biomarker and pollutant over each of 7 lags, and Stage II mixed-effect models to describe temporal patterns in the associations when grouping the biomarkers into the four physiological pathways. Our results show that candidate pathway groupings of biomarkers explained a significant amount of variation in the associations for each pollutant, and the temporal patterns of the biomarker-pollutant-lag associations varied across candidate pathways (p<0.0001) and were not linear (from lag 0 to lag 3: p = 0.0629, from lag 3 to lag 6: p = 0.0005). These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24 hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2-3 day period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the cardiovascular system.

Authors
Roy, A; Gong, J; Thomas, DC; Zhang, J; Kipen, HM; Rich, DQ; Zhu, T; Huang, W; Hu, M; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Zhu, P; Lu, S-E; Ohman-Strickland, P; Diehl, SR; Eckel, SP
MLA Citation
Roy, A, Gong, J, Thomas, DC, Zhang, J, Kipen, HM, Rich, DQ, Zhu, T, Huang, W, Hu, M, Wang, G, Wang, Y, Zhu, P, Lu, S-E, Ohman-Strickland, P, Diehl, SR, and Eckel, SP. "The cardiopulmonary effects of ambient air pollution and mechanistic pathways: a comparative hierarchical pathway analysis." PloS one 9.12 (January 2014): e114913-.
PMID
25502951
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
9
Issue
12
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
e114913
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0114913

Modeling in vitro cellular responses to silver nanoparticles.

Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely demonstrated to induce toxic effects to various cell types. In vitro cell exposure systems have high potential for reliable, high throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity, allowing focusing on particular pathways while excluding unwanted effects due to other cells or tissue dosimetry. The work presented here involves a detailed biologically based computational model of cellular interactions with NPs; it utilizes measurements performed in human cell culture systems in vitro, to develop a mechanistic mathematical model that can support analysis and prediction of in vivo effects of NPs. The model considers basic cellular mechanisms including proliferation, apoptosis, and production of cytokines in response to NPs. This new model is implemented for macrophages and parameterized using in vitro measurements of changes in cellular viability and mRNA levels of cytokines: TNF, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. The model includes in vitro cellular dosimetry due to nanoparticle transport and transformation. Furthermore, the model developed here optimizes the essential cellular parameters based on in vitro measurements, and provides a "stepping stone" for the development of more advanced in vivo models that will incorporate additional cellular and NP interactions.

Authors
Mukherjee, D; Royce, SG; Sarkar, S; Thorley, A; Schwander, S; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, PG
MLA Citation
Mukherjee, D, Royce, SG, Sarkar, S, Thorley, A, Schwander, S, Ryan, MP, Porter, AE, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Zhang, J, and Georgopoulos, PG. "Modeling in vitro cellular responses to silver nanoparticles." Journal of toxicology 2014 (January 2014): 852890-.
PMID
25541583
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Toxicology
Volume
2014
Publish Date
2014
Start Page
852890
DOI
10.1155/2014/852890

High-resolution analytical electron microscopy reveals cell culture media-induced changes to the chemistry of silver nanowires.

There is a growing concern about the potential adverse effects on human health upon exposure to engineered silver nanomaterials (particles, wires, and plates). However, the majority of studies testing the toxicity of silver nanomaterials have examined nominally "as-synthesized" materials without considering the fate of the materials in biologically relevant fluids. Here, in-house silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared by a modified polyol process and were incubated in three cell culture media (DMEM, RPMI-1640, and DCCM-1) to examine the impact of AgNW-medium interactions on the physicochemical properties of the AgNWs. High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy revealed that Ag2S crystals form on the surface of AgNWs within 1 h of incubation in DCCM-1. In contrast, the incubation of AgNWs in RPMI-1640 or DMEM did not lead to sulfidation. When the DCCM-1 cell culture medium was separated into its small molecule solutes and salts and protein components, the AgNWs were found to sulfidize in the fraction containing small molecule solutes and salts but not in the fraction containing the protein component of the media. Further investigation showed the AgNWs did not readily sulfidize in the presence of isolated sulfur containing amino acids or proteins, such as cysteine or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results demonstrate that the AgNWs can be transformed by the media before and during the incubation with cells, and therefore, the effects of cell culture media must be considered in the analysis of toxicity assays. Appropriate media and material controls must be in place to allow accurate predictions about the toxicity and, ultimately, the health risk of this commercially relevant class of nanomaterial.

Authors
Chen, S; Theodorou, IG; Goode, AE; Gow, A; Schwander, S; Zhang, JJ; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Shaffer, MS; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE
MLA Citation
Chen, S, Theodorou, IG, Goode, AE, Gow, A, Schwander, S, Zhang, JJ, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Shaffer, MS, Ryan, MP, and Porter, AE. "High-resolution analytical electron microscopy reveals cell culture media-induced changes to the chemistry of silver nanowires." Environmental science & technology 47.23 (December 2013): 13813-13821.
PMID
24160871
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
47
Issue
23
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
13813
End Page
13821
DOI
10.1021/es403264d

Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

Authors
Zhang, J; Nazarenko, Y; Zhang, L; Calderon, L; Lee, K-B; Garfunkel, E; Schwander, S; Tetley, TD; Chung, KF; Porter, AE; Ryan, M; Kipen, H; Lioy, PJ; Mainelis, G
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Nazarenko, Y, Zhang, L, Calderon, L, Lee, K-B, Garfunkel, E, Schwander, S, Tetley, TD, Chung, KF, Porter, AE, Ryan, M, Kipen, H, Lioy, PJ, and Mainelis, G. "Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants." Environmental science & technology 47.22 (November 7, 2013): 13077-13085.
PMID
24144266
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
47
Issue
22
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
13077
End Page
13085
DOI
10.1021/es402140u

Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001

In-vehicle air quality (IVAQ) can be a major health conce rn due to factors such as urban sprawl and increased commuting time spent by individuals in vehicles. Few studies, particularly in the U.S., have considered in-vehicle toxic air contaminants, and none to date collected/analyzed field data in multiple communities across multiple climate zones. This study presents analyses of field data collected during the RIOPA Study from participating non-smoking adults for communities in Los Angeles County, CA, Elizabeth, NJ and Houston, TX. A significant difference (p < 0.001) in in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations was observed, with the median concentration of in-vehicle formaldehyde in the CA communities about twice as high as in the NJ and TX communities. The highest median concentration of in-vehicle acetaldehyde was observed among the TX participants, over 40% higher than the overall study median. Given small sample sizes, the community (state) differences may be driven independently by differences in individual vehicle conditions and driving habits. Positive correlations were found between average community outdoor relative humidity in CA and NJ and in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations. The amount of time car windows were reported as closed was inversely correlated with in-vehicle formaldehyde across study locations, and for in-vehicle acetaldehyde in CA and TX. Average wind speed and varying sky conditions also had suggested associations to in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. In CA and TX, 88% (7/8) of participants with a diagnosis of bronchitis reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde concentrations greater than the overall study median. Every participant with diagnoses of both asthma and bronchitis (n=3) reported at study baseline had in-vehicle formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the overall study median; one participant in TX with two seasonal in-vehicle samplings had in-vehicle concentrations > 75th percentile. IVAQ during commuting may vary based on human behavior and meteorological factors. Additional studies are needed to further characterize ways to help reduce in-vehicle aldehyde exposures, especially for people with existing chronic respiratory illnesses who could experience symptom exacerbations upon such exposures. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Authors
Mapou, AEM; Shendell, DG; Therkorn, JH; Xiong, Y; Meng, Q; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Mapou, AEM, Shendell, DG, Therkorn, JH, Xiong, Y, Meng, Q, and Zhang, J. "Aldehydes in passenger vehicles: An analysis of data from the RIOPA Study 1999-2001." Atmospheric Environment 79 (November 1, 2013): 751-759.
Source
scopus
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
79
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
751
End Page
759
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.07.018

Concentrations of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in women exposed to woodsmoke in a cookstove intervention study in San Marcos, Peru.

Nearly half of the world's population is exposed to household air pollution (HAP) due to long hours spent in close proximity to unvented cooking fires. The effect of woodsmoke exposure on oxidative stress was examined by investigating the association between woodsmoke exposure and biomarkers of DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) and lipid peroxidation (8-isoprostane) among control and intervention stove users. HAP exposure assessment was conducted within the framework of a community-randomized controlled trial of 51 communities in San Marcos Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru. The first morning urine voids after 48h HAP exposure assessment from a subset of 45 control and 39 intervention stove users were analyzed for 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane. General linear models and correlation analyses were performed. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers ranged from 11.2 to 2270.0μg/g creatinine (median: 132.6μg/g creatinine) for 8-OHdG and from 0.1 to 4.5μg/g creatinine (median: 0.8μg/g creatinine) for 8-isoprostane among all study subjects (n=84). After controlling for the effects of traffic in the community and eating food exposed to fire among all subjects, cooking time was weakly, but positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG (r=0.29, p=0.01, n=80). Subjects' real-time personal CO exposures were negatively associated with 8-OHdG, particularly the maximum 30-second CO exposure during the sampling period (r=-0.32, p=0.001, n=73). 48h time integrated personal PM2.5 was negatively, but marginally associated with urinary 8-isoprostane (r=-0.21, p=0.09, n=69) after controlling for the effect of distance of homes to the road. Urinary 8-isoprostane levels reported in the available literature are comparable to results found in the current study. However there were relatively high levels of urinary 8-OHdG compared to data in the available literature for 8-OHdG excretion. Results suggest a sustained systemic oxidative stress among these Peruvian women chronically exposed to wood smoke.

Authors
Commodore, AA; Zhang, JJ; Chang, Y; Hartinger, SM; Lanata, CF; Mäusezahl, D; Gil, AI; Hall, DB; Aguilar-Villalobos, M; Vena, JE; Wang, J-S; Naeher, LP
MLA Citation
Commodore, AA, Zhang, JJ, Chang, Y, Hartinger, SM, Lanata, CF, Mäusezahl, D, Gil, AI, Hall, DB, Aguilar-Villalobos, M, Vena, JE, Wang, J-S, and Naeher, LP. "Concentrations of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane in women exposed to woodsmoke in a cookstove intervention study in San Marcos, Peru." Environment international 60 (October 2013): 112-122.
PMID
24041735
Source
epmc
Published In
Environment International
Volume
60
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
112
End Page
122
DOI
10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.013

Sulfidation of silver nanowires inside human alveolar epithelial cells: a potential detoxification mechanism.

Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are being developed for use in optoelectronics. However before widespread usage, it is crucial to determine their potential effects on human health. It is accepted that Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) exert toxic effects by releasing Ag(+) ions, but much less is known about whether Ag(+) reacts with compounds, or any downstream bioactive effects of transformed AgNPs. Analytical high-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been employed to elucidate cellular uptake and reactivity of AgNWs inside human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells. AgNWs were observed in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound vesicles, and precipitation of Ag2S within the cell occurred after 1 h exposure. Cell viability studies showed no evidence of cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species were not observed on exposure of cells to AgNWs. We suggest that Ag2S formation acts as a 'trap' for free Ag(+), significantly limiting short-term toxicological effects - with important consequences for the safety of Ag-nanomaterials to human health.

Authors
Chen, S; Goode, AE; Sweeney, S; Theodorou, IG; Thorley, AJ; Ruenraroengsak, P; Chang, Y; Gow, A; Schwander, S; Skepper, J; Zhang, JJ; Shaffer, MS; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Ryan, MP; Porter, AE
MLA Citation
Chen, S, Goode, AE, Sweeney, S, Theodorou, IG, Thorley, AJ, Ruenraroengsak, P, Chang, Y, Gow, A, Schwander, S, Skepper, J, Zhang, JJ, Shaffer, MS, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Ryan, MP, and Porter, AE. "Sulfidation of silver nanowires inside human alveolar epithelial cells: a potential detoxification mechanism." Nanoscale 5.20 (October 2013): 9839-9847.
PMID
23970174
Source
epmc
Published In
Nanoscale
Volume
5
Issue
20
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
9839
End Page
9847
DOI
10.1039/c3nr03205a

The stability of silver nanoparticles in a model of pulmonary surfactant.

The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential impact on the environment and human health. Whether AgNPs dissolve and release Ag(+) ions, or coarsen to form large aggregates, is critical in determining their potential toxicity. In this work, the stability of AgNPs in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was investigated as a function of pH. Spherical, citrate-capped AgNPs with average diameters of 14 ± 1.6 nm (n = 200) were prepared by a chemical bath reduction. The kinetics of Ag(+) ion release was strongly pH-dependent. After 14 days of incubation in sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) solutions, the total fraction of AgNPs dissolved varied from ∼10% at pH 3, to ∼2% at pH 5, with negligible dissolution at pH 7. A decrease in pH from 7 to 3 also promoted particle aggregation and coarsening. DPPC (100 mg·L(-1)) delayed the release of Ag(+) ions, but did not significantly alter the total amount of Ag(+) released after two weeks. In addition, DPPC improved the dispersion of the AgNPs and inhibited aggregation and coarsening. TEM images revealed that the AgNPs were coated with a DPPC layer serving as a semipermeable layer. Hence, lung lining fluid, particularly DPPC, can modify the aggregation state and kinetics of Ag(+) ion release of inhaled AgNPs in the lung. These observations have important implications for predicting the potential reactivity of AgNPs in the lung and the environment.

Authors
Leo, BF; Chen, S; Kyo, Y; Herpoldt, K-L; Terrill, NJ; Dunlop, IE; McPhail, DS; Shaffer, MS; Schwander, S; Gow, A; Zhang, J; Chung, KF; Tetley, TD; Porter, AE; Ryan, MP
MLA Citation
Leo, BF, Chen, S, Kyo, Y, Herpoldt, K-L, Terrill, NJ, Dunlop, IE, McPhail, DS, Shaffer, MS, Schwander, S, Gow, A, Zhang, J, Chung, KF, Tetley, TD, Porter, AE, and Ryan, MP. "The stability of silver nanoparticles in a model of pulmonary surfactant." Environmental science & technology 47.19 (October 2013): 11232-11240.
PMID
23988335
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
47
Issue
19
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
11232
End Page
11240
DOI
10.1021/es403377p

The triggering of myocardial infarction by fine particles is enhanced when particles are enriched in secondary species.

Previous studies have reported an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) associated with acute increases in PM concentration. Recently, we reported that MI/fine particle (PM2.5) associations may be limited to transmural infarctions. In this study, we retained data on hospital discharges with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (using International Classification of Diseases ninth Revision [ICD-9] codes), for those admitted January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2006, who were ≥ 18 years of age, and were residents of New Jersey at the time of their MI. We excluded MI with a diagnosis of a previous MI and MI coded as a subendocardial infarction, leaving n = 1563 transmural infarctions available for analysis. We coupled these health data with PM2.5 species concentrations predicted by the Community Multiscale Air Quality chemical transport model, ambient PM2.5 concentrations, and used the same case-crossover methods to evaluate whether the relative odds of transmural MI associated with increased PM2.5 concentration is modified by the PM2.5 composition/mixture (i.e., mass fractions of sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and ammonium). We found the largest relative odds estimates on the days with the highest tertile of sulfate mass fraction (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.27), nitrate mass fraction (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.35), and ammonium mass fraction (OR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.00 1.28), and the lowest tertile of EC mass fraction (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.34). Air pollution mixtures on these days were enhanced in pollutants formed through atmospheric chemistry (i.e., secondary PM2.5) and depleted in primary pollutants (e.g., EC). When mixtures were laden with secondary PM species (sulfate, nitrate, and/or organics), we observed larger relative odds of myocardial infarction associated with increased PM2.5 concentrations. Further work is needed to confirm these findings and examine which secondary PM2.5 component(s) is/are responsible for an acute MI response.

Authors
Rich, DQ; Özkaynak, H; Crooks, J; Baxter, L; Burke, J; Ohman-Strickland, P; Thevenet-Morrison, K; Kipen, HM; Zhang, J; Kostis, JB; Lunden, M; Hodas, N; Turpin, BJ
MLA Citation
Rich, DQ, Özkaynak, H, Crooks, J, Baxter, L, Burke, J, Ohman-Strickland, P, Thevenet-Morrison, K, Kipen, HM, Zhang, J, Kostis, JB, Lunden, M, Hodas, N, and Turpin, BJ. "The triggering of myocardial infarction by fine particles is enhanced when particles are enriched in secondary species." Environmental science & technology 47.16 (August 2013): 9414-9423.
PMID
23819750
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
47
Issue
16
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
9414
End Page
9423
DOI
10.1021/es4027248

Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress.

Underlying mechanisms by which air pollutants adversely affect human health remain poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been considered as a potential mechanism that may promote lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species, leading to the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is excreted in biofluids (e.g., urine and exhaled breath condensate (EBC)). A panel study was conducted to examine whether concentrations of MDA in EBC and urine were associated, respectively, with changes in air pollution levels brought by the Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures. EBC and urine samples from 125 healthy adults were collected twice in each of the pre-, during-, and post-Olympic periods. Period-specific means of MDA and changes in MDA levels associated with increases in 24-h average pollutant concentrations were estimated using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants decreased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA significantly decreased by 24% (P<0.0001) and 28% (P=0.0002), respectively. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, when concentrations of most pollutants increased, EBC MDA and urinary MDA increased by 28% (P=0.094) and 55% (P=0.046), respectively. Furthermore, the largest increases in EBC MDA associated with one interquartile range (IQR) increases in all pollutants but ozone ranged from 10% (95% CI: 2%, 18%) to 19% (95% CI: 14%, 25%). The largest increases in urinary MDA associated with IQR increases in pollutant concentration ranged from 9% (95%: 0.3%, 19%) to 15% (95% CI: 3%, 28%). These findings support the utility of EBC MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress in the respiratory tract and urinary MDA as a biomarker of systemic oxidative stress in relation to air pollution exposure in healthy young adults. Both EBC and urine samples can be collected noninvasively in the general population.

Authors
Gong, J; Zhu, T; Kipen, H; Wang, G; Hu, M; Ohman-Strickland, P; Lu, S-E; Zhang, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, P; Rich, DQ; Diehl, SR; Huang, W; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Gong, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Wang, G, Hu, M, Ohman-Strickland, P, Lu, S-E, Zhang, L, Wang, Y, Zhu, P, Rich, DQ, Diehl, SR, Huang, W, and Zhang, JJ. "Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress." Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 23.3 (May 2013): 322-327.
PMID
23321859
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
23
Issue
3
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
322
End Page
327
DOI
10.1038/jes.2012.127

Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters.

Experimental studies indicate that exposure to woodsmoke could induce oxidative stress. However studies have not been conducted among the general population and specialized occupational groups despite the existence of elevated woodsmoke exposure situations. Therefore, we investigated whether there were across workshift changes in oxidative stress biomarkers among wildland firefighters who are occupationally exposed to elevated levels of woodsmoke. We collected pre- and post-workshift urine samples from 19 wildland firefighters before and after prescribed burns. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) in the samples, and analyzed whether there were cross-shift changes in their levels, and the relationships between the changes and the length of firefighting career, age of firefighter, and quantified workshift exposure to particulate matter. Overall no significant cross-shift change was observed for 8-oxodG or MDA in the urine samples of the firefighters. Changes in both biomarkers were also not associated with PM2.5, which was used as a marker of exposure. However, overall unadjusted geometric mean 8-oxo-dG levels in the samples (31 μg/g creatinine) was relatively higher compared to those measured in healthy individuals in many occupational or general population studies. Additionally, cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG excretion were dependent on the length of firefighting career (p=0.01) or age of the subject (p=0.01). Significant increases in 8-oxo-dG level from pre-shift to post-shift were observed for those who had been firefighters for 2 years or less. The results indicate that oxidative stress response measured as cross-shift changes in 8-oxo-dG may depend on age or the length of a firefighter's career. These results suggest the need to investigate the longer term health effects of cumulative exposure of woodsmoke exposure among wildland firefighters, because increased body burden of oxidative stress is a risk factor for many diseases and is theorized to be involved in aging.

Authors
Adetona, O; Zhang, JJ; Hall, DB; Wang, J-S; Vena, JE; Naeher, LP
MLA Citation
Adetona, O, Zhang, JJ, Hall, DB, Wang, J-S, Vena, JE, and Naeher, LP. "Occupational exposure to woodsmoke and oxidative stress in wildland firefighters." The Science of the total environment 449 (April 2013): 269-275.
PMID
23434577
Source
epmc
Published In
Science of the Total Environment
Volume
449
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
269
End Page
275
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.075

Cardiorespiratory biomarker responses in healthy young adults to drastic air quality changes surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

Associations between air pollution and cardiorespiratory mortality and morbidity have been well established, but data to support biologic mechanisms underlying these associations are limited. We designed this study to examine several prominently hypothesized mechanisms by assessing Beijing residents' biologic responses, at the biomarker level, to drastic changes in air quality brought about by unprecedented air pollution control measures implemented during the 2008 Beijing Olympics. To test the hypothesis that changes in air pollution levels are associated with changes in biomarker levels reflecting inflammation, hemostasis, oxidative stress, and autonomic tone, we recruited and retained 125 nonsmoking adults (19 to 33 years old) free of cardiorespiratory and other chronic diseases. Using the combination of a quasi-experimental design and a panel-study approach, we measured biomarkers of autonomic dysfunction (heart rate [HR*] and heart rate variability [HRV]), of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (plasma C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, blood cell counts and differentials, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]), of pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress (fractional exhaled nitric oxide [FeNO], exhaled breath condensate [EBC] pH, EBC nitrate, EBC nitrite, EBC nitrite+nitrate [sum of the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate], and EBC 8-isoprostane), of hemostasis (platelet activation [plasma sCD62P and sCD40L], platelet aggregation, and von Willebrand factor [vWF]), and of blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and diastolic blood pressure [DBP]). These biomarkers were measured on each subject twice before, twice during, and twice after the Beijing Olympics. For each subject, repeated measurements were separated by at least one week to avoid potential residual effects from a prior measurement. We measured a large suite of air pollutants (PM2.5 [particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter] and constituents, sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], and ozone [O3]) throughout the study at a central Beijing site near the residences and workplaces of the subjects on a daily basis. Total particle number (TPN) was also measured at a separate site. We used a time-series analysis to assess changes in pollutant concentration by period (pre-, during-, and post-Olympics periods). We used mixed-effects models to assess changes in biomarker levels by period and to estimate changes associated with increases in pollutant concentrations, controlling for ambient temperature, relative humidity (RH), sex, and the day of the week of the biomarker measurements. We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential temporal confounding and exposure misclassification. We observed reductions in mean concentrations for all measured pollutants except O3 from the pre-Olympics period to the during-Olympics period. On average, elemental carbon (EC) changed by -36%, TPN by -22%, SO2 by -60%, CO by -48%, and NO2 by -43% (P < 0.05 for all these pollutants). Reductions were observed in mean concentrations of PM2.5 (by -27%), sulfate (SO4(2-)) (by -13%), and organic carbon (OC) (by -23%); however, these values were not statistically significant. Both 24-hour averages and 1-hour maximums of O3 increased (by 20% and 17%, respectively) from the pre-Olympics to the during-Olympics period. In the post-Olympics period after the pollution control measures were relaxed, mean concentrations of most pollutants (with the exception of SO4(2-) and O3) increased to levels similar to or higher than pre-Olympics levels. Concomitantly and consistent with the hypothesis, we observed, from the pre-Olympics to the during-Olympics period, statistically significant (P < or = 0.05) or marginally significant (0.05 < P < 0.1) decreases in HR (-1 bpm or -1.7% [95% CI, -3.4 to -0.1]), SBP (-1.6 mmHg or -1.8% [95% CI, -3.9 to 0.4]), 8-OHdG (-58.3% [95% CI, -72.5 to -36.7]), FeNO (-60.3% [95% CI, -66.0 to -53.6]), EBC nitrite (-30.0% [95% CI, -39.3 to -19.3]), EBC nitrate (-21.5% [95% CI, -35.5 to -4.5]), EBC nitrite+nitrate (-17.6% [95% CI, -28.4 to -5.1]), EBC hydrogen ions (-46% [calculated from EBC pH], or +3.5% in EBC pH [95% CI, 2.2 to 4.9]), sCD62P (-34% [95% CI, -38.4 to -29.2]), sCD40L (-5.7% [95% CI, -10.5 to -0.7]), and vWF (-13.1% [95% CI, -18.6 to -7.5]). Moreover, the percentages of above-detection values out of all observations were significantly lower for plasma CRP and EBC 8-isoprostane in the during-Olympics period compared with the pre-Olympics period. In the post-Olympics period, the levels of the following biomarkers reversed (increased, either with or without statistical significance) from those in the during-Olympics period: SBP (10.7% [95% CI, 2.8 to 18.6]), fibrinogen (4.3% [95% CI, -1.7 to 10.2), neutrophil count (4.7% [95% CI, -7.7 to 17.0]), 8-OHdG (315% [95% CI, 62.0 to 962]), FeNO (130% [95% CI, 62.5 to 225]), EBC nitrite (159% [95% CI, 71.8 to 292]), EBC nitrate (161% [95% CI, 48.0 to 362]), EBC nitrite+nitrate (124% [95% CI, 50.9 to 233]), EBC hydrogen ions (146% [calculated from EBC pH] or -4.8% in EBC pH [95% CI, -9.4 to -0.21), sCD62P (33.7% [95% CI, 17.7 to 51.8]), and sCD40L (9.1% [95% CI, -3.7 to 23.5]). Furthermore, these biomarkers also showed statistically significant associations with multiple pollutants across different lags after adjusting for meteorologic parameters. The associations were in the directions hypothesized and were consistent with the findings from the comparisons between periods, providing further evidence that the period effects were due to changes in air quality, independent of season and meteorologic conditions or other potential confounders. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, we observed increases in platelet aggregation, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs) associated with the during-Olympics period, as well as significant negative associations of these biomarkers with pollutant concentrations. We did not observe significant changes in any of the HRV indices and DBP by period. However, we observed associations between a few HRV indices and pollutant concentrations. Changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics were associated with acute changes in biomarkers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and hemostasis and in measures of cardiovascular physiology (HR and SBP) in healthy, young adults. These changes support the prominently hypothesized mechanistic pathways underlying the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution.

Authors
Zhang, J; Zhu, T; Kipen, H; Wang, G; Huang, W; Rich, D; Zhu, P; Wang, Y; Lu, S-E; Ohman-Strickland, P; Diehl, S; Hu, M; Tong, J; Gong, J; Thomas, D; HEI Health Review Committee,
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Zhu, T, Kipen, H, Wang, G, Huang, W, Rich, D, Zhu, P, Wang, Y, Lu, S-E, Ohman-Strickland, P, Diehl, S, Hu, M, Tong, J, Gong, J, Thomas, D, and HEI Health Review Committee, . "Cardiorespiratory biomarker responses in healthy young adults to drastic air quality changes surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics." Research report (Health Effects Institute) 174 (February 2013): 5-174.
PMID
23646463
Source
epmc
Published In
Research report (Health Effects Institute)
Issue
174
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
5
End Page
174

Computational multiscale toxicodynamic modeling of silver and carbon nanoparticle effects on mouse lung function.

A computational, multiscale toxicodynamic model has been developed to quantify and predict pulmonary effects due to uptake of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in mice. The model consists of a collection of coupled toxicodynamic modules, that were independently developed and tested using information obtained from the literature. The modules were developed to describe the dynamics of tissue with explicit focus on the cells and the surfactant chemicals that regulate the process of breathing, as well as the response of the pulmonary system to xenobiotics. Alveolar type I and type II cells, and alveolar macrophages were included in the model, along with surfactant phospholipids and surfactant proteins, to account for processes occurring at multiple biological scales, coupling cellular and surfactant dynamics affected by nanoparticle exposure, and linking the effects to tissue-level lung function changes. Nanoparticle properties such as size, surface chemistry, and zeta potential were explicitly considered in modeling the interactions of these particles with biological media. The model predictions were compared with in vivo lung function response measurements in mice and analysis of mice lung lavage fluid following exposures to silver and carbon nanoparticles. The predictions were found to follow the trends of observed changes in mouse surfactant composition over 7 days post dosing, and are in good agreement with the observed changes in mouse lung function over the same period of time.

Authors
Mukherjee, D; Botelho, D; Gow, AJ; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, PG
MLA Citation
Mukherjee, D, Botelho, D, Gow, AJ, Zhang, J, and Georgopoulos, PG. "Computational multiscale toxicodynamic modeling of silver and carbon nanoparticle effects on mouse lung function." PloS one 8.12 (January 2013): e80917-.
PMID
24312506
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
8
Issue
12
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
e80917
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0080917

Effects of N-acetylcysteine in ozone-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model.

Chronic exposure to high levels of ozone induces emphysema and chronic inflammation in mice. We determined the recovery from ozone-induced injury and whether an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), could prevent or reverse the lung damage.Mice were exposed to ozone (2.5 ppm, 3 hours/12 exposures, over 6 weeks) and studied 24 hours (24h) or 6 weeks (6W) later. Nac (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered either before each exposure (preventive) or after completion of exposure (therapeutic) for 6 weeks.After ozone exposure, there was an increase in functional residual capacity, total lung volume, and lung compliance, and a reduction in the ratio of forced expiratory volume at 25 and 50 milliseconds to forced vital capacity (FEV25/FVC, FEV50/FVC). Mean linear intercept (Lm) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to acetylcholine increased, and remained unchanged at 6W after cessation of exposure. Preventive NAC reduced the number of BAL macrophages and airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Therapeutic NAC reversed AHR, and reduced ASM mass and apoptotic cells.Emphysema and lung function changes were irreversible up to 6W after cessation of ozone exposure, and were not reversed by NAC. The beneficial effects of therapeutic NAC may be restricted to the ASM.

Authors
Li, F; Wiegman, C; Seiffert, JM; Zhu, J; Clarke, C; Chang, Y; Bhavsar, P; Adcock, I; Zhang, J; Zhou, X; Chung, KF
MLA Citation
Li, F, Wiegman, C, Seiffert, JM, Zhu, J, Clarke, C, Chang, Y, Bhavsar, P, Adcock, I, Zhang, J, Zhou, X, and Chung, KF. "Effects of N-acetylcysteine in ozone-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease model." PloS one 8.11 (January 2013): e80782-.
PMID
24260479
Source
epmc
Published In
PloS one
Volume
8
Issue
11
Publish Date
2013
Start Page
e80782
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0080782

Inflammatory and oxidative stress responses of healthy young adults to changes in air quality during the Beijing Olympics.

Unprecedented pollution control actions during the Beijing Olympics provided a quasi-experimental opportunity to examine biologic responses to drastic changes in air pollution levels.To determine whether changes in levels of biomarkers reflecting pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress were associated with changes in air pollution levels in healthy young adults.We measured fractional exhaled nitric oxide, a number of exhaled breath condensate markers (H(+), nitrite, nitrate, and 8-isoprostane), and urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in 125 participants twice in each of the pre- (high pollution), during- (low pollution), and post-Olympic (high pollution) periods. We measured concentrations of air pollutants near where the participants lived and worked. We used mixed-effects models to estimate changes in biomarker levels across the three periods and to examine whether changes in biomarker levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations, adjusting for meteorologic parameters.From the pre- to the during-Olympic period, we observed significant and often large decreases (ranging from -4.5% to -72.5%) in levels of all the biomarkers. From the during-Olympic to the post-Olympic period, we observed significant and larger increases (48-360%) in levels of these same biomarkers. Moreover, increased pollutant concentrations were consistently associated with statistically significant increases in biomarker levels.These findings support the important role of oxidative stress and that of pulmonary inflammation in mediating air pollution health effects. The findings demonstrate the utility of novel and noninvasive biomarkers in the general population consisting largely of healthy individuals.

Authors
Huang, W; Wang, G; Lu, S-E; Kipen, H; Wang, Y; Hu, M; Lin, W; Rich, D; Ohman-Strickland, P; Diehl, SR; Zhu, P; Tong, J; Gong, J; Zhu, T; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Huang, W, Wang, G, Lu, S-E, Kipen, H, Wang, Y, Hu, M, Lin, W, Rich, D, Ohman-Strickland, P, Diehl, SR, Zhu, P, Tong, J, Gong, J, Zhu, T, and Zhang, J. "Inflammatory and oxidative stress responses of healthy young adults to changes in air quality during the Beijing Olympics." American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 186.11 (December 2012): 1150-1159.
PMID
22936356
Source
epmc
Published In
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume
186
Issue
11
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1150
End Page
1159
DOI
10.1164/rccm.201205-0850oc

Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust causes increased nitrite in exhaled breath condensate among subjects with asthma.

To determine whether oxidative/nitrosative stress plays a role in the acute effects of diesel exhaust (DE) on subjects with asthma.In this crossover study, 16 subjects with mild to moderate asthma were exposed to clean filtered air or diluted DE (300 μg/m as PM2.5) for 1 hour with intermittent exercise.Airway hyperreactivity increased 24 hours after exposure to DE compared with clean filtered air (PC20, 14.9 mg/mL vs 19.7 mg/mL; P = 0.012). Nitrite in exhaled breath condensate was elevated immediately after diesel exposure (P = 0.052) and remained elevated 4 and 24 hours after exposure.After exposure to DE, subjects with asthma demonstrated increased airway hyperreactivity and obstruction. Increased nitrite in exhaled breath condensate, in the absence of increased exhaled nitric oxide, suggests a noninflammatory oxidative stress mechanism by which DE affects the lung.

Authors
Hussain, S; Laumbach, R; Coleman, J; Youssef, H; Kelly-McNeil, K; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhang, J; Kipen, H
MLA Citation
Hussain, S, Laumbach, R, Coleman, J, Youssef, H, Kelly-McNeil, K, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhang, J, and Kipen, H. "Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust causes increased nitrite in exhaled breath condensate among subjects with asthma." Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 54.10 (October 2012): 1186-1191.
PMID
23001278
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume
54
Issue
10
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
1186
End Page
1191
DOI
10.1097/jom.0b013e31826bb64c

Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children.

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with deficits in lung function growth among children in Western countries. However, few studies have explored this association in developing countries, where PM levels are often substantially higher.Children (n = 3273) 6-12 years of age were recruited from 8 schools in 4 Chinese cities. The lung function parameters of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were measured using computerized spirometers twice a year for up to 3 years (1993-1996). Dichotomous samplers placed in each schoolyard were used to measure PM2.5 and PM10 (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm and ≤ 10 μm, respectively). Multivariable generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between the quarterly average PM levels and lung function growth during the period of follow-up.Annual average PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the 4 cities ranged from 57 to 158 μg/m and 95 to 268 μg/m, respectively. In multivariable models, an increase of 10 μg/m of PM2.5 was associated with decreases of 2.7 mL FEV1 (95% confidence interval = -3.5 to -2.0), 3.5 mL FVC (-4.3 to -2.7), 1.4 mL/year FEV1 growth (-1.8 to -0.9), and 1.5 mL/year FVC growth (-2.0 to -1.0). Similar results were seen with PM10 exposure.Exposure to ambient particulate matter was associated with decreased growth in lung function among Chinese children.

Authors
Roy, A; Hu, W; Wei, F; Korn, L; Chapman, RS; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Roy, A, Hu, W, Wei, F, Korn, L, Chapman, RS, and Zhang, JJ. "Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children." Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 23.3 (May 2012): 464-472.
PMID
22407138
Source
epmc
Published In
Epidemiology
Volume
23
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
464
End Page
472
DOI
10.1097/ede.0b013e31824cbd6d

Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults.

Air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood.To determine whether markers related to CVD pathophysiological pathways (biomarkers for systemic inflammation and thrombosis, heart rate, and blood pressure) are sensitive to changes in air pollution.Using a quasi-experimental opportunity offered by greatly restricted air pollution emissions during the Beijing Olympics, we measured pollutants daily and the outcomes listed below in 125 healthy young adults before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics (June 2-October 30). We used linear mixed-effects models to estimate the improvement in outcome levels during the Olympics and the anticipated reversal of outcome levels after pollution controls ended to determine whether changes in outcome levels were associated with changes in pollutant concentrations.C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), soluble P-selectin (sCD62P) concentrations; white blood cell count (WBC); heart rate; and blood pressure.Concentrations of particulate and gaseous pollutants decreased substantially (-13% to -60%) from the pre-Olympic period to the during-Olympic period. Using 2-sided tests conducted at the .003 level, we observed statistically significant improvements in sCD62P levels by -34.0% (95% CI, -38.4% to -29.2%; P < .001) from a pre-Olympic mean of 6.29 ng/mL to a during-Olympic mean of 4.16 ng/mL and von Willebrand factor by -13.1% (95% CI, -18.6% to -7.5%; P < .001) from 106.4% to 92.6%. After adjustments for multiple comparisons, changes in the other outcomes were not statistically significant. In the post-Olympic period when pollutant concentrations increased, most outcomes approximated pre-Olympic levels, but only sCD62P and systolic blood pressure were significantly worsened from the during-Olympic period. The fraction of above-detection-limit values for CRP (percentage ≥ 0.3 mg/L) was reduced from 55% in the pre-Olympic period to 46% in the during-Olympic period and reduced further to 36% in the post-Olympic period. Interquartile range increases in pollutant concentrations were consistently associated with statistically significant increases in fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, heart rate, sCD62P, and sCD40L concentrations.Changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics were associated with acute changes in biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis and measures of cardiovascular physiology in healthy young persons. These findings are of uncertain clinical significance.

Authors
Rich, DQ; Kipen, HM; Huang, W; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Zhu, P; Ohman-Strickland, P; Hu, M; Philipp, C; Diehl, SR; Lu, S-E; Tong, J; Gong, J; Thomas, D; Zhu, T; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Rich, DQ, Kipen, HM, Huang, W, Wang, G, Wang, Y, Zhu, P, Ohman-Strickland, P, Hu, M, Philipp, C, Diehl, SR, Lu, S-E, Tong, J, Gong, J, Thomas, D, Zhu, T, and Zhang, JJ. "Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults." JAMA 307.19 (May 2012): 2068-2078.
PMID
22665106
Source
epmc
Published In
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association
Volume
307
Issue
19
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
2068
End Page
2078
DOI
10.1001/jama.2012.3488

Suppression of the NF-κB pathway by diesel exhaust particles impairs human antimycobacterial immunity.

Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution increases susceptibility to respiratory infections, including tuberculosis in humans. A possible link between particulate air pollutant exposure and antimycobacterial immunity has not been explored in human primary immune cells. We hypothesized that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major component of urban fine particulate matter, suppresses antimycobacterial human immune effector cell functions by modulating TLR-signaling pathways and NF-κB activation. We show that DEP and H37Ra, an avirulent laboratory strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, were both taken up by the same peripheral human blood monocytes. To examine the effects of DEP on M. tuberculosis-induced production of cytokines, PBMC were stimulated with DEP and M. tuberculosis or purified protein derivative. The production of M. tuberculosis and purified protein derivative-induced IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was reduced in a DEP dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 remained unchanged. Furthermore, DEP stimulation prior to M. tuberculosis infection altered the expression of TLR3, -4, -7, and -10 mRNAs and of a subset of M. tuberculosis-induced host genes including inhibition of expression of many NF-κB (e.g., CSF3, IFNG, IFNA, IFNB, IL1A, IL6, and NFKBIA) and IFN regulatory factor (e.g., IFNG, IFNA1, IFNB1, and CXCL10) pathway target genes. We propose that DEP downregulate M. tuberculosis-induced host gene expression via MyD88-dependent (IL6, IL1A, and PTGS2) as well as MyD88-independent (IFNA, IFNB) pathways. Prestimulation of PBMC with DEP suppressed the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon M. tuberculosis infection, inducing a hyporesponsive cellular state. Therefore, DEP alters crucial components of antimycobacterial host immune responses, providing a possible mechanism by which air pollutants alter antimicrobial immunity.

Authors
Sarkar, S; Song, Y; Sarkar, S; Kipen, HM; Laumbach, RJ; Zhang, J; Strickland, PAO; Gardner, CR; Schwander, S
MLA Citation
Sarkar, S, Song, Y, Sarkar, S, Kipen, HM, Laumbach, RJ, Zhang, J, Strickland, PAO, Gardner, CR, and Schwander, S. "Suppression of the NF-κB pathway by diesel exhaust particles impairs human antimycobacterial immunity." Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 188.6 (March 2012): 2778-2793.
PMID
22345648
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Volume
188
Issue
6
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
2778
End Page
2793
DOI
10.4049/jimmunol.1101380

Alteration of peripheral blood monocyte gene expression in humans following diesel exhaust inhalation.

Epidemiologic associations between acutely increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality and particulate air pollution are well established, but the effects of acute pollution exposure on human gene expression changes are not well understood.In order to identify potential mechanisms underlying epidemiologic associations between air pollution and morbidity, we explored changes in gene expression in humans following inhalation of fresh diesel exhaust (DE), a model for particulate air pollution.Fourteen ethnically homogeneous (white males), young, healthy subjects underwent 60-min inhalation exposures on 2 separate days with clean filtered air (CA) or freshly generated and diluted DE at a concentration of 300 μg/m(3) PM(2.5). Prior to and 24 h following each session, whole blood was sampled and fractionated for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation, RNA extraction, and generation of cDNA, followed by hybridization with Agilent Whole Human Genome (4X44K) arrays.Oxidative stress and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, as well as the coagulation system, were among hypothesized pathways identified by analysis of differentially expressed genes. Nine genes from these pathways were validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare fold change in expression between DE exposed and CA days. Quantitative gene fold changes generated by real-time PCR were directionally consistent with the fold changes from the microarray analysis.Changes in gene expression connected with key oxidative stress, protein degradation, and coagulation pathways are likely to underlie observed physiologic and clinical outcomes and suggest specific avenues and sensitive time points for further physiologic exploration.

Authors
Pettit, AP; Brooks, A; Laumbach, R; Fiedler, N; Wang, Q; Strickland, PO; Madura, K; Zhang, J; Kipen, HM
MLA Citation
Pettit, AP, Brooks, A, Laumbach, R, Fiedler, N, Wang, Q, Strickland, PO, Madura, K, Zhang, J, and Kipen, HM. "Alteration of peripheral blood monocyte gene expression in humans following diesel exhaust inhalation." Inhalation toxicology 24.3 (February 2012): 172-181.
PMID
22369193
Source
epmc
Published In
Inhalation Toxicology (Informa)
Volume
24
Issue
3
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
172
End Page
181
DOI
10.3109/08958378.2012.654856

Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four Chinese cities.

UNLABELLED: Ambient air pollution has been associated with decreased growth in lung function among children; but little is known about the impact of indoor air pollution. We examined relationships between indoor air pollution metrics and lung function growth, among children (n = 3273) aged 6-13 years living in four Chinese cities. Lung function parameters (FVC and FEV(1) ) were measured twice a year. Questionnaires were used to determine home coal burning and ventilation practices. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations. Use of coal as a household fuel was associated with 16.5 ml/year lower (33%, P < 0.001) and 20.5 ml/year lower (39%, P < 0.001) growth in children's FEV(1) and FVC, respectively. FEV(1) growth was 10.2 ml/year higher (20%, P = 0.009), and FVC growth was 17.0 ml/year higher (33%, P < 0.001) among children who lived in houses with the presence of a ventilation device. Among children living in houses where coal was used as a fuel and no ventilation devices were present, adjusted FVC and FEV(1) growth, respectively, were 37% and 61% that of the average growth per year in the full cohort. This suggests that household coal use may cause deficits in lung function growth, while using ventilation devices may be protective of lung development. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Nearly 3.4 billion people use solid fuels in homes for cooking and/or heating. We report the following findings from a longitudinal study: (i) household coal use is significantly associated with reduction in children's lung function growth and (ii) the use of household ventilation devices is significantly associated with higher lung function growth, particularly among children living in households where coal is used as a fuel. These findings not only provide evidence that indoor coal use impairs children's lung development but also point to the importance of improving ventilation conditions in reducing harmful effects of indoor air pollution sources.

Authors
Roy, A; Chapman, RS; Hu, W; Wei, F; Liu, X; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Roy, A, Chapman, RS, Hu, W, Wei, F, Liu, X, and Zhang, J. "Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four Chinese cities." Indoor air 22.1 (February 2012): 3-11.
PMID
21954855
Source
epmc
Published In
Indoor Air
Volume
22
Issue
1
Publish Date
2012
Start Page
3
End Page
11
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00748.x

Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four cities in China

Authors
Roy, A; Hu, W; Wei, F; Liu, C; Chapman, RS; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Roy, A, Hu, W, Wei, F, Liu, C, Chapman, RS, and Zhang, J. "Indoor air pollution and lung function growth among children in four cities in China." 12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2011 3 (December 1, 2011): 2357-2358.
Source
scopus
Published In
12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2011
Volume
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
2357
End Page
2358

Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

Authors
Chung, KF; Zhang, J; Zhong, N
MLA Citation
Chung, KF, Zhang, J, and Zhong, N. "Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia." Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) 16.7 (October 2011): 1023-1026.
PMID
21843208
Source
epmc
Published In
Respirology
Volume
16
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
1023
End Page
1026
DOI
10.1111/j.1440-1843.2011.02034.x

Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey.

Personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air toxics were characterized in a pollution "hot spot" and an urban reference site, both in Camden, New Jersey. The hot spot was the city's Waterfront South neighborhood; the reference site was a neighborhood, about 1 km to the east, around the intersection of Copewood and Davis streets. Using personal exposure measurements, residential ambient air measurements, statistical analyses, and exposure modeling, we examined the impact of local industrial and mobile pollution sources, particularly diesel trucks, on personal exposures and ambient concentrations in the two neighborhoods. Presented in the report are details of our study design, sample and data collection methods, data- and model-analysis approaches, and results and key findings of the study. In summary, 107 participants were recruited from nonsmoking households, including 54 from Waterfront South and 53 from the Copewood-Davis area. Personal air samples were collected for 24 hr and measured for 32 target compounds--11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs*), four aldehydes, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5). Simultaneously with the personal monitoring, ambient concentrations of the target compounds were measured at two fixed monitoring sites, one each in the Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis neighborhoods. To understand the potential impact of local sources of air toxics on personal exposures caused by temporal (weekdays versus weekend days) and seasonal (summer versus winter) variations in source intensities of the air toxics, four measurements were made of each subject, two in summer and two in winter. Within each season, one measurement was made on a weekday and the other on a weekend day. A baseline questionnaire and a time diary with an activity questionnaire were administered to each participant in order to obtain information that could be used to understand personal exposure to specific air toxics measured during each sampling period. Given the number of emission sources of air toxics in Waterfront South, a spatial variation study consisting of three saturation-sampling campaigns was conducted to characterize the spatial distribution of VOCs and aldehydes in the two neighborhoods. Passive samplers were used to collect VOC and aldehyde samples for 24- and 48-hr sampling periods simultaneously at 22 and 16 grid-based sampling sites in Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis, respectively. Results showed that measured ambient concentrations of some target pollutants (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]), such as PM2.5 (31.3 +/- 12.5 microg/m3), toluene (4.24 +/- 5.23 microg/m3), and benzo[a]pyrene (0.36 +/- 0.45 ng/m3), were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Waterfront South than in Copewood-Davis, where the concentrations of PM2.5, toluene, and benzo[a]pyrene were 25.3 +/- 11.9 microg/m3, 2.46 +/- 3.19 microg/m3, and 0.21 +/- 0.26 ng/m3, respectively. High concentrations of specific air toxics, such as 60 microg/m3 for toluene and 159 microg/m3 for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), were also found in areas close to local stationary sources in Waterfront South during the saturation-sampling campaigns. Greater spatial variation in benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as BTEX) as well as of MTBE was observed in Waterfront South than in Copewood-Davis during days with low wind speed. These observations indicated the significant impact of local emission sources of these pollutants and possibly of other pollutants emitted by individual source types on air pollution in Waterfront South. (Waterfront South is a known hot spot for these pollutants.) There were no significant differences between Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis in mean concentrations of benzene or MTBE, although some stationary sources of the two compounds have been reported in Waterfront South. Further, a good correlation (R > 0.6) was found between benzene and MTBE in both locations. These results suggest that automobile exhausts were the main contributors to benzene and MTBE air pollution in both neighborhoods. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations were found to be high in both neighborhoods. Mean (+/- SD) concentrations of formaldehyde were 20.2 +/- 19.5 microg/m3 in Waterfront South and 24.8 +/- 20.8 microg/m3 in Copewood-Davis. A similar trend was observed for the two compounds during the saturation-sampling campaigns. The results indicate that mobile sources (i.e., diesel trucks) had a large impact on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations in both neighborhoods and that both are aldehyde hot spots. The study also showed that PM2.5, aldehydes, BTEX, and MTBE concentrations in both Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis were higher than ambient background concentrations in New Jersey and than national average concentrations, indicating that both neighborhoods are in fact hot spots for these pollutants. Higher concentrations were observed on weekdays than on weekend days for several compounds, including toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (known collectively as TEX) as well as PAHs and PM2.5. These observations showed the impact on ambient air pollution of higher traffic volumes and more active industrial and commercial operations in the study areas on weekdays. Seasonal variations differed by species. Concentrations of TEX, for example, were found to be higher in winter than in summer in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from automobiles and reduced photochemical reactivity in winter. In contrast, concentrations of MTBE were found to be significantly higher in summer than in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher evaporation rates from gasoline in summer. Similarly, concentrations of heavier PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, were found to be higher in winter in both locations, possibly because of higher emission rates from mobile sources, the use of home heating, and the reduced photochemical reactivity of benzo[a]pyrene in winter. In contrast, concentrations of lighter PAHs were found to be higher in summer in both locations, possibly because of volatilization of these compounds from various surfaces in summer. In addition, higher concentrations of formaldehyde were observed in summer than in winter, possibly because of significant contributions from photochemical reactions to formaldehyde air pollution in summer. Personal concentrations of toluene (25.4 +/- 13.5 microg/m3) and acrolein (1.78 +/- 3.7 microg/m3) in Waterfront South were found to be higher than those in the Copewood-Davis neighborhood (13.1 +/- 15.3 microg/m3 for toluene and 1.27 +/- 2.36 microg/m3 for acrolein). However, personal concentrations for most of the other compounds measured in Waterfront South were found to be similar to or lower than those than in Copewood-Davis. (For example, mean +/- SD concentrations were 4.58 +/- 17.3 microg/m3 for benzene, 4.06 +/- 5.32 microg/m3 for MTBE, 16.8 +/- 15.5 microg/m3 for formaldehyde, and 0.40 +/- 0.94 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene in Waterfront South and 9.19 +/- 34.0 microg/m3 for benzene, 6.22 +/- 19.0 microg/m3 for MTBE, 16.0 +/- 16.7 microg/m3 for formaldehyde, and 0.42 +/- 1.08 ng/m3 for benzo[a]pyrene in Copewood-Davis.) This was probably because many of the target compounds had both outdoor and indoor sources. The higher personal concentrations of these compounds in Copewood-Davis might have resulted in part from higher exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of subjects from Copewood-Davis. The Spearman correlation coefficient (R) was found to be high for pollutants with significant outdoor sources. The R's for MTBE and carbon tetrachloride, for example, were > 0.65 in both Waterfront South and Copewood-Davis. The R's were moderate or low (0.3-0.6) for compounds with both outdoor and indoor sources, such as BTEX and formaldehyde. A weaker association (R < 0.5) was found for compounds with significant indoor sources, such as BTEX, formaldehyde, PAHs, and PM2.5. The correlations between personal and ambient concentrations of MTBE and BTEX were found to be stronger in Waterfront South than in Copewood-Davis, reflecting the significant impact of local air pollution sources on personal exposure to these pollutants in Waterfront South. Emission-based ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde and contributions of ambient exposure to personal concentrations of these three compounds were modeled using atmospheric dispersion modeling and Individual Based Exposure Modeling (IBEM) software, respectively, which were coupled for analysis in the Modeling Environment for Total Risk (MENTOR) system. The compounds were associated with the three types of dominant sources in the two neighborhoods: industrial sources (toluene), exhaust from gasoline-powered motor vehicles (benzene), and exhaust from diesel-powered motor vehicles (formaldehyde). Subsequently, both the calculated and measured ambient concentrations of each of the three compounds were separately combined with the time diaries and activity questionnaires completed by the subjects as inputs to IBEM-MENTOR for estimating personal exposures from ambient sources. Modeled ambient concentrations of benzene and toluene were generally in agreement with the measured ambient concentrations within a factor of two, but the values were underestimated at the high-end percentiles. The major local (neighborhood) contributors to ambient benzene concentrations were from mobile sources in the study areas; both mobile and stationary (point and area) sources contributed to the ambient toluene concentrations. This finding can be used as guidance for developing better emission inventories to characterize, through modeling, the ambient concentrations of air toxics in the study areas. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

Authors
Lioy, PJ; Fan, Z; Zhang, J; Georgopoulos, P; Wang, S-W; Ohman-Strickland, P; Wu, X; Zhu, X; Harrington, J; Tang, X; Meng, Q; Jung, KH; Kwon, J; Hernandez, M; Bonnano, L; Held, J; Neal, J; HEI Health Review Committee,
MLA Citation
Lioy, PJ, Fan, Z, Zhang, J, Georgopoulos, P, Wang, S-W, Ohman-Strickland, P, Wu, X, Zhu, X, Harrington, J, Tang, X, Meng, Q, Jung, KH, Kwon, J, Hernandez, M, Bonnano, L, Held, J, Neal, J, and HEI Health Review Committee, . "Personal and ambient exposures to air toxics in Camden, New Jersey." Research report (Health Effects Institute) 160 (August 2011): 3-127.
PMID
22097188
Source
epmc
Published In
Research report (Health Effects Institute)
Issue
160
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
3
End Page
127

Environmental lessons from China: finding promising policies in unlikely places.

Alongside the major health risks posed by environmental pollution in China are recent achievements on several environmental issues that have affluent Western nations racing to catch up. The country has propelled itself to a position of leadership in clean energy and efficiency, for instance, with important consequences for public health.We comment on China's challenges and recent accomplishments in addressing environmental problems from domestic pollution to global climate change. We compare China's commitment to clean energy technology with that of other leading nations and discuss key achievements in other areas, including vehicle efficiency standards and transportation policy.We discuss policy directions that would secure much-needed improvements to environmental quality and health in China, along with actions that could motivate global action on issues of energy conservation and pollution reduction.A comprehensive regulatory and institutional framework for environmental policy is within reach in China but will require addressing major hurdles such as the lack of an independent monitoring mechanism and the need for greater transparency and enforcement in environmental matters. Meanwhile, China can continue to set important examples by investing in renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, and limiting greenhouse gas emissions.

Authors
Remais, JV; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Remais, JV, and Zhang, J. "Environmental lessons from China: finding promising policies in unlikely places." Environmental Health Perspectives 119.7 (July 2011): 893-895.
PMID
21402514
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
119
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
893
End Page
895
DOI
10.1289/ehp.1003024

Sickness response symptoms among healthy volunteers after controlled exposures to diesel exhaust and psychological stress.

Interactions between acute exposures to environmental chemical contaminants and psychological stress may be important in situations where they are likely to co-occur, ranging in intensity from daily urban living to participation in war. Modification of symptomatic responses by stress may play a role in medically unexplained symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposures.We hypothesized that the combination of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and acute psychological stress would cause sickness responses in healthy volunteers. Moreover, these responses would be greater in individuals with self-reported prior chemical odor intolerance.One hundred adult subjects underwent 1-hr exposures to diluted DE and clean air control. Half of the subjects performed a public-speaking stressor task during the exposures. Subjects completed questionnaires to determine their Chemical Odor Intolerance Index score. Plasma cortisol, end-tidal carbon dioxide, and the severity of 35 symptoms were measured at time points before and after the exposures.Subjects exposed to DE demonstrated small but statistically significant increases in severity for several symptom categories, including sickness response and upper respiratory, central nervous system, and total symptoms. The psychological stressor did not increase symptom severity independently or via interaction with DE. Subjects with prior self-reported chemical intolerance had more severe sickness response symptoms from DE.These results suggest that exposure to DE can cause acute sickness response symptoms and that these symptoms are also associated with increased levels of self-reported chemical intolerance. The results did not confirm our hypothesis that an acute stressor would increase sickness response symptom severity during the exposure.

Authors
Laumbach, RJ; Kipen, HM; Kelly-McNeil, K; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Lioy, PJ; Ohman-Strickland, P; Gong, J; Kusnecov, A; Fiedler, N
MLA Citation
Laumbach, RJ, Kipen, HM, Kelly-McNeil, K, Zhang, J, Zhang, L, Lioy, PJ, Ohman-Strickland, P, Gong, J, Kusnecov, A, and Fiedler, N. "Sickness response symptoms among healthy volunteers after controlled exposures to diesel exhaust and psychological stress." Environmental Health Perspectives 119.7 (July 2011): 945-950.
PMID
21330231
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
119
Issue
7
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
945
End Page
950
DOI
10.1289/ehp.1002631

Air pollution in China, with Junfeng (Jim) Zhang by Ashley Ahearn.

Air pollution in China, one of the world’s oldest civilizations, reflects a combination of traditional and modern-day factors. Severe air pollution in Chinese cities is the result of rapid industrialization, urbanization, and growth in vehicle use. At the same time, traditional indoor burning of solid fuels such as coal and dung presents acute, severe exposures to pollutants including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, arsenic, and mercury. In this podcast, Junfeng (Jim) Zhang tells host Ashley Ahearn about some of the factors that make air pollution a significant problem in China.

Authors
Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ. "Air pollution in China, with Junfeng (Jim) Zhang by Ashley Ahearn." Environmental Health Perspectives 119.6 (June 2011): doi-10.1289/ehp.trp060811. (Review)
PMID
21780318
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
119
Issue
6
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
doi
End Page
10.1289/ehp.trp060811

Acute decreases in proteasome pathway activity after inhalation of fresh diesel exhaust or secondary organic aerosol.

Epidemiologic studies consistently demonstrate an association between acute cardiopulmonary events and changes in air pollution; however, the mechanisms that underlie these associations are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been suggested to play a role in human responses to air pollution. The proteasome is an intracellular protein degradation system linked to both of these processes and may help mediate air pollution effects.In these studies, we determined whether acute experimental exposure to two different aerosols altered white blood cell (WBC) or red blood cell (RBC) proteasome activity in human subjects. One aerosol was fresh diesel exhaust (DE), and the other freshly generated secondary organic aerosol (SOA).Thirty-eight healthy subjects underwent 2-hr resting inhalation exposures to DE and separate exposures to clean air (CA); 26 subjects were exposed to DE, CA, and SOA. CA responses were subtracted from DE or SOA responses, and mixed linear models with F-tests were used to test the effect of exposure to each aerosol on WBC and RBC proteasome activity.WBC proteasome activity was reduced 8% (p = 0.04) after exposure to either DE or SOA and decreased by 11.5% (p = 0.03) when SOA was analyzed alone. RBCs showed similar 8-10% declines in proteasome activity (p = 0.05 for DE alone).Air pollution produces oxidative stress and inflammation in many experimental models, including humans. Two experimental aerosols caused rapid declines in proteasome activity in peripheral blood cells, supporting a key role for the proteasome in acute human responses to air pollution.

Authors
Kipen, HM; Gandhi, S; Rich, DQ; Ohman-Strickland, P; Laumbach, R; Fan, Z-H; Chen, L; Laskin, DL; Zhang, J; Madura, K
MLA Citation
Kipen, HM, Gandhi, S, Rich, DQ, Ohman-Strickland, P, Laumbach, R, Fan, Z-H, Chen, L, Laskin, DL, Zhang, J, and Madura, K. "Acute decreases in proteasome pathway activity after inhalation of fresh diesel exhaust or secondary organic aerosol." Environmental Health Perspectives 119.5 (May 2011): 658-663.
PMID
21163722
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
119
Issue
5
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
658
End Page
663
DOI
10.1289/ehp.1002784

Perchlorate exposure in lactating women in an urban community in New Jersey.

Perchlorate is most widely known as a solid oxidant for missile and rocket propulsion systems although it is also present as a trace contaminant in some fertilizers. It has been detected in drinking water, fruits, and vegetables throughout New Jersey and most of the United States. At sufficiently high doses, perchlorate interferes with the uptake of iodine into the thyroid and may interfere with the development of the skeletal system and the central nervous system of infants. Therefore, it is important to quantify perchlorate in breast milk to understand potential perchlorate exposure in infants. In this study we measured perchlorate in breast milk, urine, and drinking water collected from 106 lactating mothers from Central New Jersey. Each subject was asked to provide three sets of samples over a 3-month period. The average±SD perchlorate level in drinking water, breast milk, and urine was 0.168±0.132 ng/mL (n=253), 6.80±8.76 ng/mL (n=276), and 3.19±3.64 ng/mL (3.51±6.79 μg/g creatinine) (n=273), respectively. Urinary perchlorate levels were lower than reference range values for women of reproductive age (5.16±11.33 μg/g creatinine, p=0.03), likely because of perchlorate secretion in breast milk. Drinking water perchlorate levels were ≤1.05 ng/mL and were not positively correlated with either breast milk or urine perchlorate levels. These findings together suggest that drinking water was not the most important perchlorate exposure source for these women. Creatinine-adjusted urine perchlorate levels were strongly correlated with breast milk perchlorate levels (r=0.626, p=<0.0005). Breast milk perchlorate levels in this study are consistent with widespread perchlorate exposure in lactating women and thus infants. This suggests that breast milk may be a source of exposure to perchlorate in infants.

Authors
Borjan, M; Marcella, S; Blount, B; Greenberg, M; Zhang, JJ; Murphy, E; Valentin-Blasini, L; Robson, M
MLA Citation
Borjan, M, Marcella, S, Blount, B, Greenberg, M, Zhang, JJ, Murphy, E, Valentin-Blasini, L, and Robson, M. "Perchlorate exposure in lactating women in an urban community in New Jersey." The Science of the total environment 409.3 (January 2011): 460-464.
PMID
21109291
Source
epmc
Published In
Science of the Total Environment
Volume
409
Issue
3
Publish Date
2011
Start Page
460
End Page
464
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.045

Determining times to maximum urine excretion of 1-aminopyrene after diesel exhaust exposure.

Biomonitoring of exposures to toxins is an important tool for monitoring public health and safety. Using this tool, exposures are typically measured by the collection of biological specimens such as blood and urine samples. Urine sampling represents a more convenient and less-invasive alternative to blood sampling; however, less work has been published on methodologies for characterizing the time course of excretion and the determination of the time of maximum excretion from urine samples. This paper compares two methods of characterizing the urine excretion profile and estimating the time of maximum excretion: Non-compartmental analysis versus a non-linear pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling. We examine these methodologies using both simulated data and observed data taken from a recent experiment examining a biomarker of diesel exhaust (DE), urinary 1-aminopyrene (1-AP). In the experiment, a series of spot urine samples were collected in a group of healthy volunteers for 24 h after a controlled DE exposure. Simulated data showed that the use of non-linear modeling techniques to estimate PK parameters was more likely to estimate the true time of maximum excretion compared with the non-compartmental approach. Our analysis of observed concentrations of 1-AP led to a hypothesis that there are two subgroups of subjects in terms of the timing of their 1-AP excretion. Results showed that approximately 63% of the subjects had a median time of maximum excretion of 5.37 h, whereas 30% of the subjects may have had maximum excretion times longer than 24 h.

Authors
Huyck, S; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhang, L; Tong, J; Xu, XU; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Huyck, S, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhang, L, Tong, J, Xu, XU, and Zhang, JJ. "Determining times to maximum urine excretion of 1-aminopyrene after diesel exhaust exposure." Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 20.7 (November 2010): 650-655.
PMID
20442755
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
20
Issue
7
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
650
End Page
655
DOI
10.1038/jes.2010.29

Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans.

Recent studies suggest that DNA oxidative damage be related to the chemical constituents of ambient particles. The purpose of this study was to examine whether particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and quinone-structure chemicals increase body burden of oxidative stress in human exposed to heavy traffic volume. We recruited two nonsmoking security guards who worked at a university campus gate near a heavily trafficked road. Each subject wore a personal air sampler for 24h per day to estimate exposures to 24 PAHs and anthraquinone (AnQ) in PM(2.5). Daily pre- and post-work shift spot urines were collected for 29d from each subject. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Additionally, using 19 organic tracers other than 24 PAHs and AnQ, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM: gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, cooking, natural gas and biomass burning. The relationship among urinary 8-OHdG, individual PAH, and AnQ was demonstrated as follows: the average urinary concentration of 8-OHdG was increased more than three times after 8-h work-shift than those before the work shift. All the 24 PAH and AnQ levels were positively and significantly associated with the post-work urinary 8-OHdG. The results from source apportionment suggest vehicular emission to be the dominant source of personal exposure to PM(2.5). Our finding indicates that personal air exposures to 24 individual PAHs and AnQ originating from traffic emissions are important in increasing oxidative burdens in human body.

Authors
Wei, Y; Han, I-K; Hu, M; Shao, M; Zhang, JJ; Tang, X
MLA Citation
Wei, Y, Han, I-K, Hu, M, Shao, M, Zhang, JJ, and Tang, X. "Personal exposure to particulate PAHs and anthraquinone and oxidative DNA damages in humans." Chemosphere 81.10 (November 2010): 1280-1285.
PMID
20869742
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
81
Issue
10
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1280
End Page
1285
DOI
10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.08.055

Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.

Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products are marketed as nonhazardous and "green" or "organic." This has resulted in some users perceiving the solvent as nontoxic and has resulted in at least one significant poisoning incident in New Jersey. In addition, many dry cleaning operators may not realize that the machine components and settings must be changed when converting from PERC to n-PB containing products. Not performing these modifications may result in overheating and significant leaks in the dry cleaning equipment. A preliminary investigation was conducted of the potential exposures to n-PB and isopropyl bromide (iso-PB; also called 2-bromopropane or 2-BP) among dry cleaners in New Jersey who have converted their machines from PERC to these new solvent products. Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Sampling and Analytical Method 1025, with a slight modification to gas chromatography conditions to facilitate better separation of n-PB from iso-PB. During the preliminary investigation, exposures to n-PB among some workers in two of three shops were measured that were greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for n-PB. The highest exposure measured among a dry cleaning machine operator was 54 parts per million (ppm) as an 8-hr time-weighted average, which is more than 5 times the ACGIH TLV of 10 ppm. The preliminary investigation also found that the work tasks most likely to result in the highest short-term exposures included the introduction of solvent to the machine, maintenance of the machine, unloading and handling of recently cleaned clothes, and interrupting the wash cycle of the machine. In addition, this assessment suggested that leaks may have contributed to exposure and may have resulted from normal machine wear over time, ineffective maintenance, and from the incompatibility of n-PB with gasket materials.

Authors
Blando, JD; Schill, DP; De La Cruz, MP; Zhang, L; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Blando, JD, Schill, DP, De La Cruz, MP, Zhang, L, and Zhang, J. "Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 60.9 (September 2010): 1049-1056.
PMID
20863050
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Volume
60
Issue
9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1049
End Page
1056
DOI
10.3155/1047-3289.60.9.1049

Triggering of transmural infarctions, but not nontransmural infarctions, by ambient fine particles.

Previous studies have reported increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) after increases in ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution concentrations in the hours and days before MI onset.We hypothesized that acute increases in fine PM with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) may be associated with increased risk of MI and that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and diabetes may increase susceptibility to PM(2.5). We also explored whether both transmural and nontransmural infarctions were acutely associated with ambient PM(2.5) concentrations.We studied all hospital admissions from 2004 through 2006 for first acute MI of adult residents of New Jersey who lived within 10 km of a PM(2.5) monitoring site (n = 5,864), as well as ambient measurements of PM(2.5), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone.Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression showed that each interquartile-range increase in PM(2.5) concentration (10.8 microg/m3) in the 24 hr before arriving at the emergency department for MI was not associated with MI overall but was associated with an increased relative risk of a transmural infarction. We found no association between the same increase in PM(2.5) and nontransmural infarction. Further, subjects with COPD appeared to be particularly susceptible, but those with diabetes were not.This PM-transmural infarction association is consistent with earlier studies of PM and MI. The lack of association with nontransmural infarction suggests that future studies that investigate the triggering of MI by ambient PM(2.5) concentrations should be stratified by infarction type.

Authors
Rich, DQ; Kipen, HM; Zhang, J; Kamat, L; Wilson, AC; Kostis, JB
MLA Citation
Rich, DQ, Kipen, HM, Zhang, J, Kamat, L, Wilson, AC, and Kostis, JB. "Triggering of transmural infarctions, but not nontransmural infarctions, by ambient fine particles." Environmental Health Perspectives 118.9 (September 2010): 1229-1234.
PMID
20435544
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
118
Issue
9
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1229
End Page
1234
DOI
10.1289/ehp.0901624

Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach.

Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure.

Authors
Kipen, H; Rich, D; Huang, W; Zhu, T; Wang, G; Hu, M; Lu, S-E; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhu, P; Wang, Y; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Kipen, H, Rich, D, Huang, W, Zhu, T, Wang, G, Hu, M, Lu, S-E, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhu, P, Wang, Y, and Zhang, JJ. "Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1203 (August 2010): 160-167. (Review)
PMID
20716299
Source
epmc
Published In
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume
1203
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
160
End Page
167
DOI
10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05638.x

Using charcoal as base material reduces mosquito coil emissions of toxins.

Mosquito coils are used to prevent mosquito exposures indoors by approximately 2 billion people worldwide. However, the smoldering of organic matters used as base materials of mosquito coils emits particulate and gaseous toxic compounds. A previous study indicates that emission rates of toxic compounds depend on types of base materials and can be high enough to generate room concentrations markedly higher than health based standards or references. The objective of this study is to evaluate a new type of mosquito coil that uses charcoal powder as base material and to compare its emission rates with those of several current-market brands and several brands tested in the previous study. Results show that the charcoal-based coil had emission rates of PM(2.5) mass, total particle number, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and aldehydes, substantially (up to 10 times) lower than other tested conventional mosquito coils. Results also show that particles freshly generated from burning mosquito coils were all fine and mostly ultrafine in size. This study presents emission rates for PM(2.5) mass, total particle number, gas-phase and particle-phase PAHs, 14 aldehydes and acetone, and 10 volatile hydrocarbons. These data, along with emission rates presented in the previous study are useful for estimating indoor concentrations of toxic compounds generated from mosquito coil uses. Practical Implications Mosquito coils are widely used indoors to prevent mosquitoes from entering indoor environments. This is achieved through the release of insecticides impregnated in biomass base materials of mosquito coils during coil combustion. A previous study reported that burning one mosquito coil releases the same amount of fine particles as burning 75-135 cigarettes, largely depending on what biomass (saw dust or coconut husk) is used as base material. This 'follow-up' study measured several current-market brands of mosquito coils, including a new charcoal-based coil labeled as smokeless coil by the China Environmental Labeling, for their emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants. Results show that using charcoal powder as base material reduces fine particle emissions by a factor of 5-10 and also reduces emissions of pollutants such as formaldehyde and PAHs substantially.

Authors
Zhang, L; Jiang, Z; Tong, J; Wang, Z; Han, Z; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Zhang, L, Jiang, Z, Tong, J, Wang, Z, Han, Z, and Zhang, J. "Using charcoal as base material reduces mosquito coil emissions of toxins." Indoor air 20.2 (April 2010): 176-184.
PMID
20409195
Source
epmc
Published In
Indoor Air
Volume
20
Issue
2
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
176
End Page
184
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0668.2009.00639.x

Acute changes in heart rate variability in subjects with diabetes following a highway traffic exposure.

To pilot a protocol to evaluate acute cardiovascular effects in in-vehicle exposure to traffic air pollutants in people with diabetes.Twenty-one volunteers with type 2 diabetes were passengers on 90- to 110-minute car rides on a busy highway. We measured in-vehicle particle number and mass (PM2.5) nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide and heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and blood pressure.Compared with pre-ride measurements, we found a decrease in high frequency (HF) HRV from pre-ride to next day (ratio 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.93) and an increase in low frequency to HF ratio at post-ride (ratio 1.92, 95% CI = 1.21 to 3.05) at post-ride. Interquartile range increases in measured pollutants were associated with next-day decreases in HR HRV.This protocol appears useful for assessing acute adverse cardiovascular effects of in-vehicle exposures among people who have diabetes.

Authors
Laumbach, RJ; Rich, DQ; Gandhi, S; Amorosa, L; Schneider, S; Zhang, J; Ohman-Strickland, P; Gong, J; Lelyanov, O; Kipen, HM
MLA Citation
Laumbach, RJ, Rich, DQ, Gandhi, S, Amorosa, L, Schneider, S, Zhang, J, Ohman-Strickland, P, Gong, J, Lelyanov, O, and Kipen, HM. "Acute changes in heart rate variability in subjects with diabetes following a highway traffic exposure." Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 52.3 (March 2010): 324-331.
PMID
20190650
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume
52
Issue
3
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
324
End Page
331
DOI
10.1097/jom.0b013e3181d241fa

Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

Authors
Zhang, J; Mauzerall, DL; Zhu, T; Liang, S; Ezzati, M; Remais, JV
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Mauzerall, DL, Zhu, T, Liang, S, Ezzati, M, and Remais, JV. "Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water." Lancet (London, England) 375.9720 (March 2010): 1110-1119. (Review)
PMID
20346817
Source
epmc
Published In
The Lancet
Volume
375
Issue
9720
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
1110
End Page
1119
DOI
10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60062-1

Residential air exchange rates in three major US metropolitan areas: results from the Relationship Among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air Study 1999-2001.

UNLABELLED: We report approximately 500 indoor-outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements conducted in residences in three US metropolitan areas in 1999-2001: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Overall, a median AER across these urban areas and seasons was 0.71 air changes per hour (ACH, or per hour; n = 509) while median AERs measured in California (n = 182), New Jersey (n = 163), and Texas (n = 164) were 0.87, 0.88, and 0.47 ACH, respectively. In Texas, the measured AERs were lower in the summer cooling season (median = 0.37 ACH) than in the winter heating season (median = 0.63 ACH), likely because of the reported use of room air conditioners as Houston is typically hot and humid during the summer. The measured AERs in California were higher in summer (median = 1.13 ACH) than in winter (median = 0.61 ACH). Because the summer cooling season in Los Angeles County is less humid than in New Jersey or Texas, natural ventilation through open windows and screened doors likely increased measured AER in California study homes. In New Jersey, AER were similar across heating and cooling seasons, although the median AER was relatively lower during the spring. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Adequate ventilation or air exchange rate (AER) for an indoor environment is important for human health and comfort, and relevant to building design and energy conservation and efficiency considerations. However, residential AER data, especially measured by more accurate non-toxic tracer gas methodologies, are at present quite limited worldwide, and are insufficient to represent the variations across regions and seasons within and between homes, including apartments and condominiums in more densely populated urban areas. The present paper presents quantitative and qualitative data to characterize residential AERs in three US urban areas with different climate attributes.

Authors
Yamamoto, N; Shendell, DG; Winer, AM; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Yamamoto, N, Shendell, DG, Winer, AM, and Zhang, J. "Residential air exchange rates in three major US metropolitan areas: results from the Relationship Among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air Study 1999-2001." Indoor air 20.1 (February 2010): 85-90.
PMID
19874401
Source
epmc
Published In
Indoor Air
Volume
20
Issue
1
Publish Date
2010
Start Page
85
End Page
90
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0668.2009.00622.x

Comment on "Atmospheric particulate matter pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics".

Authors
Tang, X; Shao, M; Hu, M; Wang, Z; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Tang, X, Shao, M, Hu, M, Wang, Z, and Zhang, J. "Comment on "Atmospheric particulate matter pollution during the 2008 Beijing Olympics"." Environmental science & technology 43.19 (October 2009): 7588-. (Letter)
PMID
19848181
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
43
Issue
19
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
7588
DOI
10.1021/es902217x

PM2.5 constituents and oxidative DNA damage in humans.

Previous studies suggested that certain constituents of ambient PM2.5 can induce or increase oxidative stress in biological systems. The present study is designed to examine whether exposure to traffic generated particles increases the burden of oxidative stress in humans and to identify specific PM2.5 constituents responsible for pollution-induced oxidative stress. We recruited two nonsmoking security guards who worked at a university campus gate by a heavily trafficked road. Pre- and post-workshift spot urines were collected on each of the 29 days of measurement. Concentrations of PM2.5 mass and 126 chemical species were measured at the worksite and a campus background site simultaneously. Urine samples were analyzed for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Factor analysis and linear mixed-effects regression models were used in statistical analyses. Three clusters of PM2.5 species were identified, including PAHs, metals, and polar organic compounds. Urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG increased by > 3 times following an eight-hour workshift in participants. Pre-workshift urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG were associated with PM2.5 concentrations at the background site. Post-workshift 8-OHdG concentrations were significantly and positively associated with PM2.5 mass, PAHs, and metals, but not polar organic species, measured at the worksite. Our findings provide direct evidence in humans that PM compositions are important in increasing oxidative stress burdens. Our results support that PAHs and metals are biologically active constituents of PM2.5 with regards to the induction of oxidative DNA damages in the human body.

Authors
Wei, Y; Han, I-K; Shao, M; Hu, M; Zhang, OJ; Tang, X
MLA Citation
Wei, Y, Han, I-K, Shao, M, Hu, M, Zhang, OJ, and Tang, X. "PM2.5 constituents and oxidative DNA damage in humans." Environmental science & technology 43.13 (July 2009): 4757-4762.
PMID
19673262
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
43
Issue
13
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
4757
End Page
4762
DOI
10.1021/es803337c

Health effects of real-world exposure to diesel exhaust in persons with asthma.

Many people, including people with asthma, experience short-term exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) during daily activities. The health effects of such exposures, however, remain poorly understood. The present study utilized a real-world setting to examine whether short-term DE exposure would (1) worsen asthma symptoms, (2) augment airway inflammation, or (3) increase oxidative stress burdens. The study also examined exposure-response relations for several DE components and the contribution of background asthma severity to individuals' respiratory responses to DE exposure. Sixty people participated in the study; 31 had mild asthma and 29 had moderate asthma. Each participant completed an exposure and a control session. During the exposure session, participants walked for 2 hours along a heavily trafficked city street where motor vehicle access was restricted to buses and official taxicabs. These vehicles were powered by diesel engines. During the control session, participants walked for the same duration and at the same speed in a public park where motor vehicle traffic was prohibited. The concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), NO2, ultrafine particles (UFP), and particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) during exposure sessions were, on average, 4.8, 4.0, 3.4, and 2.0 times higher, respectively, than during control sessions. Increases in asthma symptom score and in the daily use of asthma reliever medication within the 7-day measurement period after exposure were not significant. Some effects on lung function were statistically significant. Compared with control sessions, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was reduced 3.0% to 4.1%, and forced vital capacity (FVC) was reduced 2.8% to 3.7% in the 5 hours immediately after the exposure sessions. Analyses of biomarkers showed that the exposure sessions led to a significant reduction in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH and to significant increases in induced sputum neutrophils and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The changes in lung function indices (FEV1, FVC, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC [FEF25-75]) were most consistently associated with UFP and EC exposures, whereas the changes in EBC pH were most consistently associated with NO2 exposure. In addition, NO2 had a significant effect on bronchial reactivity and on the amount of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in induced sputum; it also modified the UFP effect on EBC pH and the EC effect on exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). However, our findings cannot be taken as demonstrating a causal association with any measured pollutant, because the measured pollutant concentrations may simply represent the entire roadside diesel-traffic exposure that comprises not only the pollutants measured in this study but also other pollutants in the complex DE mixture and resuspended coarse particles from road dust, engine debris, and tire debris. The effects of exposure appeared to be larger in the more severe asthmatic group for most outcomes measured. In conclusion, short-term exposure to urban roadside diesel traffic led to consistent and significant reductions in lung function, accompanied by airway acidification and neutrophilic inflammation. Our findings help to explain the epidemiologic evidence on diesel traffic health effects in persons with asthma.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; McCreanor, JE; Cullinan, P; Chung, KF; Ohman-Strickland, P; Han, I-K; Järup, L; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, McCreanor, JE, Cullinan, P, Chung, KF, Ohman-Strickland, P, Han, I-K, Järup, L, and Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ. "Health effects of real-world exposure to diesel exhaust in persons with asthma." Research report (Health Effects Institute) 138 (February 2009): 5-109.
PMID
19449765
Source
epmc
Published In
Research report (Health Effects Institute)
Issue
138
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
5
End Page
109

Quantification of 1-aminopyrene in human urine after a controlled exposure to diesel exhaust.

Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of air pollution that has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many components in DE, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the environment from other sources. 1-Nitropyrene appears to be a more specific marker of DE exposure. 1-Nitropyrene is partially metabolized to 1-aminopyrene and excreted in urine. We developed a practical, sensitive method for measuring 1-aminopyrene in human urine using a HPLC-fluorescence technique. We measured 1-aminopyrene concentrations in spot urine samples collected prior to and during 24 h following the start of 1 h controlled exposures to DE (target concentration 300 microg m(-3) as PM(10)) and clean air control. Time-weighted-average concentrations of urinary 1-aminopyrene were significantly greater following the DE exposure compared to the control (median 138.7 ng g(-1) creatinine vs. 21.7 ng g(-1) creatinine, p < 0.0001). Comparing DE to control exposures, we observed significant increases in 1-aminopyrine concentration from pre-exposure to either first post-exposure void or peak spot urine concentration following exposure (p = 0.027 and p = 0.0026, respectively). Large inter-individual variability, in both the concentration of urinary 1-aminopyrene and the time course of appearance in the urine following the standardized exposure to DE, suggests the need to explore subject variables that may affect conversion of inhaled 1-nitropyrene to urinary excretion of 1-aminopyrene.

Authors
Laumbach, R; Tong, J; Zhang, L; Ohman-Strickland, P; Stern, A; Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Kelly-McNeil, K; Lioy, P; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Laumbach, R, Tong, J, Zhang, L, Ohman-Strickland, P, Stern, A, Fiedler, N, Kipen, H, Kelly-McNeil, K, Lioy, P, and Zhang, J. "Quantification of 1-aminopyrene in human urine after a controlled exposure to diesel exhaust." Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM 11.1 (January 2009): 153-159.
PMID
19137151
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
Volume
11
Issue
1
Publish Date
2009
Start Page
153
End Page
159
DOI
10.1039/b810039j

Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids.

Many synthetic turf fields consist of not only artificial grass but also rubber granules that are used as infill. The public concerns about toxic chemicals possibly contained in either artificial (polyethylene) grass fibers or rubber granules have been escalating but are based on very limited information available to date. The aim of this research was to obtain data that will help assess potential health risks associated with chemical exposure. In this small-scale study, we collected seven samples of rubber granules and one sample of artificial grass fiber from synthetic turf fields at different ages of the fields. We analyzed these samples to determine the contents (maximum concentrations) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and several metals (Zn, Cr, As, Cd, and Pb). We also analyzed these samples to determine their bioaccessible fractions of PAHs and metals in synthetic digestive fluids including saliva, gastric fluid, and intestinal fluid through a laboratory simulation technique. Our findings include: (1) rubber granules often, especially when the synthetic turf fields were newer, contained PAHs at levels above health-based soil standards. The levels of PAHs generally appear to decline as the field ages. However, the decay trend may be complicated by adding new rubber granules to compensate for the loss of the material. (2) PAHs contained in rubber granules had zero or near-zero bioaccessibility in the synthetic digestive fluids. (3) The zinc contents were found to far exceed the soil limit. (4) Except one sample with a moderate lead content of 53 p.p.m., the other samples had relatively low concentrations of lead (3.12-5.76 p.p.m.), according to soil standards. However, 24.7-44.2% of the lead in the rubber granules was bioaccessible in the synthetic gastric fluid. (5) The artificial grass fiber sample showed a chromium content of 3.93 p.p.m., and 34.6% and 54.0% bioaccessibility of lead in the synthetic gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Han, I-K; Zhang, L; Crain, W
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, Han, I-K, Zhang, L, and Crain, W. "Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids." Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 18.6 (November 2008): 600-607.
PMID
18728695
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
18
Issue
6
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
600
End Page
607
DOI
10.1038/jes.2008.55

Spatial variation of volatile organic compounds in a “Hot Spot” for air pollution

Authors
Zhu, X; Fan, ZT; Wu, X; Meng, Q; Wang, S-W; Tang, X; Ohman-Strickland, P; Georgopoulos, P; Zhang, J; Bonanno, L; Held, J; Lioy, P
MLA Citation
Zhu, X, Fan, ZT, Wu, X, Meng, Q, Wang, S-W, Tang, X, Ohman-Strickland, P, Georgopoulos, P, Zhang, J, Bonanno, L, Held, J, and Lioy, P. "Spatial variation of volatile organic compounds in a “Hot Spot” for air pollution." Atmospheric Environment 42.32 (October 2008): 7329-7338.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
42
Issue
32
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
7329
End Page
7338
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.039

1-Hydroxypyrene concentrations in first morning voids and 24-h composite urine: intra- and inter-individual comparisons.

Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been suggested as an exposure biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains unknown whether a first morning urine sample can be used to reflect average exposure. In this paper, we examine intra-individual differences and inter-individual associations between first morning voids and 24-h composite urine samples. The analysis was performed using data collected from 100 adults who had a wide range of PAH exposure due to differences in their occupation, e.g., coke oven workers vs. non-coke oven workers. For each subject, all the urine voids within each of two 24-h measurement periods were collected. Results showed a significant (40% to 62%) intra-individual difference between first morning voids and 24-h urinary 1-OHP concentrations (in ng/ml urine). Creatinine adjustments of 1-OHP concentrations (in micromol/mol urinary creatinine) reduced the intra-individual difference by approximately 10%. Across all the subjects, a high overall correlation (r=0.76) was observed between first morning and 24-h average 1-OHP concentrations. Work environment and sampling season were found to significantly affect the relationship between first morning and 24-h 1-OHP concentrations. An increase of 1 ng/ml of first morning urinary 1-OHP predicted an increase of 0.5 and 0.25 ng/ml of 24-h urinary 1-OHP for coke oven workers and non-coke oven workers, respectively. Data collected in a winter season showed a higher correlation between first morning and 24-h concentrations than data collected in a fall season. Creatinine adjustments did not significantly improve overall correlations between first morning void and 24-h measurements, but increased total variances for 24-h urines explained by first morning urines in coke workers.

Authors
Han, I-K; Duan, X; Zhang, L; Yang, H; Rhoads, GG; Wei, F; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Han, I-K, Duan, X, Zhang, L, Yang, H, Rhoads, GG, Wei, F, and Zhang, J. "1-Hydroxypyrene concentrations in first morning voids and 24-h composite urine: intra- and inter-individual comparisons." Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 18.5 (September 2008): 477-485.
PMID
18059422
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
18
Issue
5
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
477
End Page
485
DOI
10.1038/sj.jes.7500639

Metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) by human CYP1B1 genetic variants.

Human cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) plays a critical role in the metabolic activation of a variety of procarcinogens, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). The existence of human CYP1B1 missense genetic variants has been demonstrated, but their activities in metabolizing PhIP are unknown. In this study, we expressed 15 naturally occurring CYP1B1 variants (with either single or multiple amino acid substitutions) and determined their activity changes in metabolizing PhIP to its two major metabolites, 2-hydroxyamino-PhIP and 4'-hydroxy-PhIP. Although the PhIP-metabolizing activities of four variants (Ala(119)Ser, Pro(379)Leu, Ala(443)Gly, Arg(48)Gly/Leu(432)Val) were comparable with that of the expressed wild-type CYP1B1, five variants (Trp(57)Cys, Gly(61)Glu, Arg(48)Gly/Ala(119)Ser, Arg(48)Gly/Ala(119)Ser/Leu(432)Val, Arg(48)Gly/Ala(119)Ser/Leu(432)Val/Ala(443)Gly) exhibited more than 2-fold decrease in activity and a reduction in the catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for both N- and 4-hydroxylation of PhIP. Six variants (Gly(365)Trp, Glu(387)Lys, Arg(390)His, Pro(437)Leu, Asn(453)Ser, Arg(469)Trp) showed little activity in PhIP metabolism, but the molecular mechanisms involved are apparently different. The microsomal CYP1B1 protein level was significantly decreased for the Trp(365), Lys(387), and His(390) variants and was not detectable for the Ser(453) variant. In contrast, there was no difference between the Trp(469) variant and the wild-type in the microsomal CYP1B1 protein level and P450 content but the Trp(469) variant totally lost its metabolic activity toward PhIP. The Leu(437) variant also had a substantial amount of CYP1B1 protein in the microsomes, but there was a lack of detectable P450 peak and activity. Our results should be useful in selecting appropriate CYP1B1 variants as cancer susceptibility biomarkers for human population studies related to PhIP exposure.

Authors
Han, J-F; He, X-Y; Herrington, JS; White, LA; Zhang, J-F; Hong, J-Y
MLA Citation
Han, J-F, He, X-Y, Herrington, JS, White, LA, Zhang, J-F, and Hong, J-Y. "Metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) by human CYP1B1 genetic variants." Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 36.4 (April 2008): 745-752.
PMID
18227148
Source
epmc
Published In
Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
Volume
36
Issue
4
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
745
End Page
752
DOI
10.1124/dmd.107.016824

Development of a method for time-resolved measurement of airborne acrolein

Authors
Herrington, JS; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Herrington, JS, and Zhang, JJ. "Development of a method for time-resolved measurement of airborne acrolein." Atmospheric Environment 42.10 (March 2008): 2429-2436.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
42
Issue
10
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
2429
End Page
2436
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.12.019

Negative affect and chemical intolerance as risk factors for building-related symptoms: a controlled exposure study.

To assess whether differences in negative affect (NA) and chemical intolerance (CI) affect responses to chemical mixtures and stress in a controlled experimental model.Participants were 130 nonsmoking, healthy women, recruited from a university community. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Chemical Odor Intolerance Index. In separate sessions 1 week apart, they were exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), VOCs with ozone (VOCs+O3), and ambient or filtered air with a 1-minute spike of VOCs (masked clean air). During each session, half of the participants performed a videotaped speech stressor and half performed simple arithmetic. Before, during, and after each session, salivary cortisol samples were collected, and subjects completed neurobehavioral tests and used a ratio scale to rate physical, cognitive, and anxiety symptoms.Relative to low NA or low CI, neither the high NA nor the high CI groups reported significantly more symptoms in response to any exposure condition. High NA subjects reported more anxiety symptoms in response to the speech stressor but did not have higher cortisol than low NA subjects. High NA subjects, however, were more distressed by the experimental conditions than were low NA subjects. Low NA subjects reported more severe anxiety in the VOCs+O3 with psychological stress condition.Subjects high in NA were more anxious after a stressor but were not more physically symptomatic in response to increasing chemical exposures. A disposition toward high or low CI did not result in a differential symptomatic response to controlled chemical exposures.

Authors
Fiedler, N; Kelly-McNeil, K; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhang, J; Ottenweller, J; Kipen, HM
MLA Citation
Fiedler, N, Kelly-McNeil, K, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhang, J, Ottenweller, J, and Kipen, HM. "Negative affect and chemical intolerance as risk factors for building-related symptoms: a controlled exposure study." Psychosomatic medicine 70.2 (February 2008): 254-262.
PMID
18158364
Source
epmc
Published In
Psychosomatic Medicine
Volume
70
Issue
2
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
254
End Page
262
DOI
10.1097/psy.0b013e31816074f4

Sensory and cognitive effects of acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide.

Some epidemiologic studies have reported compromised cognitive and sensory performance among individuals exposed to low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S).We hypothesized a dose-response increase in symptom severity and reduction in sensory and cognitive performance in response to controlled H2S exposures.In separate exposure sessions administered in random order over three consecutive weeks, 74 healthy subjects [35 females, 39 males; mean age (+/- SD) = 24.7 +/- 4.2; mean years of education = 16.5 +/- 2.4], were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, and 5 ppm H2S. During each exposure session, subjects completed ratings and tests before H2S exposure (baseline) and during the final hour of the 2-hr exposure period.Dose-response reduction in air quality and increases in ratings of odor intensity, irritation, and unpleasantness were observed. Total symptom severity was not significantly elevated across any exposure condition, but anxiety symptoms were significantly greater in the 5-ppm than in the 0.05-ppm condition. No dose-response effect was observed for sensory or cognitive measures. Verbal learning was compromised during each exposure condition.Although some symptoms increased with exposure, the magnitude of these changes was relatively minor. Increased anxiety was significantly related to ratings of irritation due to odor. Whether the effect on verbal learning represents a threshold effect of H2S or an effect due to fatigue across exposure requires further investigation. These acute effects in a healthy sample cannot be directly generalized to communities where individuals have other health conditions and concomitant exposures.

Authors
Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Ohman-Strickland, P; Zhang, J; Weisel, C; Laumbach, R; Kelly-McNeil, K; Olejeme, K; Lioy, P
MLA Citation
Fiedler, N, Kipen, H, Ohman-Strickland, P, Zhang, J, Weisel, C, Laumbach, R, Kelly-McNeil, K, Olejeme, K, and Lioy, P. "Sensory and cognitive effects of acute exposure to hydrogen sulfide." Environmental Health Perspectives 116.1 (January 2008): 78-85.
PMID
18197303
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
116
Issue
1
Publish Date
2008
Start Page
78
End Page
85
DOI
10.1289/ehp.10531

Evaluation and Comparison of Continuous Fine Particulate Matter Monitors for Measurement of Ambient Aerosols

Authors
Zhu, K; Zhang, JJ; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Zhu, K, Zhang, JJ, and Lioy, PJ. "Evaluation and Comparison of Continuous Fine Particulate Matter Monitors for Measurement of Ambient Aerosols." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 57.12 (December 2007): 1499-1506.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Volume
57
Issue
12
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
1499
End Page
1506
DOI
10.3155/1047-3289.57.12.1499

Respiratory effects of exposure to diesel traffic in persons with asthma.

BACKGROUND: Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health hazard, and people with preexisting respiratory disease may be at increased risk. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to diesel traffic in people with asthma in an urban, roadside environment. METHODS: We recruited 60 adults with either mild or moderate asthma to participate in a randomized, crossover study. Each participant walked for 2 hours along a London street (Oxford Street) and, on a separate occasion, through a nearby park (Hyde Park). We performed detailed real-time exposure, physiological, and immunologic measurements. RESULTS: Participants had significantly higher exposures to fine particles (<2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter), ultrafine particles, elemental carbon, and nitrogen dioxide on Oxford Street than in Hyde Park. Walking for 2 hours on Oxford Street induced asymptomatic but consistent reductions in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (up to 6.1%) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (up to 5.4%) that were significantly larger than the reductions in FEV1 and FVC after exposure in Hyde Park (P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively, for the overall effect of exposure, and P<0.005 at some time points). The effects were greater in subjects with moderate asthma than in those with mild asthma. These changes were accompanied by increases in biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation (sputum myeloperoxidase, 4.24 ng per milliliter after exposure in Hyde Park vs. 24.5 ng per milliliter after exposure on Oxford Street; P=0.05) and airway acidification (maximum decrease in pH, 0.04% after exposure in Hyde Park and 1.9% after exposure on Oxford Street; P=0.003). The changes were associated most consistently with exposures to ultrafine particles and elemental carbon. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations serve as a demonstration and explanation of the epidemiologic evidence that associates the degree of traffic exposure with lung function in asthma.

Authors
McCreanor, J; Cullinan, P; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Stewart-Evans, J; Malliarou, E; Jarup, L; Harrington, R; Svartengren, M; Han, I-K; Ohman-Strickland, P; Chung, KF; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
McCreanor, J, Cullinan, P, Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ, Stewart-Evans, J, Malliarou, E, Jarup, L, Harrington, R, Svartengren, M, Han, I-K, Ohman-Strickland, P, Chung, KF, and Zhang, J. "Respiratory effects of exposure to diesel traffic in persons with asthma." The New England journal of medicine 357.23 (December 2007): 2348-2358.
PMID
18057337
Source
epmc
Published In
The New England journal of medicine
Volume
357
Issue
23
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
2348
End Page
2358
DOI
10.1056/nejmoa071535

How does infiltration behavior modify the composition of ambient PM2.5 in indoor spaces? An analysis of RIOPA data.

The indoor environment is an important venue for exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of ambient (outdoor) origin. In this work, paired indoor and outdoor PM2.5 species concentrations from three geographically distinct cities (Houston, TX, Los Angeles County, CA, and Elizabeth, NJ) were analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and demonstrate that the composition and source contributions of ambient PM2.5 are substantially modified by outdoor-to-indoor transport. Our results suggest that predictions of "indoor PM2.5 of ambient origin" are improved when ambient PM2.5 is treated as a combination of four distinct particle types with differing infiltration behavior (primary combustion, secondary sulfate and organics, secondary nitrate, and mechanically generated PM) rather than as a "single internally mixed entity". Study-wide average infiltration factors (i.e., fraction of ambient PM2.5 found indoors) for Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study homes were 0.51, 0.78, and 0.04 (consistent with P = 0.6, 0.9, and 0.09; k = 0.2, 0.1, and 0.6 h(-1)) for PM2.5 associated with primary combustion, secondary formation (excluding nitrate), and mechanical generation, respectively. Modification of the composition, properties, and source contributions of ambient PM2.5 in indoor environments has important implications for exposure mitigation strategies, development of health hypotheses, and evaluation of exposure error in epidemiological studies that use ambient central-site PM2.5 as a surrogate for PM2.5 exposure.

Authors
Meng, QY; Turpin, BJ; Lee, JH; Polidori, A; Weisel, CP; Morandi, M; Colome, S; Zhang, J; Stock, T; Winer, A
MLA Citation
Meng, QY, Turpin, BJ, Lee, JH, Polidori, A, Weisel, CP, Morandi, M, Colome, S, Zhang, J, Stock, T, and Winer, A. "How does infiltration behavior modify the composition of ambient PM2.5 in indoor spaces? An analysis of RIOPA data." Environmental science & technology 41.21 (November 2007): 7315-7321.
PMID
18044505
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
41
Issue
21
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
7315
End Page
7321
DOI
10.1021/es070037k

Relationships between personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to trace elements in PM(2.5).

Twenty-four hour average fine particle concentrations of 23 trace elements (TEs) were measured concurrently in (a) ambient air in three urban neighborhoods (Battle Creek-BCK; East St. Paul-ESP; and Phillips-PHI), (b) air inside residences of participants, and (c) personal air near the breathing zone of healthy, non-smoking adults. The outdoor (O), indoor (I), and personal (P) samples were collected in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area over three seasons (Spring, Summer, Fall) using either the federal reference (O) or inertial impactor (I,P) inlets to collect PM(2.5). In addition to descriptive statistics, a hierarchical, mixed-effects statistical model was used to estimate the mutually adjusted effects of monitor location, community, and season on mean differences between monitoring locations while accounting for within-subject and within-monitoring period correlation. The relationships among P, I, and O concentrations varied across TEs. The O concentrations were usually higher than P or I for elements like Ca and Al that originate mainly from entrained crustal material, while P concentrations were often highest for other elements with non-crustal sources. Unadjusted mixed model results demonstrated that O monitors more frequently underestimated than overestimated P TE exposures for elements associated with non-crustal sources. This finding was true even though the O TE measurements were taken in the same neighborhoods as the P and I measurements. Further adjustment for community or season effects in the mixed models reduced the number of significant O-P and O-I differences compared to unadjusted models, but still indicated a tendency for underestimation of personal and indoor TE exposures by central site monitors, particularly in the PHI community. These results indicate that community and season are important covariates for developing long term TE exposure estimates, and that personal exposure to trace elements in PM(2.5) is likely to be underestimated by outdoor central site monitors.

Authors
Adgate, JL; Mongin, SJ; Pratt, GC; Zhang, J; Field, MP; Ramachandran, G; Sexton, K
MLA Citation
Adgate, JL, Mongin, SJ, Pratt, GC, Zhang, J, Field, MP, Ramachandran, G, and Sexton, K. "Relationships between personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to trace elements in PM(2.5)." The Science of the total environment 386.1-3 (November 2007): 21-32.
PMID
17692899
Source
epmc
Published In
Science of the Total Environment
Volume
386
Issue
1-3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
21
End Page
32
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.07.007

Comparison of the Revised Air Quality Index with the PSI and AQI indices.

Air pollution indices are commonly used to indicate the level of severity of air pollution to the public. The Pollution Standards Index (PSI) was initially established in response to a dramatic increase in the number of people suffering respiratory irritation due to the deteriorating air quality. The PSI was subsequently revised and implemented by the USEPA in 1999, and became known as the Air Quality Index (AQI) that includes data relating to particle suspension, PM2.5, and a selective options of either 8-hour or 1-hour ozone concentration during increased O3 periods. Yet, the costs of launching a network of PM2.5 monitoring stations are prohibitively high for many countries to implement the AQI from the PSI system in the foreseeable future. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discuss the optimal method of assessing air quality using the latest developed Revised AQI (RAQI), a system that serves as an alternative to the PSI and AQI systems. The feasibility, effectiveness, and the differences between RAQI, AQI, and PSI in their applications to several air pollution conditions are also studied in this research. The results show that southern Taiwan's suspended particulates have significantly greater impact on PM2.5/PM10 ratios than in central and northern metropolitan areas, and that the ratios are higher in Taiwan as a whole compared to many other countries. We also found that the RAQI shows more significant results compared to the PSI and AQI as it has a wider coverage of the range of pollutant concentration levels.

Authors
Cheng, W-L; Chen, Y-S; Zhang, J; Lyons, TJ; Pai, J-L; Chang, S-H
MLA Citation
Cheng, W-L, Chen, Y-S, Zhang, J, Lyons, TJ, Pai, J-L, and Chang, S-H. "Comparison of the Revised Air Quality Index with the PSI and AQI indices." The Science of the total environment 382.2-3 (September 2007): 191-198.
PMID
17540435
Source
epmc
Published In
Science of the Total Environment
Volume
382
Issue
2-3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
191
End Page
198
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.04.036

Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin.

We have used multiple analytical methods to characterize the gas-phase products formed when ozone was added to cabin air during simulated 4-hour flights that were conducted in a reconstructed section of a B-767 aircraft containing human occupants. Two separate groups of 16 females were each exposed to four conditions: low air exchange (4.4 (h-1)), <2 ppb ozone; low air exchange, 61-64 ppb ozone; high air exchange (8.8 h(-1)), <2 ppb ozone; and high air exchange, 73-77 ppb ozone. The addition of ozone to the cabin air increased the levels of identified byproducts from approximately 70 to 130 ppb at the lower air exchange rate and from approximately 30 to 70 ppb at the higher air exchange rate. Most of the increase was attributable to acetone, nonanal, decanal, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), formic acid, and acetic acid, with 0.25-0.30 mol of quantified product volatilized per mol of ozone consumed. Several of these compounds reached levels above their reported odor thresholds. Most byproducts were derived from surface reactions with occupants and their clothing, consistent with the inference that occupants were responsible for the removal of >55% of the ozone in the cabin. The observations made in this study have implications for other indoor settings. Whenever human beings and ozone are simultaneously present, one anticipates production of acetone, nonanal, decanal, 6-MHO, geranyl acetone, and 4-OPA.

Authors
Weschler, CJ; Wisthaler, A; Cowlin, S; Tamás, G; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Hodgson, AT; Destaillats, H; Herrington, J; Zhang, J; Nazaroff, WW
MLA Citation
Weschler, CJ, Wisthaler, A, Cowlin, S, Tamás, G, Strøm-Tejsen, P, Hodgson, AT, Destaillats, H, Herrington, J, Zhang, J, and Nazaroff, WW. "Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin." Environmental science & technology 41.17 (September 2007): 6177-6184.
PMID
17937299
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
41
Issue
17
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
6177
End Page
6184
DOI
10.1021/es0708520

Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data

Authors
Liu, W; Zhang, JJ; Korn, LR; Zhang, L; Weisel, CP; Turpin, B; Morandi, M; Stock, T; Colome, S
MLA Citation
Liu, W, Zhang, JJ, Korn, LR, Zhang, L, Weisel, CP, Turpin, B, Morandi, M, Stock, T, and Colome, S. "Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data." Atmospheric Environment 41.25 (August 2007): 5280-5288.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
41
Issue
25
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
5280
End Page
5288
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.05.089

A functional group characterization of organic PM2.5 exposure: Results from the RIOPA study

Authors
Reff, A; Turpin, BJ; Offenberg, JH; Weisel, CP; Zhang, J; Morandi, M; Stock, T; Colome, S; Winer, A
MLA Citation
Reff, A, Turpin, BJ, Offenberg, JH, Weisel, CP, Zhang, J, Morandi, M, Stock, T, Colome, S, and Winer, A. "A functional group characterization of organic PM2.5 exposure: Results from the RIOPA study." Atmospheric Environment 41.22 (July 2007): 4585-4598.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
41
Issue
22
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
4585
End Page
4598
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.03.054

Current state of the science: health effects and indoor environmental quality.

Our understanding of the relationship between human health and the indoor environment continues to evolve. Previous research on health and indoor environments has tended to concentrate on discrete pollutant sources and exposures and on specific disease processes. Recently, efforts have been made to characterize more fully the complex interactions between the health of occupants and the interior spaces they inhabit. In this article we review recent advances in source characterization, exposure assessment, health effects associated with indoor exposures, and intervention research related to indoor environments. Advances in source characterization include a better understanding of how chemicals are transported and processed within spaces and the role that other factors such as lighting and building design may play in determining health. Efforts are under way to improve our ability to measure exposures, but this remains a challenge, particularly for biological agents. Researchers are also examining the effects of multiple exposures as well as the effects of exposures on vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly. In addition, a number of investigators are also studying the effects of modifying building design, materials, and operations on occupant health. Identification of research priorities should include input from building designers, operators, and the public health community.

Authors
Mitchell, CS; Zhang, JJ; Sigsgaard, T; Jantunen, M; Lioy, PJ; Samson, R; Karol, MH
MLA Citation
Mitchell, CS, Zhang, JJ, Sigsgaard, T, Jantunen, M, Lioy, PJ, Samson, R, and Karol, MH. "Current state of the science: health effects and indoor environmental quality." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.6 (June 2007): 958-964. (Review)
PMID
17589607
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
115
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
958
End Page
964
DOI
10.1289/ehp.8987

Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions.

OBJECTIVE: Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. DATA SOURCES: We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English-language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. CONCLUSIONS: Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of "poisonous" coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Smith, KR
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, and Smith, KR. "Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.6 (June 2007): 848-855. (Review)
PMID
17589590
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
115
Issue
6
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
848
End Page
855
DOI
10.1289/ehp.9479

Probabilistic Estimates of Lifetime Daily Doses from Consumption of Drinking Water Containing Trace Levels of N,N -diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), Triclosan, or Acetaminophen and the Associated Risk to Human Health

Authors
Blanset, DL; Zhang, JJ; Robson, MG
MLA Citation
Blanset, DL, Zhang, JJ, and Robson, MG. "Probabilistic Estimates of Lifetime Daily Doses from Consumption of Drinking Water Containing Trace Levels of N,N -diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), Triclosan, or Acetaminophen and the Associated Risk to Human Health." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal 13.3 (May 16, 2007): 615-631.
Source
crossref
Published In
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
Volume
13
Issue
3
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
615
End Page
631
DOI
10.1080/10807030701341209

Low acetaldehyde collection efficiencies for 24-hour sampling with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents.

Airborne aldehyde and ketone (carbonyl) sampling methodologies based on derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents could unequivocally be considered the "gold" standard. Originally developed in the late 1970s, these methods have been extensively evaluated and developed up to the present day. However, these methods have been inadequately evaluated for the long-term (i.e., 24 h or greater) sampling collection efficiency (CE) of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. The current body of literature fails to demonstrate that DNPH-coated solid sorbent sampling methods have acceptable CEs for the long-term sampling of carbonyls other than formaldehyde. Despite this, such methods are widely used to report the concentrations of multiple carbonyls from long-term sampling, assuming approximately 100% CEs. Laboratory experiments were conducted in this study to evaluate the long-term formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling CEs for several commonly used DNPH-coated solid sorbents. Results from sampling known concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde generated in a dynamic atmosphere generation system demonstrate that the 24-hour formaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 83 to 133%, confirming the findings made in previous studies. However, the 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling CEs ranged from 1 to 62%. Attempts to increase the acetaldehyde CEs by adding acid to the samples post sampling were unsuccessful. These results indicate that assuming approximately 100% CEs for 24-hour acetaldehyde sampling, as commonly done with DNPH-coated solid sorbent methods, would substantially under estimate acetaldehyde concentrations.

Authors
Herrington, JS; Fan, Z-HT; Lioy, PJ; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Herrington, JS, Fan, Z-HT, Lioy, PJ, and Zhang, JJ. "Low acetaldehyde collection efficiencies for 24-hour sampling with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents." Environmental science & technology 41.2 (January 2007): 580-585.
PMID
17310725
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
41
Issue
2
Publish Date
2007
Start Page
580
End Page
585
DOI
10.1021/es061247k

Use of passive samplers in the DEARS

We have shown that passive samplers can be successfully used to collect a range of gas phase pollutants during 24-hr integrated sampling in the DEARS. Their ease of use and low participant burden have allowed for collection of a series of criteria pollutant gases, carbonyls and VOCs. As expected, operation of the samplers using only a 24-hr integrated sampling period has resulted in some pollutants being collected at a lower percentage of detectability in some spatial settings. However, use of the PE tubes has shown great promise in the collection of 1,3-butadiene, a hazardous air pollutant of concern, without having to use bulky canister methodologies. Many of the VOCs considered as useful markers of certain emission sources (e.g, mobile sources), appear to be readily detectable by the methodology. Likewise, the use of the PAKS has permitted the measurement of acrolei n for both personal and residential settings at concentrations not previously possible using other passive techniques. The DNSH approach is still being refined and it is hoped that improvements in this methodology will result in lower limits of detection and an improved percentage of pollutant detectability as the DEARS progresses. Ogawa samplers represent one of the more time-tested passive approaches. Data from the DEARS indicates that with the exception of SO 2 , the technique is capable of providing reliable time integrated estimates of criteria pollutant gases in most settings, especially for O 3 and NO 2 in the Detroit airshed.

Authors
Williams, RW; Vette, A; Whitaker, DA; Croghan, CW; Jones, PA; Daughtrey, EH; Oliver, KD; Jacumin, HH; Williams, DD; Rodes, CE; Thornburg, JW; Herrington, JS; Zhang, L; Tong, J; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Williams, RW, Vette, A, Whitaker, DA, Croghan, CW, Jones, PA, Daughtrey, EH, Oliver, KD, Jacumin, HH, Williams, DD, Rodes, CE, Thornburg, JW, Herrington, JS, Zhang, L, Tong, J, and Zhang, J. "Use of passive samplers in the DEARS." Air and Waste Management Association - Symposium on Air Quality Measurement: Methods and Technology 2006 (December 1, 2006): 386-390.
Source
scopus
Published In
Air and Waste Management Association - Symposium on Air Quality Measurement: Methods and Technology 2006
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
386
End Page
390

Concentrations and source characteristics of airborne carbonyl compounds measured outside urban residences.

This paper presents the analysis of ambient air concentrations of 10 carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) measured in the yards of 87 residences in the city of Elizabeth, NJ, throughout 1999-2001. Most of these residences were measured twice in different seasons; the sampling duration was 48 hr each time. The authors observed higher concentrations for most of the measured carbonyl compounds on warmer days, reflecting larger contributions of photochemical reactions on warmer days. The estimated contributions of photochemical production varied substantially across the measured carbonyl compounds and could be as high as 60%. Photochemical activity, however, resulted in a net loss for formaldehyde. The authors used stepwise multiple linear regression models to evaluate the impact of traffic sources and meteorological conditions on carbonyl concentrations using the data collected on colder days (with lower photochemical activities). They found that the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal significantly decreased with increasing distance between a measured residence and one or more major roadways. They also found significant negative associations between concentrations for most of the measured carbonyl compounds and each of the following meteorological parameters: mixing height, wind speed, and precipitation.

Authors
Liu, W; Zhang, J; Kwon, J; Weisel, C; Turpin, B; Zhang, L; Korn, L; Morandi, M; Stock, T; Colome, S
MLA Citation
Liu, W, Zhang, J, Kwon, J, Weisel, C, Turpin, B, Zhang, L, Korn, L, Morandi, M, Stock, T, and Colome, S. "Concentrations and source characteristics of airborne carbonyl compounds measured outside urban residences." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 56.8 (August 2006): 1196-1204.
PMID
16933652
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Volume
56
Issue
8
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
1196
End Page
1204
DOI
10.1080/10473289.2006.10464539

Fine organic particulate matter dominates indoor-generated PM2.5 in RIOPA homes.

Residential indoor and outdoor fine particle (PM(2.5)) organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations (48 h) were measured at 173 homes in Houston, TX, Los Angeles County, CA, and Elizabeth, NJ as part of the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The adsorption of organic vapors on the quartz fiber sampling filter (a positive artifact) was substantial indoors and out, accounting for 36% and 37% of measured OC at the median indoor (8.2 microg C/m(3)) and outdoor (5.0 microg C/m(3)) OC concentrations, respectively. Uncorrected, adsorption artifacts would lead to substantial overestimation of particulate OC both indoors and outdoors. After artifact correction, the mean particulate organic matter (OM=1.4 OC) concentration indoors (9.8 microg/m(3)) was twice the mean outdoor concentration (4.9 microg/m(3)). The mean EC concentration was 1.1 microg/m(3) both indoors and outdoors. OM accounted for 29%, 30% and 29% of PM(2.5) mass outdoors and 48%, 55% and 61% of indoor PM(2.5) mass in Los Angeles Co., Elizabeth and Houston study homes, respectively. Indirect evidence provided by species mass balance results suggests that PM(2.5) nitrate (not measured) was largely lost during outdoor-to-indoor transport, as reported by Lunden et al. This results in dramatic changes with outdoor-to-indoor transport in the mass and composition of ambient-generated PM(2.5) at California homes. On average, 71% to 76% of indoor OM was emitted or formed indoors, calculated by (1) Random Component Superposition (RCS) model and (2) non-linear fit of OC and air exchange rate data to the mass balance model. Assuming that all particles penetrate indoors (P=1) and there is no particle loss indoors (k=0), a lower bound estimate of 41% of indoor OM was indoor-generated (mean). OM appears to be the predominant species in indoor-generated PM(2.5), based on species mass balance results. Particulate OM emitted or formed indoors is substantial enough to alter the concentration, composition and behavior of indoor PM(2.5). One interesting effect of increased indoor OM concentrations is a shift in the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the gas to the particle phase with outdoor-to-indoor transport.

Authors
Polidori, A; Turpin, B; Meng, QY; Lee, JH; Weisel, C; Morandi, M; Colome, S; Stock, T; Winer, A; Zhang, J; Kwon, J; Alimokhtari, S; Shendell, D; Jones, J; Farrar, C; Maberti, S
MLA Citation
Polidori, A, Turpin, B, Meng, QY, Lee, JH, Weisel, C, Morandi, M, Colome, S, Stock, T, Winer, A, Zhang, J, Kwon, J, Alimokhtari, S, Shendell, D, Jones, J, Farrar, C, and Maberti, S. "Fine organic particulate matter dominates indoor-generated PM2.5 in RIOPA homes." Journal of exposure science & environmental epidemiology 16.4 (July 2006): 321-331.
PMID
16538235
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
16
Issue
4
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
321
End Page
331
DOI
10.1038/sj.jes.7500476

Source proximity and outdoor-residential VOC concentrations: results from the RIOPA study.

Ambient volatile organic compound concentrations outside residences were measured in Elizabeth, New Jersey as part of the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal A:r (RIOPA) study to assess the influence of proximity of the residences to known ambient emissions sources. The closest distances between the outdoor samplers and emission sources were determined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)techniques. Multiple regression models were developed for residential ambient concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX), methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The natural log transformed ambient concentrations of BTEX were inversely associated with distances to major roadways with high traffic densities and gasoline stations, atmospheric stability, temperature, and wind speed. Ambient MTBE levels were associated with inverse distance to gas stations and interstate highways. Residential ambient PCE concentration was inversely associated with distance to dry cleaning facilities, atmospheric stability, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. The linear regression models that include proximity to emission sources and meteorological variables explained 16-45% of the overall variation of ambient residential VOC concentrations. Meteorological conditions, especially atmospheric stability and temperature, explained 60-90% of the total variation in the regression models. The residential ambient air concentrations were 1.5-4 times higher than the urban background levels outside homes very close (<50 m) to ambient emission sources where approximately 7% of the population live. However, the relative increase of risk for disease is small and variations in air concentration in the background urban atmosphere are greater than those from the proximity to roadways.

Authors
Kwon, J; Weisel, CP; Turpin, BJ; Zhang, J; Korn, LR; Morandi, MT; Stock, TH; Colome, S
MLA Citation
Kwon, J, Weisel, CP, Turpin, BJ, Zhang, J, Korn, LR, Morandi, MT, Stock, TH, and Colome, S. "Source proximity and outdoor-residential VOC concentrations: results from the RIOPA study." Environmental science & technology 40.13 (July 2006): 4074-4082.
PMID
16856719
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
40
Issue
13
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
4074
End Page
4082
DOI
10.1021/es051828u

Estimating contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to indoor carbonyl concentrations in three urban areas of the United States

Authors
LIU, W; ZHANG, J; ZHANG, L; TURPIN, B; WEISEL, C; MORANDI, M; STOCK, T; COLOME, S; KORN, L
MLA Citation
LIU, W, ZHANG, J, ZHANG, L, TURPIN, B, WEISEL, C, MORANDI, M, STOCK, T, COLOME, S, and KORN, L. "Estimating contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to indoor carbonyl concentrations in three urban areas of the United States." Atmospheric Environment 40.12 (April 2006): 2202-2214.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
40
Issue
12
Publish Date
2006
Start Page
2202
End Page
2214
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.005

Health effects of a mixture of indoor air volatile organics, their ozone oxidation products, and stress.

In our present study we tested the health effects among women of controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with and without ozone (O3), and psychological stress. Each subject was exposed to the following three conditions at 1-week intervals (within-subject factor): VOCs (26 mg/m3), VOCs + O3 (26 mg/m3 + 40 ppb), and ambient air with a 1-min spike of VOCs (2.5 mg/m3). As a between-subjects factor, half the subjects were randomly assigned to perform a stressor. Subjects were 130 healthy women (mean age, 27.2 years; mean education, 15.2 years). Health effects measured before, during, and after each 140-min exposure included symptoms, neurobehavioral performance, salivary cortisol, and lung function. Mixing VOCs with O3 was shown to produce irritating compounds including aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, secondary organic aerosols, and ultrafine particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 microm). Exposure to VOCs with and without O3 did not result in significant subjective or objective health effects. Psychological stress significantly increased salivary cortisol and symptoms of anxiety regardless of exposure condition. Neither lung function nor neurobehavioral performance was compromised by exposure to VOCs or VOCs + O3. Although numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that symptoms are significantly increased among workers in buildings with poor ventilation and mixtures of VOCs, our acute exposure study was not consistent with these epidemiologic findings. Stress appears to be a more significant factor than chemical exposures in affecting some of the health end points measured in our present study.

Authors
Fiedler, N; Laumbach, R; Kelly-McNeil, K; Lioy, P; Fan, Z-H; Zhang, J; Ottenweller, J; Ohman-Strickland, P; Kipen, H
MLA Citation
Fiedler, N, Laumbach, R, Kelly-McNeil, K, Lioy, P, Fan, Z-H, Zhang, J, Ottenweller, J, Ohman-Strickland, P, and Kipen, H. "Health effects of a mixture of indoor air volatile organics, their ozone oxidation products, and stress." Environmental Health Perspectives 113.11 (November 2005): 1542-1548.
PMID
16263509
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
113
Issue
11
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1542
End Page
1548
DOI
10.1289/ehp.8132

Nasal effects of a mixture of volatile organic compounds and their ozone oxidation products.

Our objective was to determine if low levels of a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their ozone (O3) oxidation products, similar to what might be found in "sick buildings," cause nasal irritation and inflammation under controlled exposure conditions.Healthy, nonsmoking women (n=130) completed 2-hour controlled exposures to VOCs, VOCs and O3, and a masked air "MA" control in random order at least 1 week apart. VOCs and O3 concentrations were approximately 25 mg/m and approximately 40 ppb, respectively. Nasal symptoms were rated before, during, and after exposure. Nasal lavage fluid was analyzed for polymorphonuclear cells, total protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8.We found no significant differences in symptoms or markers of nasal inflammation between exposure conditions.Results suggest that VOCs and their oxidation products may not cause acute nasal effects at low concentrations.

Authors
Laumbach, RJ; Fiedler, N; Gardner, CR; Laskin, DL; Fan, Z-H; Zhang, J; Weschler, CJ; Lioy, PJ; Devlin, RB; Ohman-Strickland, P; Kelly-McNeil, K; Kipen, HM
MLA Citation
Laumbach, RJ, Fiedler, N, Gardner, CR, Laskin, DL, Fan, Z-H, Zhang, J, Weschler, CJ, Lioy, PJ, Devlin, RB, Ohman-Strickland, P, Kelly-McNeil, K, and Kipen, HM. "Nasal effects of a mixture of volatile organic compounds and their ozone oxidation products." Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 47.11 (November 2005): 1182-1189.
PMID
16282880
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume
47
Issue
11
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1182
End Page
1189
DOI
10.1097/01.jom.0000183338.95778.f0

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses.

This study on the relationships of indoor, outdoor, and personal air (RIOPA) was undertaken to collect data for use in evaluating the contribution of outdoor sources of air toxics and particulate matter (PM) to personal exposure. The study was not designed to obtain a population-based sample, but rather to provide matched indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations in homes that varied in their proximity to outdoor pollution sources and had a wide range of air exchange rates (AERs). This design allowed examination of relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations of air toxics and PM across a wide range of environmental conditions; the resulting data set obtained for a wide range of environmental pollutants and AERs can be used to evaluate exposure models. Approximately 100 households with residents who do not smoke participated in each of three cities in distinct locations expected to have different climates and housing characteristics: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Questionnaires were administered to characterize homes, neighborhoods, and personal activities that might affect exposures. The concentrations of a suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, as well as the fraction of airborne particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm (PM2.5), were measured during continuous 48-hour sessions in which indoor, outdoor, and personal air samples were collected simultaneously. During the same 48-hour period, the AER (exchanges/hr; x hr(-1)) was determined in each home, and carbonyl compounds were measured inside vehicle cabins driven by a subset of the participants. In most of the homes, measurements were made twice, during two different seasons, to obtain a wide distribution of AERs. This report presents in detail the data collection methods, quality control measures, and initial analyses of data distributions and relations among indoor, outdoor, and personal concentrations. The results show that indoor sources dominated personal and indoor air concentrations of many measured VOCs and carbonyl compounds. For several measured species, personal concentrations were higher than either indoor or outdoor concentrations, indicating the presence of some sources closely related to personal activities. For some species there were no significant indoor sources in the majority of the homes; thus indoor concentrations were mainly determined by outdoor concentrations in these homes. The range of distributions of air concentrations for the measured VOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, PM2.5, and AERs were generally consistent with values reported previously in the literature. Thus associations derived from or models based on this data set that may link the influence of outdoor sources with indoor air concentrations of air toxics and PM2.5 can be relevant to other urban settings. The simultaneous measurements of indoor concentrations, outdoor concentrations, AERs, and room volumes allowed the use of a mass balance model, under the steady-state approximation, to mechanistically examine the relative contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to measured indoor concentrations on a home-by-home basis. Estimated indoor source strengths for VOCs and carbonyl compounds varied widely from home to home, consistent with the indoor-outdoor concentration patterns, as shown in scatter plots. The indoor source estimations agreed with published values for PM2.5 and with the general understanding of sources of VOCs and carbonyl compounds. The source strengths reported here, derived from hundreds of homes, are an important contribution to the literature on exposure to air toxics. For the first time for many compounds, these estimates present a cohesive set of measurements across a range of air toxics in paired indoor, outdoor, and personal samples along with AER and questionnaire results that can be used for future analyses of indoor air quality. The estimation of outdoor contributions to measured indoor concentrations provides insights about the relative importance of indoor and outdoor sources in determining indoor concentrations, the main determinant of personal exposure for most of the measured compounds. In this report simple statistical tests mainly of the pooled data were used to analyze differences by sampling site, emission source type, season, home type, and home age. Paired adult-child personal concentrations within the same home were also compared using the pooled data set. These analyses generated some intriguing results that warrant more in-depth investigation in the future.

Authors
Weisel, CP; Zhang, J; Turpin, BJ; Morandi, MT; Colome, S; Stock, TH; Spektor, DM; Korn, L; Winer, AM; Kwon, J; Meng, QY; Zhang, L; Harrington, R; Liu, W; Reff, A; Lee, JH; Alimokhtari, S; Mohan, K; Shendell, D; Jones, J; Farrar, L; Maberti, S; Fan, T
MLA Citation
Weisel, CP, Zhang, J, Turpin, BJ, Morandi, MT, Colome, S, Stock, TH, Spektor, DM, Korn, L, Winer, AM, Kwon, J, Meng, QY, Zhang, L, Harrington, R, Liu, W, Reff, A, Lee, JH, Alimokhtari, S, Mohan, K, Shendell, D, Jones, J, Farrar, L, Maberti, S, and Fan, T. "Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA). Part I. Collection methods and descriptive analyses." Research report (Health Effects Institute) 130 Pt 1 (November 2005): 1-107.
PMID
16454009
Source
epmc
Published In
Research report (Health Effects Institute)
Issue
130 Pt 1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
1
End Page
107

Optimizing a dansylhydrazine (DNSH) based method for measuring airborne acrolein and other unsaturated carbonyls.

The Passive Aldehydes and Ketones Sampler (PAKS) method has been developed to measure airborne carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones) by derivatizing the carbonyls with dansylhydrazine (DNSH) on a solid sorbent. The method collection efficiencies are approximately 100% for most saturated carbonyls, but are significantly lower for unsaturated carbonyls. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of DNSH reactions with unsaturated carbonyls, focusing on acrolein. With a better understanding of these mechanisms, we modified the sampling substrate conditions and HPLC analysis conditions of the original PAKS method, resulting in substantially improved collection efficiencies for acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Evaluated under a variety of conditions (temperature, humidity, presence of ozone), the modified PAKS method had a collection efficiency of 99%+/- 5% for acrolein (N= 36) and 96%+/- 20% for crotonaldehyde (N= 6). The acrolein-DNSH derivative was stable within 9.6% of the initial amount, after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C, on the collection medium; and stable within 2.8% of the initial amount, after 16 days of storage at room temperature, in extract.

Authors
Herrington, J; Zhang, L; Whitaker, D; Sheldon, L; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Herrington, J, Zhang, L, Whitaker, D, Sheldon, L, and Zhang, JJ. "Optimizing a dansylhydrazine (DNSH) based method for measuring airborne acrolein and other unsaturated carbonyls." Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM 7.10 (October 2005): 969-976.
PMID
16193168
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
Volume
7
Issue
10
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
969
End Page
976
DOI
10.1039/b502063h

Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions

Authors
Fan, Z; Weschler, CJ; Han, I-K; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Fan, Z, Weschler, CJ, Han, I-K, and Zhang, JJ. "Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions." Atmospheric Environment 39.28 (September 2005): 5171-5182.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
39
Issue
28
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
5171
End Page
5182
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.05.018

Long-term changes in air pollution and health implications in four Chinese cities

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Hu, W; Wei, F; Wu, G; Cheng, W-L; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, Hu, W, Wei, F, Wu, G, Cheng, W-L, and Chapman, RS. "Long-term changes in air pollution and health implications in four Chinese cities." Energy for Sustainable Development 9.3 (September 2005): 67-76.
Source
crossref
Published In
Energy for Sustainable Development
Volume
9
Issue
3
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
67
End Page
76
DOI
10.1016/S0973-0826(08)60525-6

PM2.5 of ambient origin: estimates and exposure errors relevant to PM epidemiology.

Epidemiological studies routinely use central-site particulate matter (PM) as a surrogate for exposure to PM of ambient (outdoor) origin. Below we quantify exposure errors that arise from variations in particle infiltration to aid evaluation of the use of this surrogate, rather than actual exposure, in PM epidemiology. Measurements from 114 homes in three cities from the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study were used. Indoor PM2.5 of outdoor origin was calculated as follows: (1) assuming a constant infiltration factor, as would be the case if central-site PM were a "perfect surrogate" for exposure to outdoor particles; (2) including variations in measured air exchange rates across homes; (3) also incorporating home-to-home variations in particle composition, and (4) calculating sample-specific infiltration factors. The final estimates of PM2.5 of outdoor origin take into account variations in building construction, ventilation practices, and particle properties that result in home-to-home and day-to-day variations in particle infiltration. As assumptions became more realistic (from the first, most constrained model to the fourth, least constrained model), the mean concentration of PM2.5 of outdoor origin increased. Perhaps more importantly, the bandwidth of the distribution increased. These results quantify several ways in which the use of central site PM results in underestimates of the ambient PM2.5 exposure distribution bandwidth. The result is larger uncertainties in relative risk factors for PM2.5 than would occur if epidemiological studies used more accurate exposure measures. In certain situations this can lead to bias.

Authors
Meng, QY; Turpin, BJ; Polidori, A; Lee, JH; Weisel, C; Morandi, M; Colome, S; Stock, T; Winer, A; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Meng, QY, Turpin, BJ, Polidori, A, Lee, JH, Weisel, C, Morandi, M, Colome, S, Stock, T, Winer, A, and Zhang, J. "PM2.5 of ambient origin: estimates and exposure errors relevant to PM epidemiology." Environmental science & technology 39.14 (July 2005): 5105-5112.
PMID
16082937
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
39
Issue
14
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
5105
End Page
5112
DOI
10.1021/es048226f

Lung cancer risk assessment of human exposure to PAHs by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene

1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) is often taken as a biomarker of human exposure to PAHs, but so far it hasn't been used to PAHs related cancer risk assessment. In this study, 100 non-smoking adults were selected as volunteer subjects. The 24 h personal air samples and urine samples of each subject were collected and analyzed. Quantitative relationships between the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) in human urine and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), pyrene (Py) and other 14 kinds of PAHs in inhalation samples were established. The model for predicting lung cancer risk of human inhalation exposure to PAHs by urinary 1-OH-Py was then developed based on the current dose-response relationship model between lung cancer risk mortality and BaP air concentration. Lung cancer risk was about 11 × 10 -5 for general group and 160 × 10 -5 for coke oven workers. If BaP equivalent toxicity of all the 14 PAHs were considered, the lung cancer risk for each group could be 0.5 time higher. Biological exposure limit (BEL) of urinary 1-OH-Py is 0.11 μmol/mol creatinine for non-smoking general group and 1.90 μmol/mol creatinine for coke oven workers.

Authors
Duan, XL; Wei, FS; Zhang, J; Yang, HB; Zhang, L; Wu, GP
MLA Citation
Duan, XL, Wei, FS, Zhang, J, Yang, HB, Zhang, L, and Wu, GP. "Lung cancer risk assessment of human exposure to PAHs by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene." Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science 25.3 (June 1, 2005): 275-278.
Source
scopus
Published In
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science
Volume
25
Issue
3
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
275
End Page
278

Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study: study design, methods and quality assurance/control results.

The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) Study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of outdoor sources of air toxics, as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, to indoor concentrations and personal exposures. The concentrations of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 17 carbonyl compounds, and fine particulate matter mass (PM(2.5)) were measured using 48-h outdoor, indoor and personal air samples collected simultaneously. PM2.5 mass, as well as several component species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and elemental analysis) were also measured; only PM(2.5) mass is reported here. Questionnaires were administered to characterize homes, neighborhoods and personal activities that might affect exposures. The air exchange rate was also measured in each home. Homes in close proximity (<0.5 km) to sources of air toxics were preferentially (2:1) selected for sampling. Approximately 100 non-smoking households in each of Elizabeth, NJ, Houston, TX, and Los Angeles, CA were sampled (100, 105, and 105 respectively) with second visits performed at 84, 93, and 81 homes in each city, respectively. VOC samples were collected at all homes, carbonyls at 90% and PM(2.5) at 60% of the homes. Personal samples were collected from nonsmoking adults and a portion of children living in the target homes. This manuscript provides the RIOPA study design and quality control and assurance data. The results from the RIOPA study can potentially provide information on the influence of ambient sources on indoor air concentrations and exposure for many air toxics and will furnish an opportunity to evaluate exposure models for these compounds.

Authors
Weisel, CP; Zhang, J; Turpin, BJ; Morandi, MT; Colome, S; Stock, TH; Spektor, DM; Korn, L; Winer, A; Alimokhtari, S; Kwon, J; Mohan, K; Harrington, R; Giovanetti, R; Cui, W; Afshar, M; Maberti, S; Shendell, D
MLA Citation
Weisel, CP, Zhang, J, Turpin, BJ, Morandi, MT, Colome, S, Stock, TH, Spektor, DM, Korn, L, Winer, A, Alimokhtari, S, Kwon, J, Mohan, K, Harrington, R, Giovanetti, R, Cui, W, Afshar, M, Maberti, S, and Shendell, D. "Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study: study design, methods and quality assurance/control results." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 15.2 (March 2005): 123-137.
PMID
15213705
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
15
Issue
2
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
123
End Page
137
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500379

Functional group characterization of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM: results from RIOPA.

UNLABELLED: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) samples were collected during the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. FTIR spectroscopy provides functional group information about the entire PM(2.5) sample without any chemical preparation. It is particularly important to characterizing the poorly understood organic fraction of PM(2.5). To our knowledge this is the first time that FTIR spectroscopy has been applied to a PM(2.5) exposure study. The results were used to chemically characterize indoor air and personal exposure. Sulfate was strongest in outdoor samples, which is consistent with the generally accepted understanding that sulfate is of outdoor origin. Absorbances attributed to soil dust were also seen in many outdoor and some indoor and personal samples. Inorganic nitrate absorbances were a common feature of many California and some New Jersey samples. Carbonyl absorbances showed substantial variation in strength, number of peaks, and wave number shift between samples, indicating variability in composition and sources. Absorbances attributed to aliphatic hydrocarbon and amide functional groups were enhanced in many personal and indoor samples, which suggested the influence of indoor sources in these homes. We speculate that meat cooking is one possible source of particulate amides. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that FTIR spectroscopy has been used to characterize the composition of indoor and personal PM(2.5). The presence of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil dust and a number of organic functional groups are all detected in one analysis on filter samples without extraction or other sample preparation. Differences between indoor and outdoor spectra are used to identify spectral features due to indoor-generated PM(2.5). Particularly interesting are the much larger aliphatic absorbances, shifts in carbonyl absorbances, and occasional small amide absorbances found in indoor and personal spectra but rarely in outdoor spectra. These observations are important because organics make up a large portion of PM(2.5) mass and their composition and properties are poorly characterized. The properties and behavior of organic compounds in airborne particles are often predicted based on their functional group composition. This analysis begins the development of a better understanding of the functional group composition of indoor and personal PM(2.5) and how it differs from that of outdoor PM(2.5). Eventually this will lead to an improved understanding of the properties, behavior and effects of PM(2.5) of indoor and outdoor origin.

Authors
Reff, A; Turpin, BJ; Porcja, RJ; Giovennetti, R; Cui, W; Weisel, CP; Zhang, J; Kwon, J; Alimokhtari, S; Morandi, M; Stock, T; Maberti, S; Colome, S; Winer, A; Shendell, D; Jones, J; Farrar, C
MLA Citation
Reff, A, Turpin, BJ, Porcja, RJ, Giovennetti, R, Cui, W, Weisel, CP, Zhang, J, Kwon, J, Alimokhtari, S, Morandi, M, Stock, T, Maberti, S, Colome, S, Winer, A, Shendell, D, Jones, J, and Farrar, C. "Functional group characterization of indoor, outdoor, and personal PM: results from RIOPA." Indoor air 15.1 (February 2005): 53-61.
PMID
15660568
Source
epmc
Published In
Indoor Air
Volume
15
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
53
End Page
61
DOI
10.1111/j.1600-0668.2004.00323.x

Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: analyses of RIOPA data.

The Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air (RIOPA) study was designed to investigate residential indoor, outdoor and personal exposures to several classes of air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds, carbonyls and fine particles (PM2.5). Samples were collected from summer, 1999 to spring, 2001 in Houston (TX), Los Angeles (CA) and Elizabeth (NJ). Indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 samples were collected at 212 nonsmoking residences, 162 of which were sampled twice. Some homes were chosen due to close proximity to ambient sources of one or more target analytes, while others were farther from sources. Median indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 mass concentrations for these three sites were 14.4, 15.5 and 31.4 microg/m3, respectively. The contributions of ambient (outdoor) and nonambient sources to indoor and personal concentrations were quantified using a single compartment box model with measured air exchange rate and a random component superposition (RCS) statistical model. The median contribution of ambient sources to indoor PM2.5 concentrations using the mass balance approach was estimated to be 56% for all study homes (63%, 52% and 33% for California, New Jersey and Texas study homes, respectively). Reasonable variations in model assumptions alter median ambient contributions by less than 20%. The mean of the distribution of ambient contributions across study homes agreed well for the mass balance and RCS models, but the distribution was somewhat broader when calculated using the mass balance model with measured air exchange rates.

Authors
Meng, QY; Turpin, BJ; Korn, L; Weisel, CP; Morandi, M; Colome, S; Zhang, JJ; Stock, T; Spektor, D; Winer, A; Zhang, L; Lee, JH; Giovanetti, R; Cui, W; Kwon, J; Alimokhtari, S; Shendell, D; Jones, J; Farrar, C; Maberti, S
MLA Citation
Meng, QY, Turpin, BJ, Korn, L, Weisel, CP, Morandi, M, Colome, S, Zhang, JJ, Stock, T, Spektor, D, Winer, A, Zhang, L, Lee, JH, Giovanetti, R, Cui, W, Kwon, J, Alimokhtari, S, Shendell, D, Jones, J, Farrar, C, and Maberti, S. "Influence of ambient (outdoor) sources on residential indoor and personal PM2.5 concentrations: analyses of RIOPA data." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 15.1 (January 2005): 17-28.
PMID
15138449
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
15
Issue
1
Publish Date
2005
Start Page
17
End Page
28
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500378

Emissions of air pollutants from household stoves: honeycomb coal versus coal cake.

Domestic coal combustion can emit various air pollutants. In the present study, we measured emissions of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants from burning a specially formulated honeycomb coal (H-coal) and a coal cake (C-coal). Flue gas samples for PM2.5, PM coarse (PM2.5-10), and TSP were collected isokinetically using a cascade impactor; PM mass concentrations were determined gravimetrically. Concentrations of SO2, NOx, and ionic Cr(VI) in PM were analyzed using spectrometric methods. Fluoride concentrations were measured using a specific ion electrode method. PM elemental components were analyzed using an X-ray fluorescence technique. Total (gas and particle phase) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentration was determined using an HPLC/fluorescence method. Elemental and organic carbon contents of PM were analyzed using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. The compositional and structural differences between the H-coal and C-coal resulted in different emission characteristics. In generating 1 MJ of delivered energy, the H-coal resulted in a significant reduction in emissions of SO2 (by 68%), NOx (by 47%), and TSP (by 56%) as compared to the C-coal, whereas the emissions of PM2.5 and total BaP from the H-coal combustion were 2-3-fold higher, indicating that improvements are needed to further reduce emissions of these pollutants in developing future honeycomb coals. Although the H-coal and the C-coal had similar emission factors for gas-phase fluoride, the H-coal had a particle-phase fluoride emission factor that was only half that of the C-coal. The H-coal had lower energy-based emissions of all the measured toxic elements in TSP but higher emissions of Cd and Ni in PM2.5.

Authors
Ge, S; Xu, X; Chow, JC; Watson, J; Sheng, Q; Liu, W; Bai, Z; Zhu, T; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Ge, S, Xu, X, Chow, JC, Watson, J, Sheng, Q, Liu, W, Bai, Z, Zhu, T, and Zhang, J. "Emissions of air pollutants from household stoves: honeycomb coal versus coal cake." Environmental science & technology 38.17 (September 2004): 4612-4618.
PMID
15461170
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
38
Issue
17
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
4612
End Page
4618
DOI
10.1021/es049942k

Using air pollution based community clusters to explore air pollution health effects in children.

To study respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant mixture, we observed 7058 school children 5-16 years of age living in the four Chinese cities of Lanzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou. These children were enrolled from elementary schools located in eight districts, one urban district and one suburban district in each of the above cities. Ambient levels of PM(2.5), PM(10-2.5), total suspended particles (TSP), SO(2), and NO(x) were measured in these districts from 1993 to 1996. Based on a cluster analysis of arithmetic mean concentrations of PM(2.5), PM(10-2.5), (TSP-PM(10)), SO(2), and NO(x), we classified these children into four ordinal categories of exposure to ambient air pollutant mixtures. We tested for exposure-response relationships using logistic regression models, controlling for relevant covariates. We observed monotonic, positive relationships of exposure to the pollutant mixture with prevalence rates of cough with phlegm and wheeze. Other outcomes were not associated with the exposure in a monotonic exposure-response pattern. Even so, odds ratios for cough, phlegm, bronchitis, and asthma in the higher exposure district clusters were all higher than in the lowest exposure district cluster. We found evidence that exposure to the pollutant mixtures had adverse effects on children living in the four Chinese cities.

Authors
Qian, Z; Chapman, RS; Hu, W; Wei, F; Korn, LR; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Qian, Z, Chapman, RS, Hu, W, Wei, F, Korn, LR, and Zhang, JJ. "Using air pollution based community clusters to explore air pollution health effects in children." Environment international 30.5 (July 2004): 611-620.
PMID
15051237
Source
epmc
Published In
Environment International
Volume
30
Issue
5
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
611
End Page
620
DOI
10.1016/j.envint.2003.11.003

Factor analysis of household factors: are they associated with respiratory conditions in Chinese children?

BACKGROUND: We explored methods to develop uncorrelated variables for epidemiological analysis models. They were used to examine associations between respiratory health outcomes and multiple household risk factors. METHODS: We analysed data collected in the Four Chinese Cities Study (FCCS) to examine health effects on prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms and illnesses in 7058 school children living in the four Chinese cities: Lanzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou. We used factor analysis approaches to reduce the number of the children's lifestyle/household variables and to develop new uncorrelated 'factor' variables. We used unconditional logistic regression models to examine associations between the factor variables and the respiratory health outcomes, while controlling for other covariates. RESULTS: Five factor variables were derived from 21 original variables: heating coal smoke, cooking coal smoke, socioeconomic status, ventilation, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and parental asthma. We found that higher exposure to heating coal smoke was associated with higher reporting of cough with phlegm, wheeze, and asthma. Cooking coal smoke was not associated with any of the outcomes. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower reporting of persistent cough and bronchitis. Higher household ventilation was associated with lower reporting of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, cough with phlegm, bronchitis, and wheeze. Higher exposure to ETS and the presence of parental asthma were associated with higher reporting of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, cough with phlegm, bronchitis, wheeze, and asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that independent respiratory effects of exposure to indoor air pollution, heating coal smoke, and ETS may exist for the studied children.

Authors
Qian, Z; Zhang, J; Korn, LR; Wei, F; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Qian, Z, Zhang, J, Korn, LR, Wei, F, and Chapman, RS. "Factor analysis of household factors: are they associated with respiratory conditions in Chinese children?." International journal of epidemiology 33.3 (June 2004): 582-588.
PMID
15166210
Source
epmc
Published In
International Journal of Epidemiology
Volume
33
Issue
3
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
582
End Page
588
DOI
10.1093/ije/dyg278

Chlordanes in the indoor and outdoor air of three U.S. cities.

Indoor and outdoor concentrations of six chlordane components (trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, and MC5) were measured at 157 residences, all of which were inhabited by nonsmoking individuals, in three urban areas during June 1999-May 2000. The analyses were conducted on a subset of 48 h integrated samples collected in Los Angeles County, CA, Houston, TX, and Elizabeth, NJ within the Relationship of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. Both particle-bound (PM2.5; quartz fiber filter) and vapor-phase (PUF sorbant) chlordane concentrations were separately measured by GC/EI MS after solvent extraction. The outdoor (gas + particle) total chlordane (trans-chlordane + cis-chlordane + trans-nonachlor + cis-nonachlor) concentrations ranged from 0.036 to 4.27 ng m(-3) in Los Angeles County, from 0.008 to 11.00 ng m(-3) in Elizabeth, and from 0.062 to 1.77 ng m(-3) in Houston. The corresponding indoor total chlordane concentrations ranged from 0.037 to 112.0 ng m(-3) in Los Angeles County, from 0.260 to 31.80 ng m(-3) in Elizabeth, and from 0.410 to 38.90 ng m(-3) in Houston study homes. Geometric mean concentrations were higher in indoor air than outdoor air (1.98 vs 0.58 ng m(-3) in CA; 1.30 vs 0.17 ng m(-3) in NJ; 4.18 vs 0.28 ng m(-3) in TX), which suggests there are significant indoor sources of chlordane species in a subset of homes in each of the three cities. Calculated source strengths relate to home age, with the highest apparent indoor source strengths occurring in unattached single-family homes built during the period from 1945 to 1959. Principle indoor sources of chlordanes likely include volatilization from residues of indoor application of chlordanes and infiltration from subsurface and foundation application of chlordane-containing termiticides during home construction.

Authors
Offenberg, JH; Naumova, YY; Turpin, BJ; Eisenreich, SJ; Morandi, MT; Stock, T; Colome, SD; Winer, AM; Spektor, DM; Zhang, J; Weisel, CP
MLA Citation
Offenberg, JH, Naumova, YY, Turpin, BJ, Eisenreich, SJ, Morandi, MT, Stock, T, Colome, SD, Winer, AM, Spektor, DM, Zhang, J, and Weisel, CP. "Chlordanes in the indoor and outdoor air of three U.S. cities." Environmental science & technology 38.10 (May 2004): 2760-2768.
PMID
15212248
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
38
Issue
10
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
2760
End Page
2768

Exposure–response relationships between lifetime exposure to residential coal smoke and respiratory symptoms and illnesses in Chinese children

Authors
Qian, Z; Zhang, JJ; Korn, LR; Wei, F; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Qian, Z, Zhang, JJ, Korn, LR, Wei, F, and Chapman, RS. "Exposure–response relationships between lifetime exposure to residential coal smoke and respiratory symptoms and illnesses in Chinese children." Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 14 (April 2004): S78-S84.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
14
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
S78
End Page
S84
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500362

Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China

Authors
Edwards, RD; Smith, KR; Zhang, J; Ma, Y
MLA Citation
Edwards, RD, Smith, KR, Zhang, J, and Ma, Y. "Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China." Energy Policy 32.3 (February 2004): 395-411.
Source
crossref
Published In
Energy Policy
Volume
32
Issue
3
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
395
End Page
411
DOI
10.1016/S0301-4215(02)00309-9

Air concentrations of VOCs in portable and traditional classrooms: results of a pilot study in Los Angeles County.

Recent state and federal public school class-size reduction initiatives, increased elementary and pre-K enrollment driven by population growth and immigration, and limited resources for capital projects, modernization, and maintenance at aging schools have increased the prevalence of prefabricated, portable classrooms (portables). At present, approximately one of three California students are taught in portables, whose use is especially prevalent in more populated counties such as Los Angeles, home to the nation's second largest school district. Limited data existed on chemical compound air concentrations, and thus exposures, inside American public schools. Measurements have been limited, usually performed in complaint schools, and varied in sampling protocols and analysis methods. To address a school environment and children's health issue of present concern, an assessment of public school portables was conducted in Los Angeles County. Seven schools in two school districts were recruited, from which 20 classrooms--13 portables, seven in main buildings--were randomly selected. We report indoor air concentrations of 21 target toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, measured with passive samplers (DNSH PAKS and 3M OVM 3500) in the cooling and heating seasons between June 2000 and June 2001. None of the measured indoor air formaldehyde concentrations exceeded the existing California Air Resources Board guideline (50 ppb, or 60 microg/m(3)). The main sources of aldehydes in classrooms, especially portables, were likely interior finish materials and furnishings made of particleboard without lamination. Indoor air VOC concentrations were generally low in this pilot study. The four most prevalent VOCs measured were toluene, m-/p-xylene, alpha-pinene, and delta-limonene; likely indoor sources were personal, teaching, and cleaning products. Future schools research should attempt larger samples over larger geographical areas.

Authors
Shendell, DG; Winer, AM; Stock, TH; Zhang, L; Zhang, JJ; Maberti, S; Colome, SD
MLA Citation
Shendell, DG, Winer, AM, Stock, TH, Zhang, L, Zhang, JJ, Maberti, S, and Colome, SD. "Air concentrations of VOCs in portable and traditional classrooms: results of a pilot study in Los Angeles County." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 14.1 (January 2004): 44-59.
PMID
14726944
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
14
Issue
1
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
44
End Page
59
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500297

Selective detection of monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and associated with a variety of adverse health effects. Monohydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), metabolites of PAHs, have been employed as biomarkers for human exposure assessment of PAHs. This manuscript describes new, selective detection methods for OH-PAHs using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Electrospray ionization was operated in the negative ion mode to detect the deprotonated PAH metabolites ([M-H](-)). Hydroxylated metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene were selected for the method development. Based on the collision-induced dissociation MS/MS spectra of the selected OH-PAHs, a characteristic ion fragmentation, loss of 28 Da from the [M--H](-) ion, was identified for all of these OH-PAHs. This characteristic fragmentation was exploited for selective screening for OH-PAHs in human urine by incorporating a constant neutral loss (CNL) scan with data-dependent scanning, using a triple quadruple mass spectrometer. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was also used to tentatively identify isomers of the target OH-PAHs in human urine. The excellent linearity (3-4 orders of magnitude) and signal-to-noise performance provided by the SRM method allowed development of a sensitive LC/MS/MS method for measuring OH-PAHs in urine samples. The limits of detection of the SRM method ranged from approximately 0.1-5 pg on column for a suite of OH-PAHs tested in the study. The LC-SRM method was applied, following enzymatic deconjugation and solid-phase extraction of the urine, to preliminarily determine the OH-PAH concentrations in urine specimens from six Chinese non-occupationally exposed workers and seven Chinese coke oven workers.

Authors
Xu, X; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Liu, W; Weisel, CP
MLA Citation
Xu, X, Zhang, J, Zhang, L, Liu, W, and Weisel, CP. "Selective detection of monohydroxy metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine using liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry." Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM 18.19 (January 2004): 2299-2308.
PMID
15384151
Source
epmc
Published In
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry
Volume
18
Issue
19
Publish Date
2004
Start Page
2299
End Page
2308
DOI
10.1002/rcm.1625

Mosquito coil emissions and health implications.

Burning mosquito coils indoors generates smoke that can control mosquitoes effectively. This practice is currently used in numerous households in Asia, Africa, and South America. However, the smoke may contain pollutants of health concern. We conducted the present study to characterize the emissions from four common brands of mosquito coils from China and two common brands from Malaysia. We used mass balance equations to determine emission rates of fine particles (particulate matter < 2.5 microm in diameter; PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes, and ketones. Having applied these measured emission rates to predict indoor concentrations under realistic room conditions, we found that pollutant concentrations resulting from burning mosquito coils could substantially exceed health-based air quality standards or guidelines. Under the same combustion conditions, the tested Malaysian mosquito coils generated more measured pollutants than did the tested Chinese mosquito coils. We also identified a large suite of volatile organic compounds, including carcinogens and suspected carcinogens, in the coil smoke. In a set of experiments conducted in a room, we examined the size distribution of particulate matter contained in the coil smoke and found that the particles were ultrafine and fine. The findings from the present study suggest that exposure to the smoke of mosquito coils similar to the tested ones can pose significant acute and chronic health risks. For example, burning one mosquito coil would release the same amount of PM(2.5) mass as burning 75-137 cigarettes. The emission of formaldehyde from burning one coil can be as high as that released from burning 51 cigarettes.

Authors
Liu, W; Zhang, J; Hashim, JH; Jalaludin, J; Hashim, Z; Goldstein, BD
MLA Citation
Liu, W, Zhang, J, Hashim, JH, Jalaludin, J, Hashim, Z, and Goldstein, BD. "Mosquito coil emissions and health implications." Environmental health perspectives 111.12 (September 2003): 1454-1460.
PMID
12948883
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
111
Issue
12
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
1454
End Page
1460
DOI
10.1289/ehp.6286

Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from various cookstoves used in China.

Emission contributions from cookstoves to indoor, regional, and global air pollution largely depend on stove and fuel types. This paper presents a database on emission factors of speciated non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) for 16 fuel/stove combinations burning 2 types of crop residue, wood, 4 types of coal, kerosene, and 3 types of gaseous fuels. The emission factors are presented both on a fuel mass basis (compound mass per fuel mass) and on a cooking task basis (compound mass per unit energy delivered to the pot). These fuel/stove combinations cover a large spectrum of the cookstoves used in both urban and rural households in China. Up to 54 hydrocarbons were identified, some of which are reactive precursors of photochemical smog. Based on published maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values for NMHCs, we estimated stove-specific and fuel-specific ozone forming potentials (OFPs). The results indicate that raw coal powder, wood, and crop residues have higher OFP values than the other types of fuels tested. Strikingly, burning the coal briquette and honeycomb coal briquette produced OFP values more than 2 orders of magnitude lower than burning unprocessed (raw) coal, even in the same vented metal stove, for every 1 MJ delivered to the pot.

Authors
Tsai, SM; Zhang, JJ; Smith, KR; Ma, Y; Rasmussen, RA; Khalil, MAK
MLA Citation
Tsai, SM, Zhang, JJ, Smith, KR, Ma, Y, Rasmussen, RA, and Khalil, MAK. "Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons emitted from various cookstoves used in China." Environmental science & technology 37.13 (July 2003): 2869-2877.
PMID
12875388
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
37
Issue
13
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
2869
End Page
2877
DOI
10.1021/es026232a

Field evaluation and comparison of five methods of sampling lead dust on carpets.

Five methods of sampling lead-contaminated dust on carpets were evaluated and compared in 33 New Jersey homes of children with elevated blood lead levels. The five sampling methods were (1) wipe, (2) adhesive label, (3) C18 sheet, (4) vacuum, and (5) hand rinse. Samples were collected side by side on the same carpets within the homes. Among the five methods the wipe and vacuum methods showed high percentages of detectable samples, good reproducibility, and significant correlations with other methods. C18 sheets and adhesive labels collected the least quantity of lead dust, with high percentages of undetectable samples. Because of the limited ability of sampling lead on carpets and the relatively high cost for laboratory analysis, C18 sheets or adhesive labels are not considered feasible sampling techniques. The hand rinse method also was not feasible for carpet sampling, because it was difficult to conduct in the field and laboratory, and it was subject to inconsistency and cross contamination. Wipes, which collected lead dust from carpet surfaces, were believed to be the most appropriate method for measuring lead from carpets accessible to children. However, because of the low pickup from carpets, wipes may not be an appropriate measuring tool to assess the levels of total lead contamination in carpets. The authors recommend using surface wipe sampling to measure accessible lead from carpets for exposure assessment, and vacuum sampling to obtain the information on total lead accumulation.

Authors
Bai, Z; Yiin, L-M; Rich, DQ; Adgate, JL; Ashley, PJ; Lioy, PJ; Rhoads, GG; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Bai, Z, Yiin, L-M, Rich, DQ, Adgate, JL, Ashley, PJ, Lioy, PJ, Rhoads, GG, and Zhang, J. "Field evaluation and comparison of five methods of sampling lead dust on carpets." AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety 64.4 (July 2003): 528-532.
PMID
12908870
Source
epmc
Published In
AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety
Volume
64
Issue
4
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
528
End Page
532
DOI
10.1080/15428110308984850

Ozone-initiated reactions with mixtures of volatile organic compounds under simulated indoor conditions.

This study examines the primary and secondary products resulting from reactions initiated by adding ozone to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The mixtures were representative of organic species typically found indoors, but the concentrations tended to be higher than normal indoor levels. Each 4-h experiment was conducted in a controlled environmental facility (CEF, 25 m3) ventilated at approximately 1.8 h(-1). The mixture investigated included 23 VOC (no O3), O3/23 VOC, O3/21 VOC (no d-limonene or alpha-pinene), and O3/terpene only (d-limonene and alpha-pinene). The net O3 concentration was approximately 40 ppb in each experiment, and the total organic concentration was 26 mg/m3 for the 23 VOC mixture, 25 mg/m3 for the 21 VOC mixture, and 1.7 mg/m3 for the d-limonene and alpha-pinene mixture. When the 23 VOC were added to the CEF containing no O3, no compounds other than those deliberately introduced were observed. When O3 was added to the CEF containing the 23 VOC mixture, both gas and condensed phase products were found, including aldehydes, organic acids, and submicron particles (140 microg/m3). When O3 was added to the CEF containing the 21 VOC without the two terpenes (O3/21 VOC condition), most of the products that were observed in the O3/23 VOC experiments were no longer present or present at much lower concentrations. Furthermore, the particle mass concentration was 2-7 microg/m3, indistinguishable from the background particle concentration level. When O3 was added to the CEF containing only two terpenes, the results were similar to those in the O3/23 VOC experiments, but the particle mass concentration (190 microg/m3) was higher. The results indicate that (i) O3 reacts with unsaturated alkenes under indoor conditions to generate submicron particles and other potentially irritating species, such as aldehydes and organic acids; (ii) the major chemical transformations that occurred under our experimental conditions were driven by O3/d-limonene and O3/alpha-pinene reactions; and (iii) the hydroxyl radicals (OH) that were generated from the O3/terpene reactions played an important role in the chemical transformations and were responsible for approximately 56-70% of the formaldehyde, almost all of the p-tolualdehyde, and 19-29% of the particle mass generated in these experiments.

Authors
Fan, Z; Lioy, P; Weschler, C; Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Fan, Z, Lioy, P, Weschler, C, Fiedler, N, Kipen, H, and Zhang, J. "Ozone-initiated reactions with mixtures of volatile organic compounds under simulated indoor conditions." Environmental science & technology 37.9 (May 2003): 1811-1821.
PMID
12775052
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
37
Issue
9
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
1811
End Page
1821
DOI
10.1021/es026231i

Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

Exposure to carbonyl compounds may cause adverse health effects. The present study examined whether working in a garage and smoking can significantly affect personal "daily" exposure to a number of important carbonyl compounds. The study was carried out on 37 subjects including 22 garage workers (9 smokers and 13 nonsmokers) and 15 nongarage workers or so-called controls (4 smokers and 11 nonsmokers). Daily exposure was estimated using 48-hour integrated measurement of breathing-zone concentrations. The measurement involved the use of a passive carbonyl sampler and high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence analysis technique. Each subject was measured for up to three measurement sessions. A wide range of breathing-zone concentrations (unit: microgram per cubic meter) was observed for each of the following carbonyls: formaldehyde (14.1-80.1); acetaldehyde (8.41-80.3); acetone (0.65-1096); acrolein (<0.14-3.71); propionaldehyde (1.08-14.6); crotonaldehyde (<0.13-2.80); benzaldehyde (1.79-9.91); and hexaldehyde (0.122-22.4). Statistical significance of smoking effects and working in a garage effects were assessed using SAS mixed models. The results show that the garage workers had significantly higher levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than the controls, and that the smokers had significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, than the nonsmokers (P<.10). Garage employment and smoking appeared to increase breathing-zone concentrations of crotonaldehyde. In general, within-subject variations were smaller than between-subject variations on 48-hour averaged breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

Authors
Zhang, L; Chung, F-L; Boccia, L; Colosimo, S; Liu, W; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Zhang, L, Chung, F-L, Boccia, L, Colosimo, S, Liu, W, and Zhang, J. "Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds." AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety 64.3 (May 2003): 388-393.
PMID
12809545
Source
epmc
Published In
AIHA journal : a journal for the science of occupational and environmental health and safety
Volume
64
Issue
3
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
388
End Page
393
DOI
10.1080/15428110308984831

Indoor air pollution: a global health concern.

Indoor air pollution is ubiquitous, and takes many forms, ranging from smoke emitted from solid fuel combustion, especially in households in developing countries, to complex mixtures of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds present in modern buildings. This paper reviews sources of, and health risks associated with, various indoor chemical pollutants, from a historical and global perspective. Health effects are presented for individual compounds or pollutant mixtures based on real-world exposure situations. Health risks from indoor air pollution are likely to be greatest in cities in developing countries, especially where risks associated with solid fuel combustion coincide with risk associated with modern buildings. Everyday exposure to multiple chemicals, most of which are present indoors, may contribute to increasing prevalence of asthma, autism, childhood cancer, medically unexplained symptoms, and perhaps other illnesses. Given that tobacco consumption and synthetic chemical usage will not be declining at least in the near future, concerns about indoor air pollution may be expected to remain.

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, and Smith, KR. "Indoor air pollution: a global health concern." British medical bulletin 68 (January 2003): 209-225. (Review)
PMID
14757719
Source
epmc
Published In
British Medical Bulletin
Volume
68
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
209
End Page
225
DOI
10.1093/bmb/ldg029

Models to predict emissions of health-damaging pollutants and global warming contributions of residential fuel/stove combinations in China.

Residential energy use in developing countries has traditionally been associated with combustion devices of poor energy efficiency, which have been shown to produce substantial health-damaging pollution, contributing significantly to the global burden of disease, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Precision of these estimates in China has been hampered by limited data on stove use and fuel consumption in residences. In addition limited information is available on variability of emissions of pollutants from different stove/fuel combinations in typical use, as measurement of emission factors requires measurement of multiple chemical species in complex burn cycle tests. Such measurements are too costly and time consuming for application in conjunction with national surveys. Emissions of most of the major health-damaging pollutants (HDP) and many of the gases that contribute to GHG emissions from cooking stoves are the result of the significant portion of fuel carbon that is diverted to products of incomplete combustion (PIC) as a result of poor combustion efficiencies. The approximately linear increase in emissions of PIC with decreasing combustion efficiencies allows development of linear models to predict emissions of GHG and HDP intrinsically linked to CO2 and PIC production, and ultimately allows the prediction of global warming contributions from residential stove emissions. A comprehensive emissions database of three burn cycles of 23 typical fuel/stove combinations tested in a simulated village house in China has been used to develop models to predict emissions of HDP and global warming commitment (GWC) from cooking stoves in China, that rely on simple survey information on stove and fuel use that may be incorporated into national surveys. Stepwise regression models predicted 66% of the variance in global warming commitment (CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, TNMHC) per 1 MJ delivered energy due to emissions from these stoves if survey information on fuel type was available. Subsequently if stove type is known, stepwise regression models predicted 73% of the variance. Integrated assessment of policies to change stove or fuel type requires that implications for environmental impacts, energy efficiency, global warming and human exposures to HDP emissions can be evaluated. Frequently, this involves measurement of TSP or CO as the major HDPs. Incorporation of this information into models to predict GWC predicted 79% and 78% of the variance respectively. Clearly, however, the complexity of making multiple measurements in conjunction with a national survey would be both expensive and time consuming. Thus, models to predict HDP using simple survey information, and with measurement of either CO/CO2 or TSP/CO2 to predict emission factors for the other HDP have been derived. Stepwise regression models predicted 65% of the variance in emissions of total suspended particulate as grams of carbon (TSPC) per 1 MJ delivered if survey information on fuel and stove type was available and 74% if the CO/CO2 ratio was measured. Similarly stepwise regression models predicted 76% of the variance in COC emissions per MJ delivered with survey information on stove and fuel type and 85% if the TSPC/CO2 ratio was measured. Ultimately, with international agreements on emissions trading frameworks, similar models based on extensive databases of the fate of fuel carbon during combustion from representative household stoves would provide a mechanism for computing greenhouse credits in the residential sector as part of clean development mechanism frameworks and monitoring compliance to control regimes.

Authors
Edwards, RD; Smith, KR; Zhang, J; Ma, Y
MLA Citation
Edwards, RD, Smith, KR, Zhang, J, and Ma, Y. "Models to predict emissions of health-damaging pollutants and global warming contributions of residential fuel/stove combinations in China." Chemosphere 50.2 (January 2003): 201-215.
PMID
12653292
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
50
Issue
2
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
201
End Page
215
DOI
10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00478-2

Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds

Exposure to carbonyl compounds may cause adverse health effects. The present study examined whether working in a garage and smoking can significantly affect personal "daily" exposure to a number of important carbonyl compounds. The study was carried out on 37 subjects including 22 garage workers (9 smokers and 13 nonsmokers) and 15 nongarage workers or so-called controls (4 smokers and 11 nonsmokers). Daily exposure was estimated using 48-hour integrated measurement of breathing-zone concentrations. The measurement involved the use of a passive carbonyl sampler and high performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence analysis technique. Each subject was measured for up to three measurement sessions. A wide range of breathing-zone concentrations (unit: microgram per cubic meter) was observed for each of the following carbonyls: formaldehyde (14.1-80.1); acetaldehyde (8.41-80.3); acetone (0.65-1096); acrolein (<0.14-3.71); propionaldehyde (1.08-14.6); crotonaldehyde (<0.13-2.80); benzaldehyde (1.79-9.91); and hexaldehyde (0.122-22.4). Statistical significance of smoking effects and working in a garage effects were assessed using SAS mixed models. The results show that the garage workers had significantly higher levels of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than the controls, and that the smokers had significantly higher levels of acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, than the nonsmokers (P<.10). Garage employment and smoking appeared to increase breathing-zone concentrations of crotonaldehyde. In general, within-subject variations were smaller than between-subject variations on 48-hour averaged breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds.

Authors
Zhang, L; Chung, F-L; Boccia, L; Colosimo, S; Liu, W; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, L, Chung, F-L, Boccia, L, Colosimo, S, Liu, W, and Zhang, JJ. "Effects of garage employment and tobacco smoking on breathing-zone concentrations of carbonyl compounds." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 64.3 (2003): 388-393.
Source
scival
Published In
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
Volume
64
Issue
3
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
388
End Page
393
DOI
10.1202/1542-8125(2003)64<388:EOGEAT>2.0.CO;2

Field evaluation and comparison of five methods of sampling lead dust on carpets

Five methods of sampling lead-contaminated dust on carpets were evaluated and compared in 33 New Jersey homes of children with elevated blood lead levels. The five sampling methods were (1) wipe, (2) adhesive label, (3) C18 sheet, (4) vacuum, and (5) hand rinse. Samples were collected side by side on the same carpets within the homes. Among the five methods the wipe and vacuum methods showed high percentages of detectable samples, good reproducibility, and significant correlations with other methods. C18 sheets and adhesive labels collected the least quantity of lead dust, with high percentages of undetectable samples. Because of the limited ability of sampling lead on carpets and the relatively high cost for laboratory analysis, C18 sheets or adhesive labels are not considered feasible sampling techniques. The hand rinse method also was not feasible for carpet sampling, because it was difficult to conduct in the field and laboratory, and it was subject to inconsistency and cross contamination. Wipes, which collected lead dust from carpet surfaces, were believed to be the most appropriate method for measuring lead from carpets accessible to children. However, because of the low pickup from carpets, wipes may not be an appropriate measuring tool to assess the levels of total lead contamination in carpets. The authors recommend using surface wipe sampling to measure accessible lead from carpets for exposure assessment, and vacuum sampling to obtain the information on total lead accumulation.

Authors
Bai, Z; Yiin, L-M; Rich, DQ; Adgate, JL; Ashley, PJ; Lioy, PJ; Rhoads, GG; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Bai, Z, Yiin, L-M, Rich, DQ, Adgate, JL, Ashley, PJ, Lioy, PJ, Rhoads, GG, and Zhang, J. "Field evaluation and comparison of five methods of sampling lead dust on carpets." American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 64.4 (2003): 528-532.
Source
scival
Published In
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
Volume
64
Issue
4
Publish Date
2003
Start Page
528
End Page
532
DOI
10.1202/1542-8125(2003)64<528:FEACOF>2.0.CO;2

Chapter two: methodologies for characterisation of combustion sources and for quantification of their emissions.

Emissions from the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels result in generation of a large number of particle and gaseous products in outdoor and/or indoor air, which create health and environmental risks. Of particular importance are the very small particles that are emitted in large quantities from all the combustion sources, and that could be potentially more significant in terms of their impact on health and the environment than larger particles. It is important to quantify particle emissions from combustion sources for regulatory and control purposes in relation to air quality. This paper is a review of particle characteristics that are used as source signatures, their general advantages and limitations, as well as a review of source signatures of the most common combustion pollution sources including road transport, industrial facilities, small household combustion devices, environmental tobacco smoke, and vegetation burning. The current methods for measuring particle physical characteristics (mass and number concentrations) and principles of methodologies for measuring emission factors are discussed in the paper as well. Finally, the paper presents the recommendations for the future techniques for measurements of combustion products.

Authors
Mitra, AP; Morawska, L; Sharma, C; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Mitra, AP, Morawska, L, Sharma, C, and Zhang, J. "Chapter two: methodologies for characterisation of combustion sources and for quantification of their emissions." Chemosphere 49.9 (December 2002): 903-922. (Review)
PMID
12492157
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
49
Issue
9
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
903
End Page
922
DOI
10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00236-9

Combustion sources of particles. 1. Health relevance and source signatures.

Combustion processes result in generation of a large number of particle and gaseous products that create health and environmental risks. Of particular importance are the very small particles that are emitted in large quantities from all the combustion sources, and that have been shown to be potentially more significant in terms of their impact on health than larger particles. To control and mitigate the particles with a view of health and environmental risk reduction, a good understanding is necessary of the relative and absolute contribution from the emission sources to the airborne concentrations. This understanding could only be achieved by developing source signature libraries through direct emission measurements from the sources on one hand, and by measuring particle concentrations in the air, and apportioning them to the specific local and distant sources using the signatures, on the other hand. This paper is a review of particle characteristics that are used as source signatures as well as their general advantages and limitations. The second part of the paper reviews source signatures of the most common combustion pollution sources.

Authors
Morawska, L; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Morawska, L, and Zhang, JJ. "Combustion sources of particles. 1. Health relevance and source signatures." Chemosphere 49.9 (December 2002): 1045-1058. (Review)
PMID
12492164
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
49
Issue
9
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
1045
End Page
1058
DOI
10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00241-2

Combustion sources of particles: 2. Emission factors and measurement methods.

Emissions from the combustion of biomass and fossil fuels are a significant source of particulate matter (PM) in ambient outdoor and/or indoor air. It is important to quantify PM emissions from combustion sources for regulatory and control purposes in relation to air quality. In this paper, we review emission factors for several types of important combustion sources: road transport, industrial facilities, small household combustion devices, environmental tobacco smoke, and vegetation burning. We also review current methods for measuring particle physical characteristics (mass and number concentrations) and principles of methodologies for measuring emission factors. The emission factors can be measured on a fuel-mass basis and/or a task basis. Fuel-mass based emission factors (e.g., g/kg of fuel) can be readily used for the development of emission inventories when the amount of fuels consumed are known. Task-based emission factors (g/mile driven, g/MJ generated) are more appropriate when used to conduct comparisons of air pollution potentials of different combustion devices. Finally, we discuss major shortcomings and limitations of current methods for measuring particle emissions and present recommendations for development of future measurement techniques.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Morawska, L
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, and Morawska, L. "Combustion sources of particles: 2. Emission factors and measurement methods." Chemosphere 49.9 (December 2002): 1059-1074. (Review)
PMID
12492165
Source
epmc
Published In
Chemosphere
Volume
49
Issue
9
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
1059
End Page
1074
DOI
10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00240-0

Comparison of techniques to reduce residential lead dust on carpet and upholstery: the new jersey assessment of cleaning techniques trial.

High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are recommended by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development for cleaning lead-contaminated house dust. We performed a randomized field study to determine whether a conventional (non-HEPA) vacuum cleaner could achieve cleaning results comparable with those of a HEPA vacuum cleaner. We compared the lead loading reductions of these two vacuum cleaners in a total of 127 New Jersey homes of lead-exposed children. We used wet towelettes and a vacuum sampler to collect lead dust from carpets and upholstery before and after vacuum cleaning. The vacuum sampling data showed that the HEPA and non-HEPA vacuum cleaners resulted in 54.7% (p = 0.006) and 36.4% (p = 0.020) reductions in lead loading, respectively, when used on soiled carpets, although the overall difference in lead loading reduction between the two vacuum cleaners was not statistically significant (p = 0.293). The wipe sampling data did not show any significant lead loading reduction for either of the vacuum cleaners, suggesting that both vacuum cleaners fail to clean the surfaces of carpet effectively, considering that wipe sampling media simulate surface contact. On upholstery, the wipe sampling data showed a significant reduction in lead loading for the non-HEPA vacuum cleaner (22.2%, p = 0.047). Even with the significant reduction, the postcleaning lead loadings on upholstery were similar to those on carpets. The similar lead loading results for carpets and upholstery indicate that soiled upholstery may be as important a source of childhood lead exposure as carpets.

Authors
Yiin, L-M; Rhoads, GG; Rich, DQ; Zhang, J; Bai, Z; Adgate, JL; Ashley, PJ; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Yiin, L-M, Rhoads, GG, Rich, DQ, Zhang, J, Bai, Z, Adgate, JL, Ashley, PJ, and Lioy, PJ. "Comparison of techniques to reduce residential lead dust on carpet and upholstery: the new jersey assessment of cleaning techniques trial." Environmental health perspectives 110.12 (December 2002): 1233-1237.
PMID
12460803
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
110
Issue
12
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
1233
End Page
1237
DOI
10.1289/ehp.021101233

Children's respiratory morbidity prevalence in relation to air pollution in four Chinese cities.

We examined respiratory health effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution in 7,621 schoolchildren residing in eight districts of four Chinese cities. The four cities exhibited wide between-city and within-city gradients in ambient levels of four size fractions of particulate matter [less than or equal to 2.5 micro m in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), between 2.5 and 10 micro m (PM(10-2.5)), less than or equal to 10 micro m (PM(10)), and total suspended particulates (TSP)] and two gaseous pollutants (SO(2) and NO(x)). Informed consent and written responses to questionnaires about children's personal, residential, and family information, as well as their health histories and status, were obtained with the help of the parents and the school personnel. We used a two-stage regression approach in data analyses. In the first-stage logistic regressions, we obtained logits of district-specific prevalence of wheeze, asthma, bronchitis, hospitalization for respiratory diseases, persistent cough, and persistent phlegm, adjusted for covariates representing personal, household, and family parameters. Some of these covariates were found to be risk factors of children's respiratory health, including being younger in the study group, being male, having been breast-fed, sharing bedrooms, sharing beds, room being smoky during cooking, eye irritation during cooking, parental smoking, and a history of parental asthma. In several of the second-stage variance-weighted linear regressions, we examined associations between district-specific adjusted prevalence rates and district-specific ambient levels of each pollutant. We found positive associations between morbidity prevalence and outdoor levels of PM of all size fractions, but the association appeared to be stronger for coarse particles (PM(10-2.5)). The results also present some evidence that ambient levels of NO(x) and SO(2) were positively associated with children's respiratory symptoms, but the evidence for these two gaseous pollutants appeared to be weaker than that for the PM.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Hu, W; Wei, F; Wu, G; Korn, LR; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, Hu, W, Wei, F, Wu, G, Korn, LR, and Chapman, RS. "Children's respiratory morbidity prevalence in relation to air pollution in four Chinese cities." Environmental Health Perspectives 110.9 (September 2002): 961-967.
PMID
12204833
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
110
Issue
9
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
961
End Page
967
DOI
10.1289/ehp.02110961

Human exposure assessment in air pollution systems.

The air pollution problem can be depicted as a system consisting of several basic components: source, concentration, exposure, dose, and adverse effects. Exposure, the contact between an agent (e.g., an air pollutant) and a target (e.g., a human respiratory tract), is the key to linking the pollution source and health effects. Human exposure to air pollutants depends on exposure concentration and exposure duration. Exposure concentration is the concentration of a pollutant at a contact boundary, which usually refers to the human breathing zone. However, ambient concentrations of regulated pollutants at monitoring sites have been measured in practice to represent actual exposure. This can be a valid practice if the pollutants are ones that are predominantly generated outdoors and if the monitoring sites are appropriately selected to reflect where people are. Results from many exposure studies indicate that people are very likely to receive the greatest exposure to many toxic air pollutants not outside but inside places such as homes, offices, and automobiles. For many of these pollutants, major sources of exposure can be quite different from major sources of emission. This is because a large emission source can have a very small value of exposure effectiveness, i.e., the fraction of pollutant released from a source that actually reaches the human breathing zone. Exposure data are crucial to risk management decisions for setting priorities, selecting cost-effective approaches to preventing or reducing risks, and evaluating risk mitigation efforts. Measurement or estimate of exposure is essential but often inadequately addressed in environmental epidemiologic studies. Exposure can be quantified using direct or indirect measurement methods, depending upon the purpose of exposure assessment and the availability of relevant data. The rapidly developing battery and electronic technologies as well as advancements in molecular biology are expected to accelerate the improvement of current methods and the development of new methods for future exposure assessment.

Authors
Zhang, JJ; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, JJ, and Lioy, PJ. "Human exposure assessment in air pollution systems." The Scientific World Journal 2 (February 23, 2002): 497-513. (Review)
PMID
12806033
Source
epmc
Published In
The Scientific World Journal
Volume
2
Publish Date
2002
Start Page
497
End Page
513
DOI
10.1100/tsw.2002.119

Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil

Authors
Pennise, DM; Smith, KR; Kithinji, JP; Rezende, ME; Raad, TJ; Zhang, J; Fan, C
MLA Citation
Pennise, DM, Smith, KR, Kithinji, JP, Rezende, ME, Raad, TJ, Zhang, J, and Fan, C. "Emissions of greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from charcoal making in Kenya and Brazil." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 106.D20 (October 27, 2001): 24143-24155.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of Geophysical Research
Volume
106
Issue
D20
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
24143
End Page
24155
DOI
10.1029/2000JD000041

Long-term ambient air pollution levels in four Chinese cities: inter-city and intra-city concentration gradients for epidemiological studies.

The field data collection of an air pollution epidemiologic study was carried out from 1993 to 1996 in four Chinese cities of Lanzhou, Chongqing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou. In each city, an urban district and a suburban district were selected. Ambient concentrations of total suspended particles (TSP), size-fractionated particulate matter including PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were measured in these districts. The results indicate the presence of wide inter-city and intra-city gradients in long-term ambient levels of these measured pollutants. Across the eight districts, the 1993-1996 4-year means of TSP, SO2, and NOx ranged from 198 to 659 microg/m3, from 14.6 to 331 microg/m3, and from 31.5 to 239 microg/m3, respectively, and the 1995-1996 2-year means of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM10 ranged from 51.5 to 142 microg/m3, from 29.2 to 107 microg/m3, and from 80.7 to 232 microg/m3, respectively. These pollution ranges substantially extended the upper end of the pollution ranges of previous air pollution epidemiologic studies conducted in North America and Europe. In each district, significant correlations among the measured pollutants were observed for daily concentrations. However, the gradient patterns in long-term means of different pollutants were different across the eight districts. (e.g., PM2.5-10 and TSP were highest in the Lanzhou urban district, PM2.5 and PM10 were highest in the Guangzhou urban district, SO2 was highest in the Chongqing urban district, and NOx was highest in the Guangzhou urban district). In general, seasonal variations were present in the ambient concentrations with high levels often occurring in winter months. The eight districts may be classified into four district clusters based on integrated levels of all measured pollutants. These features of the ambient air pollution have important implications for epidemiological studies and may provide unique opportunities to study exposure-effects relationships in the four Chinese cities.

Authors
Qian, Z; Zhang, J; Wei, F; Wilson, WE; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Qian, Z, Zhang, J, Wei, F, Wilson, WE, and Chapman, RS. "Long-term ambient air pollution levels in four Chinese cities: inter-city and intra-city concentration gradients for epidemiological studies." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 11.5 (September 2001): 341-351.
PMID
11687907
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
11
Issue
5
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
341
End Page
351
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500170

Effects of surface type and relative humidity on the production and concentration of nitrous acid in a model indoor environment.

A nested chamber design was constructed for the purpose of studying parameters that affect indoor air chemistry. Experiments were conducted in this system to investigate the effects of three surface types (Teflon, wallpaper, and carpet) and two levels of relative humidity (50% and 70% RH) on the formation of gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) through the heterogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with sorbed water vapor. The results of this investigation show that, compared with Teflon surfaces, carpet made of synthetic fibers increased the NO2 surface removal rate by nearly an order of magnitude and resulted in higher peak HONO concentrations. The results also suggest that the capacity of a surface to sorb water will determine if HONO is released from that surface after the NO2 source has been turned off and the heterogeneous reaction between NO2 and sorbed water is no longer significant. Vinyl-coated wallpaper was found to release HONO for prolonged periods of time after the NO2 source was turned off at both 50% and 70% RH whereas Teflon was found to do so only at 70% RH. The results of this investigation also demonstrate the utility of the nested chamber design in investigating indoor air chemistry.

Authors
Wainman, T; Weschler, CJ; Lioy, PJ; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Wainman, T, Weschler, CJ, Lioy, PJ, and Zhang, J. "Effects of surface type and relative humidity on the production and concentration of nitrous acid in a model indoor environment." Environmental science & technology 35.11 (June 2001): 2201-2206.
PMID
11414019
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
35
Issue
11
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
2201
End Page
2206
DOI
10.1021/es000879i

Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part II—Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Air Quality Implications

Authors
Zhang, J; Ge, S; Bai, Z
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Ge, S, and Bai, Z. "Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part II—Energy, Greenhouse Gas, and Air Quality Implications." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 51.4 (April 2001): 534-541.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Volume
51
Issue
4
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
534
End Page
541
DOI
10.1080/10473289.2001.10464294

Characterization of emissions from portable household combustion devices: particle size distributions, emission rates and factors, and potential exposures

Authors
Fan, C-W; Zhang, JJ
MLA Citation
Fan, C-W, and Zhang, JJ. "Characterization of emissions from portable household combustion devices: particle size distributions, emission rates and factors, and potential exposures." Atmospheric Environment 35.7 (January 2001): 1281-1290.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
35
Issue
7
Publish Date
2001
Start Page
1281
End Page
1290
DOI
10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00399-X

Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure.

Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners. A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred. The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.

Authors
Wainman, T; Zhang, J; Weschler, CJ; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Wainman, T, Zhang, J, Weschler, CJ, and Lioy, PJ. "Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.12 (December 2000): 1139-1145.
PMID
11133393
Source
epmc
Published In
Environmental health perspectives
Volume
108
Issue
12
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
1139
End Page
1145
DOI
10.1289/ehp.001081139

Greenhouse Implications of Household Stoves: An Analysis for India

Authors
Smith, KR; Uma, R; Kishore, VVN; Zhang, J; Joshi, V; Khalil, MAK
MLA Citation
Smith, KR, Uma, R, Kishore, VVN, Zhang, J, Joshi, V, and Khalil, MAK. "Greenhouse Implications of Household Stoves: An Analysis for India." Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25.1 (November 2000): 741-763.
Source
crossref
Published In
Annual Review of Energy and the Environment
Volume
25
Issue
1
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
741
End Page
763
DOI
10.1146/annurev.energy.25.1.741

Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR; Ma, Y; Ye, S; Jiang, F; Qi, W; Liu, P; Khalil, MAK; Rasmussen, RA; Thorneloe, SA
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Smith, KR, Ma, Y, Ye, S, Jiang, F, Qi, W, Liu, P, Khalil, MAK, Rasmussen, RA, and Thorneloe, SA. "Greenhouse gases and other airborne pollutants from household stoves in China: a database for emission factors." Atmospheric Environment 34.26 (August 2000): 4537-4549.
Source
crossref
Published In
Atmospheric Environment
Volume
34
Issue
26
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
4537
End Page
4549
DOI
10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00450-1

Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities.

During the winter of 1988-1989, parents of 2,789 elementary-school students completed standardized questionnaires. The students were 5-14 y of age and were from three urban districts and one suburban district of three large Chinese cities. The 4-y average ambient levels of total suspended particles in the three cities differed greatly during the period 1985-1988: Lanzhou, 1,067 microg/m3; urban Wuhan, 406 microg/m3; Guangzhou, 296 microg/m3; and suburban Wuhan, 191 microg/m3. The authors constructed unconditional logistic-regression models to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prevalences of several respiratory symptoms and illnesses, adjusted for district, use of coal in the home, and parental smoking status. There was a positive and significant association between total suspended particle levels and the adjusted odds ratios for cough, phlegm, hospitalization for diseases, and pneumonia. This association was derived from only the 1,784 urban children and, therefore, the authors were unable to extrapolate it to the suburban children. The results also indicated that parental smoking status was associated with cough and phlegm, and use of coal in the home was associated only with cough prevalence (alpha = 0.05).

Authors
Qian, Z; Chapman, RS; Tian, Q; Chen, Y; Lioy, PJ; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Qian, Z, Chapman, RS, Tian, Q, Chen, Y, Lioy, PJ, and Zhang, J. "Effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health in three Chinese cities." Archives of environmental health 55.2 (March 2000): 126-133.
PMID
10821514
Source
epmc
Published In
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health: an international journal
Volume
55
Issue
2
Publish Date
2000
Start Page
126
End Page
133
DOI
10.1080/00039890009603399

Ambient Concentrations and Elemental Compositions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in Four Chinese Cities

Authors
Wei, F; Teng, E; Wu, G; Hu, W; Wilson, WE; Chapman, RS; Pau, JC; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Wei, F, Teng, E, Wu, G, Hu, W, Wilson, WE, Chapman, RS, Pau, JC, and Zhang, J. "Ambient Concentrations and Elemental Compositions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in Four Chinese Cities." Environmental Science & Technology 33.23 (December 1999): 4188-4193.
Source
crossref
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
33
Issue
23
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
4188
End Page
4193
DOI
10.1021/es9904944

Effects of air pollution on respiratory health of adults in three Chinese cities.

The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and children were obtained via standardized questionnaires in the winter of 1988. (The effects in children were described previously.) The yearly averages of ambient levels of total suspended particles in the 4 districts for the years 1985-1988 differed greatly. The authors constructed logistic-regression models to assess the respiratory health parameters of parents of the children. The results revealed significant and strong effects, by district, on prevalence rates of cough, phlegm, persistent cough and phlegm, and wheeze for both the mothers and the fathers. In addition, the odds ratios increased as ambient total suspended particle concentration increased across the 3 urban districts. Other local within-city risk factors, however, may have confounded the total suspended particles-effects association, especially for asthma prevalence. Findings for adults were similar to those found for their children. A strong adverse effect of active tobacco smoking on the fathers' respiratory health was observed. The children appeared to be more strongly affected by passive smoking exposure received in their homes than their mothers.

Authors
Zhang, J; Qian, Z; Kong, L; Zhou, L; Yan, L; Chapman, RS
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Qian, Z, Kong, L, Zhou, L, Yan, L, and Chapman, RS. "Effects of air pollution on respiratory health of adults in three Chinese cities." Archives of environmental health 54.6 (November 1999): 373-381.
PMID
10634226
Source
epmc
Published In
Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health: an international journal
Volume
54
Issue
6
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
373
End Page
381
DOI
10.1080/00039899909603368

Carbon monoxide from cookstoves in developing countries: 1. Emission factors

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR; Uma, R; Ma, Y; Kishore, VVN; Lata, K; Khalil, MAK; Rasmussen, RA; Thorneloe, ST
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Smith, KR, Uma, R, Ma, Y, Kishore, VVN, Lata, K, Khalil, MAK, Rasmussen, RA, and Thorneloe, ST. "Carbon monoxide from cookstoves in developing countries: 1. Emission factors." Chemosphere - Global Change Science 1.1-3 (August 1999): 353-366.
Source
crossref
Published In
Chemosphere - Global Change Science
Volume
1
Issue
1-3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
353
End Page
366
DOI
10.1016/S1465-9972(99)00004-5

Carbon monoxide from cookstoves in developing countries: 2. Exposure potentials

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR; Uma, R; Ma, Y; Kishore, VVN; Lata, K; Khalil, MAK; Rasmussen, RA; Thorneloe, ST
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Smith, KR, Uma, R, Ma, Y, Kishore, VVN, Lata, K, Khalil, MAK, Rasmussen, RA, and Thorneloe, ST. "Carbon monoxide from cookstoves in developing countries: 2. Exposure potentials." Chemosphere - Global Change Science 1.1-3 (August 1999): 367-375.
Source
crossref
Published In
Chemosphere - Global Change Science
Volume
1
Issue
1-3
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
367
End Page
375
DOI
10.1016/S1465-9972(99)00003-3

Emissions of Carbonyl Compounds from Various Cookstoves in China

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, and Smith, KR. "Emissions of Carbonyl Compounds from Various Cookstoves in China." Environmental Science & Technology 33.14 (July 1999): 2311-2320.
Source
crossref
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
33
Issue
14
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
2311
End Page
2320
DOI
10.1021/es9812406

High lead exposures resulting from pottery production in a village in Michoacán State, Mexico.

This paper reports findings from a screening study conducted to examine potential lead (Pb) exposures in residents of a Mexican village where Pb oxide continues to be used in ceramic pottery production. Extremely high Pb concentrations were measured in personal and indoor air samples, household surface dust samples, and household soil samples. Personal air Pb concentrations for workers performing pottery firing and glazing were up to 454 microg/m3. Results from indoor air samples indicate that airborne Pb concentrations were lower during nonglazing period compared to the glazing period. Soil Pb concentrations measured in 17 homes ranged from 0.39 to 19.8 mg/g. Dust Pb loading on surfaces of household items, hands, and clothes of a worker ranged from 172 to 33,060 microg/ft2. Pb content as high as 2.4 microg/g was found in a bean stew cooked in a pot made in the village. Based on these Pb concentrations measured in multiple media and data adapted for exposure contact rates, we have made rough estimates of Pb exposures via inhalation, soil/dust ingestion, and food ingestion. Estimated total daily Pb intake, on average, is 4.0 mg for adults and 3.4 mg for children living in the village. In the total daily intake, a greatest fraction may be contributed by food ingestion and another significant fraction may come from soil/dust ingestion for the children. Although the sample size is small, these measurements indicate a very significant public health problem for the village residents and a large number of other similar communities in Mexico. (It was estimated that there are approximately 1.5 million glaze potters.) The Pb exposure is implicated in a number of pervasive health problems in the region, and is the cause for national and international attention. Several recommended solutions to this problem range from personal protection and behavioral changes to introduction of alternative glazes.

Authors
Hibbert, R; Bai, Z; Navia, J; Kammen, DM; Zhang, J
MLA Citation
Hibbert, R, Bai, Z, Navia, J, Kammen, DM, and Zhang, J. "High lead exposures resulting from pottery production in a village in Michoacán State, Mexico." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 9.4 (July 1999): 343-351.
PMID
10489159
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
9
Issue
4
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
343
End Page
351
DOI
10.1038/sj.jea.7500035

Typical Household Vacuum Cleaners: The Collection Efficiency and Emissions Characteristics for Fine Particles

Authors
Lioy, PJ; Wainman, T; Zhang, JJ; Goldsmith, S
MLA Citation
Lioy, PJ, Wainman, T, Zhang, JJ, and Goldsmith, S. "Typical Household Vacuum Cleaners: The Collection Efficiency and Emissions Characteristics for Fine Particles." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 49.2 (February 1999): 200-206.
Source
crossref
Published In
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995)
Volume
49
Issue
2
Publish Date
1999
Start Page
200
End Page
206
DOI
10.1080/10473289.1999.10463789

Hydrocarbon emissions and health risks from cookstoves in developing countries.

The nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions from several types of cookstoves commonly used in developing countries were measured in a pilot study conducted in Manila, the Philippines. Four types of fuel, i.e., wood, charcoal, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), were tested. Because kerosene was burned in three different types of stoves, there were six fuel/stove combinations tested. Fifty-nine nonmethane hydrocarbons were identified frequently in emissions of these cookstoves, with emission ratios to CO2 up to 5.3 x 10(-3). The emissions were quantitated with emission factors on both a mass basis (emissions/kg fuel) and a task basis (emissions/cooking task). On a task basis, combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) generally produced higher emission factors than combustion of fossil fuels (kerosene and LPG). One type of kerosene stove (wick stove), however, still generated the greatest emissions of some individual and classes of hydrocarbons, indicating that emissions were dependent on not only fuel types but also combustion devices. Some hydrocarbons, e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, and xylenes, were of concern because of their carcinogenic properties. The lifetime risk from exposures to these compounds emitted from cookstoves was tentatively estimated by using a simple exposure model and published cancer potencies.

Authors
Zhang, J; Smith, KR
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, and Smith, KR. "Hydrocarbon emissions and health risks from cookstoves in developing countries." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 6.2 (April 1996): 147-161.
PMID
8792294
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
6
Issue
2
Publish Date
1996
Start Page
147
End Page
161

Indoor Air Chemistry: Formation of Organic Acids and Aldehydes

Authors
Zhang, J; Wilson, WE; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Wilson, WE, and Lioy, PJ. "Indoor Air Chemistry: Formation of Organic Acids and Aldehydes." Environmental Science & Technology 28.11 (October 1994): 1975-1982.
Source
crossref
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
28
Issue
11
Publish Date
1994
Start Page
1975
End Page
1982
DOI
10.1021/es00060a031

Characteristics of aldehydes: concentrations, sources, and exposures for indoor and outdoor residential microenvironments

Authors
Zhang, J; Lioy, PJ; He, Q
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Lioy, PJ, and He, Q. "Characteristics of aldehydes: concentrations, sources, and exposures for indoor and outdoor residential microenvironments." Environmental Science & Technology 28.1 (January 1994): 146-152.
Source
crossref
Published In
Environmental Science & Technology
Volume
28
Issue
1
Publish Date
1994
Start Page
146
End Page
152
DOI
10.1021/es00050a020

Sources of organic acids in indoor air: a field study.

Simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements of organic acids were made at six residential houses located in a suburban New Jersey area during the summer of 1992. Each house was measured for six days and controlled for ventilation and gas combustion conditions. The study presents the first set of simultaneous measurements of formic and acetic acid in indoor and outdoor air. The concentrations of formic acid were 1.24 +/- 1.17 ppb outdoors and 8.77 +/- 4.67 ppb indoors. The concentrations of acetic acid were 3.05 +/- 3.63 ppb outdoors and 23.97 +/- 16.20 ppb indoors. The higher indoor concentrations indicated the presence of significant indoor sources such as direct emissions and indoor chemical formation. However, the results indicated that organic acids indoors were not likely to be emitted from indoor gas combustion. The study also collected temperature, humidity, ozone, aldehyde, and nitrogen dioxide data, and provided the supporting evidence for indoor chemical reaction pathways leading to organic acid formation.

Authors
Zhang, J; Wilson, WE; Lioy, PJ
MLA Citation
Zhang, J, Wilson, WE, and Lioy, PJ. "Sources of organic acids in indoor air: a field study." Journal of exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology 4.1 (January 1994): 25-47.
PMID
7894267
Source
epmc
Published In
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Volume
4
Issue
1
Publish Date
1994
Start Page
25
End Page
47
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